4655.0.55.002 - Information Paper: Towards the Australian Environmental-Economic Accounts, 2013  
ARCHIVED ISSUE Released at 11:30 AM (CANBERRA TIME) 27/03/2013  First Issue
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The Australian and New Zealand Standard Industrial Classification (ANZSIC) is the standard classification used in Australia and New Zealand for the collection, compilation, and publication of industry statistics.


Residue of the sugar cane milling process.

Black coal

A sedimentary organic rock consisting of anthracite, bituminous and sub-bituminous rank coals. Black coal is primarily used as a solid fuel to raise steam to generate electricity and to produce coke for steelmaking.


Produced from renewable organic sources or ‘feedstocks’, biofuels include ethanol and biodiesel, and are commonly used as a fuel in transportation.


Made from brown coal through a process of crushing, drying and the addition of a binding agent, to produce a compact, high energy fuel easily transported and commonly used for industrial and domestic heating.

Brown coal

Also known as lignite, is a low rank, brownish-black coal with a high moisture content of around 60%.

Chain Volume Measure

For certain types of economic analysis it is useful to examine estimates of the principal flows of goods and services in the economy revalued in such a way as to remove the direct effects of price change over the relevant period. These estimates are obtained by first weighting together the elemental volume indexes from the previous financial year to the current financial year, where the weights are calculated using the current price value shares of the previous financial year. Second, the resulting aggregate year-to-year volume indexes are linked together to form a time series. Third, the time series is referenced to the current price estimates of the reference year.

Coal by-products

Include blast furnace gas (from iron and steel processing), coal tar and benzene/toluene/xylene (BTX) feedstock and coke oven gas (from the coke making process).


A liquid mixture of pentanes and heavier hydrocarbons that form part of the vapour phase of natural gas in the reservoir and become liquid under standard field separation conditions. Treated as crude oil in Energy Account, Australia.


The process which involves adding structure to real property or the building or assembling of infrastructure. It includes the additions, alterations, reconstruction, installation and maintenance and repairs of buildings and other structures.

Conversion loss

Energy lost in the transformation of energy into a different energy product.

Crude oil

A mixture of hydrocarbons, existing in the liquid state; both in natural underground reservoirs and at atmospheric pressure after passing through surface separating facilities.


Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation

Distributed water

Distributed water is water supplied to a user including through a natural (e.g. river) or non-natural network (piped or open channel), and where an economic transaction has occurred for the exchange of this water. The majority of distributed water is supplied by the WATER SUPPLY, SEWERAGE AND DRAINAGE SERVICES industry (ANZSIC Division 28). Distributed water can include potable, mains and raw water but does not include reuse or bulk water.

Drainage water

Excess surface or subsurface water collected and conveyed from irrigated lands. It may be captured for reuse or conveyed for downstream demands.

Economically demonstrated resources

Economically demonstrated resources (EDR) is used to measure the physical extent of a given resource. EDR is a measure of the resources that are established, analytically demonstrated or assumed with reasonable certainty to be profitable for extraction or production under defined investment assumptions. Classifying a mineral resource as EDR reflects a high degree of certainty as to the size and quality of the resource and its economic viability.


The flow of electrical power or charge. It is commonly derived from burning organic matter, especially coal and natural gas. Other sources include hydroelectricity, solar photovoltaic, wind and nuclear.

Electrical and Electronic waste (or Ewaste)

Waste electrical and electronic equipment that is dependent on electric currents or electromagnetic fields in order to function (including all components, subassemblies and consumables which are part of the original equipment at the time of discarding. Ewaste may include (a) consumer/entertainment electronics (e.g. televisions, DVD players and tuners) (b) devices of office, information and communications technology (e.g. computers, telephones and mobile phones) (c) household appliances (e.g. fridges, washing machines and microwaves) (d) lighting devices (e.g. desk lamps) (e) power tools (f) devices used for sport and leisure including toys (e.g. fitness machines and remote control cars).

Energy intensity

A measure of the energy consumed to produce one unit of economic output, measured in this publication in gigajoules of energy per million dollars of Industry Gross Value Added (GJ/$m IGVA)

Environmental-economic account

An information system and framework that links the economic activities and uses of a resource to changes in the natural resource base, thus linking resource use with the System of National Accounts. See also SEEA.


The exports of goods represents the quantity and value of goods sent to other countries or for which ownership changes from residents to non-residents.

Final use

Use that finally consumes a product, as opposed to an intermediate use. Final use includes: household final consumption; government final consumption; exports; and changes in inventories.


Vegetation with a minimum 20 per cent canopy cover, potentially reaching 2 metres high and a minimum area of 0.2 hectares.Flow accounts

A framework which presents information on the physical flows of resources throughout the economy.

Fossil fuel

Any natural fuel derived from decomposed or partly decomposed organic matter (eg. oil, natural gas and coal).


