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from the ICD-10 classification.
Standardised mortality ratio
25 The standardised mortality ratio (SMR) is calculated as follows:
where Dc,i represents the observed deaths of all ages from a specific cause (c) in the area (i), nMxc,s is the age specific deaths rates of cause (c) in the standards population (s) at ages x to x+n and nPxi is the population at ages x to x+n in the
area (i). The denominator is added for all ages in five year age groups (j) up to 85+.
Statistical significance of the SMR
26 The statistical tests are used to determine whether a specific SMR for an area is significantly different from that of the nation. Standard error of the SMR is obtained from the following formula:
Normal distribution is used to test the null hypothesis that there is no difference between the SMR for the area and Australia. The Z statistic is calculated as follows:
where SMRc,i is the SMR for an area(i) and the cause of death (c) and SMRc,s is the SMR for Australia and the cause of death (c), which is equal to 100.
If Z statistic exceeds plus or minus 1.96, the observed SMR for an area (i) is regarded as statistically significant at 5 per cent level of significance.
27 Data on overseas arrivals and departures relate to the number of movements of travellers rather than to the number of travellers. However, the statistics exclude the movements of operational air crew and ships' crew, transit passengers who pass through Australia but are not cleared for entry, and passengers on pleasure cruises commencing and finishing in Australia.
28 The estimates from July 1976 onwards include an adjustment for the net effect of category jumping. This adjustment is necessary because net permanent and long-term migration figures can be affected by changes in travel intentions from short-term to permanent/long-term or vice versa. Prior to December quarter 1989, adjustments for category jumping were only made to revised population estimates. These adjustments are now included in preliminary estimates. For further details see Demographic Estimates and Projections, Concepts, Sources and Methods.
29 Special arrangements were put in place to estimate net overseas migration for September and December quarters 2000, and thereby enable production of State and Territory population estimates. Data from passenger cards completed by persons arriving in or departing from Australia, together with other information available to the Department of Immigration and Multicultural Affairs (DIMA), serve as a source for statistics on overseas migration. DIMA is currently automating the processing of passenger cards and the ABS has yet to receive relevant data.
30 Estimates of net overseas migration for September and December Quarters 2000 are based upon a sample of passenger cards from persons arriving in and departing from Australia during the period August through December 2000, along with movement data supplied by DIMA. Further information is available in Demography Working Paper 2001/1-Estimating July to December 2000 Net Overseas Migration.
31 As category jumping data are not yet available for September and December quarters 2000, preliminary category jumping has been set to zero for these periods
32 Data on interstate migration have been derived from aggregated statistical information on interstate changes of address advised to the Health Insurance Commission in the process of administering Medicare. The ABS adjusts the Health Insurance Commission data to make allowance for the number of persons who do not inform the Commission of their change of residence. Further details are available in Demographic Estimates and Projections. Concepts, Sources and Methods.
33 Marriage statistics refer to marriages registered by the Registrar of Births, Deaths and Marriages of the NSW during the years shown. There is usually an interval between the celebration and the registration of a marriage. As a result of the delay in registration, some marriages celebrated in one year are not registered until the following year. Under the Marriage Act 1961, marriages may be celebrated by a minister of religion registered as an authorised celebrant, by a district registrar or by other persons authorised by the Attorney-General. Notice of the intended marriage must be given to the celebrant at least one calendar month, and within six calendar months, before the marriage. A celebrant must transmit an official certificate of the marriage for registration to a District Registrar in the State or Territory in which the marriage took place.
34 In 1973, the minimum age at which a person may marry without parental consent was reduced from 21 to 18 years, although women were legally free to marry from 16 years with parental consent. Further amendment to the Marriage Act in 1991 designated the minimum age at which both sexes are legally free to marry to be 18 years. Persons between the ages of 16 and 18 years may marry with parental or guardian consent and an order from a judge or magistrate. Any two persons under the age of 18 years may not marry each other.
35 All divorce data in this publication are for State or Territory of registration, based on the location of the Family Court where the divorce was granted and registered. Due to the large number of divorces granted in the ACT where usual residence was in another State, the rates for the ACT are not representative of the ACT population. The number of divorces shown for the ACT is dependent on the number of cases heard by the Family Court in the ACT. As there is no residential requirement under Family Law, applicants may be resident anywhere in Australia.
36 Under the Family Law Act 1975, the only ground on which a divorce may be granted is that of irretrievable breakdown of the marriage. This ground is established by the husband and wife having lived apart for 12 months or more, and there being no reasonable likelihood of reconciliation. Application for nullity of marriage under Family Law legislation must be on the ground that there was a failure to meet a legal requirement, such as that neither party be already lawfully married to another person. There is no provision for judicial separation under Family Law legislation.
37 Successful applicants for a divorce are initially granted a decree nisi. This becomes absolute after one month, unless it is rescinded or appealed against, or the Family Court is not satisfied that proper arrangements have been made for the welfare of any children involved.
38 The statistics shown in this publication are compiled by the ABS from information supplied by the Family Court in respect of each application which resulted in the granting of a decree absolute.
39 In the interpretation of data, it is important to bear in mind that the availability of judges and the complexity of the cases brought before them can affect the number of decrees granted or made absolute in any one year. A rise in numbers may reflect only the clearing of a backlog of cases from an earlier period.
40 The Family Court of Australia introduced new divorce application forms in February 1995. With the introduction of these forms some data items that had been collected ceased to be available. The data items that are no longer available are:
41 In light of the Family Court decision and ABS budgetary considerations, only limited data on divorces registered in 1995 were processed. The data item number of children of the marriage under 18 years was not processed. With the exception of those data items which the Family Court no longer collects, ABS resumed full processing of divorce data from 1996.
INDIGENOUS BIRTHS AND DEATHS DATA
42 The coverage of Indigenous births and deaths is affected by the extent to which people are identified as Indigenous. Propensity to identify (the likelihood that a person will identify or be identified as Indigenous) is determined by a range of factors, including who completes the administrative form for registering a birth or death (e.g. a parent, a relative, or an official); the perception of how the information will be used; education programs about identifying as Indigenous; and emotional reaction to identifying as Indigenous. Estimates of the extent of the coverage of Indigenous births and deaths are shown in table 3.1 