One thousand million litres

Gross domestic product - GDP

Is the total market value of goods and services produced in Australia within a given period after deducting the cost of goods and services used up in the process of production but before deducting allowances for the consumption of fixed capital. Thus gross domestic product, as here defined, is 'at market prices'. It is equivalent to gross national expenditure plus exports of goods and services less imports of goods and services. Farm product is that part of gross domestic product which arises from production in agriculture and services to agriculture. It is equivalent to the value added of ANZSIC 06 subdivision 01 'Agriculture' plus taxes less subsidies on products primary to this subdivision. Non-farm product arises from production in all other industries.

Gross energy

Is the energy contained in primary energy (energy sourced directly from nature) as well as the energy derived from it. See also net energy.


Water occurring below the ground's surface.

Gross value added - GVA

The value of output at basic prices minus the value of intermediate consumption at purchasers' prices. The term is used to describe gross product by industry and by sector. Basic prices valuation of output removes the distortion caused by variations in the incidence of commodity taxes and subsidies across the output of individual industries.

Hazardous waste

Hazardous, special, listed or prescribed wastes, that are potentially harmful to human health or the environment, requiring special treatment. Examples include waste oils, organic chemicals, contaminated earth, medical wastes, asbestos, acids, reactive chemicals, pesticides and radioactive material.


A process in which flowing water is harnessed to generate power, especially electricity.

In-stream use

The use of freshwater in situ (e.g. within a river or stream). Can include recreation, tourism, scientific and cultural uses, ecosystem maintenance, hydro-electricity and commercial activities, and dilution of waste. The volume of water required for most in-stream uses cannot be quantified, with the exception of hydro-electricity generation.


General waste consists of non-hazardous materials which have been discarded and cannot be re-used or recycled. General waste is also known as putrescible or mixed waste. General waste can include food waste, wax cardboard, tissue paper and soiled containers.

Intermediate use

Intermediate use consists of goods and services consumed as inputs by a process of production, excluding fixed assets whose consumption is recorded as consumption of fixed capital. The goods or services may be either transformed or used up by the production process.


International Panel on Climate Change


One thousand litres

Land cover

Refers to the physical surface of the earth, including various combinations of vegetation types, soils, exposed rocks and water bodies as well as anthropogenic elements, such as agriculture and built environments. Land cover classes can usually be discriminated by characteristic patterns using remote sensing.

Land use

The purpose to which the land cover is committed. Some land uses, such as agriculture, have a characteristic land cover pattern. These usually appear in land cover classifications. Other land uses, such as nature conservation, are not readily discriminated by a characteristic land cover pattern. For example, where the land cover is woodland, land use may be timber production or nature conservation.


A site used for disposal of solid material (i.e. is spadeable) by burial in the ground between layers of earth.

Liquefied natural gas (LNG)

Natural gas which has been refrigerated to a liquid state, which greatly reduces its volume and enables its transport by sea-going vessels.

Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG)

A combination of propane and butane, along with trace amounts of other compounds, recovered in either natural gas extraction or oil refining. The gases are transformed into a liquid to assist in transport.

Masonry materials

Masonry materials include asphalt, bricks, concrete, clay, fines, rubble and soil. Waste produced by demolition and building activities, including road and rail construction and maintenance and excavation of land associated with construction activities.


One million litres

Natural gas

A combustible mixture of hydrocarbon gases. While natural gas is formed primarily of methane, its composition can vary widely, commonly including ethane, propane, butane and pentane.

Natural Resource Management regions

56 regions across Australia based on catchments and bioregions. Ten of these regions fall within Victoria.Native vegetation

Native vegetation refers to all indigenous terrestrial or aquatic plants in an area, incorporating all living and non-living components. This includes Australia’s diverse natural vegetation and permanent native plantings for biodiversity and sustainable land management purposes. In the context of native vegetation, indigenous refers to vegetation that is within its natural geographical area.

Net supply of energy

Net supply refers to energy products as they enter the economy, either by domestic extraction (e.g. mining production) or as imports. In the context of this paper, ‘net’ indicates the removal of energy supplied from secondary sources to avoid double counting.

Net use of energy

Net energy use consists of intermediate consumption by industry, final consumption by households, exports, inventory changes, conversions and losses. In the context of this paper, 'net' refers to energy consumed for final purposes.


The National Greenhouse and Energy Reporting System, which commenced in relation to the 2008-09 reference period, is a framework for the mandatory reporting of greenhouse gas emissions, energy consumption and energy production by Australian businesses exceeding specified thresholds of emissions or energy consumption.

Organic waste

Component of the waste stream from plant or animal sources that is readily biodegradable, e.g. paper and cardboard, food waste, biosolids, green waste and timber.

Other volume changes

Quantify changes in resources that occur between one period and another.


Consists of those goods and services produced within a business that become available for use outside that business, plus any goods and services produced for own final use.

Petajoule (PJ)

A petajoule is equal to one million gigajoules, or 10 to the power of 15 joules. Petajoules are typically used to measure national or industry energy production and consumption. The energy supply and use data present in this publication are in petajoules (PJ).


Naturally occurring hydrocarbon or mixture of hydrocarbons as oil or gas, or in solution, found in sedimentary rocks.

Potable water

Treated water that is suitable for human consumption, e.g. drinking water

Purchasers' price

The amount paid by the purchaser, excluding any deductible tax, in order to take delivery of a unit of a good or service at the time and place required by the purchaser. The purchaser’s price of a good includes any transport charges paid separately by the purchaser to take delivery at the required time and place

Recovery rate

Proportion of waste received at facilities other than landfill that was recovered for recycling or reprocessing. Equal to the amount recovered divided by the sum of the amount sent for disposal and the amount recovered. Waste that is transferred is not included in this calculation.Recovered or reprocessed

Process of converting or modifying waste into useful material or energy so that they do not need to be disposed. Also referred to as materials or resource recovery. Includes sorting, separating and baling.


A resource recovery method involving the collection and processing of waste for use as a raw material in the manufacture of the same or similar non-waste product.

Refined products

Includes products derived from crude oil and other refinery feedstock e.g. automotive gasoline and diesel, aviation gasoline and turbine fuel, kerosene and heating oil, industrial diesel and fuel oil, naphtha and petroleum coke used as fuel.

Regulated discharge

Water discharged to the environment after use where that discharge does not match the natural flow regime of the receiving water body. For example, wastewater discharged into a river, ocean or land outfall by a sewerage service provider is considered a regulated discharge. Water discharged from a household is not considered to be a regulated discharge because it is usually discharged into a sewerage system, rather than directly to the environment.


A source of energy that is not depleted by use, such as water, wind, or solar power.


All solid, liquid and gaseous wastes. The incidental and undesirable outputs from production and consumption processes within the economy.


A concentration of naturally occurring solid, liquid, or gaseous materials in or on the earth’s crust and in such form that its economic extraction is presently or potentially feasible. The definition does not intend to imply that exploitation of any such material will take place in that time span, but only that its possibility might reasonably be considered.

Resource life

The length of time a presently identified economically demonstrated resource stock will last at current production levels. Increases in the resource life of a given mineral resource come from new discoveries and extraction methods, which make deposits economically viable that previously were not.

Reuse water

Drainage, waste or storm water that has been used again without first being discharged to the environment. It may have been treated to some extent. It excludes "on-site" recycling.

Self-extracted water

Water extracted directly from the environment for use (including rivers, lakes, groundwater and other bodies). Some of this water may be then distributed via water providers to others. Excludes water supplied by water suppliers via regulated systems.

Solar energy

Solar energy in the Energy Account Australia refers to solar energy used for electricity generation (by photovoltaic conversion or solar thermal generation) and solar energy used to heat water in solar hot water systems.

Solid waste

Waste materials ranging from municipal garbage to industrial waste, but excluding gaseous, liquid, hazardous, clinical and intractable wastes.

Statistical Areas Level 1 (SA1s)

The smallest region for which a wide range of census data will be released. SA1s have an average population of approximately 400 and are built from whole Mesh Blocks.Structural effect

The changes in energy consumption resulting from a change in the mix of industrial output; for example, a contraction in energy intensive sectors.


A subdivision is a sub-industry within the Australian and New Zealand Standard Industrial Classification. ANZSIC Subdivisions generally reflect distinct production processes related to material inputs, production equipment and employee skills. For example, coal mining is a subdivision within the mining division.

Surface water

Water flowing or held in streams, rivers and other wetlands in the landscape.

System of Environmental-Economic Accounting

The System of Environmental-Economic Accounting (SEEA). It is a framework used to develop environmental accounts by integrating environmental information into an accounting framework. The SEEA 2012 handbook provides the conceptual basis for developing a framework to describe the inter-relationship between the natural environment and the economy. See also Environmental-economic account.

System of National Accounts

The System of National Accounts (SNA) is an international framework which can be used to develop a comprehensive, consistent and flexible set of macroeconomic accounts.

Total supply

Australian output plus imports.


A heavy, radioactive metallic element, used as a source of nuclear energy.


(a) any substance that is discarded, emitted or deposited in the environment in such volume, constituency or manner as to cause an alteration in the environment;

(b) any discarded, rejected, unwanted, surplus or abandoned substance;

(c) any otherwise discarded, rejected, unwanted, surplus or abandoned substance intended for sale or for recycling, reprocessing, recovery, or purification by a separate operation from that which produced the substance.

Waste water

Any water that has been used once and cannot be used again without treatment, for example untreated effluent, sewage water and trade waste.

Water provider

A business or organisation that provides a reticulated water supply, irrigation water, reuse/recycle water and/or bulk water supply service. Water providers may be government or private and often operate water storage, purification and supply services. They may also provide sewerage or drainage services.

Wind power

The conversion of wind energy into electricity using wind turbines.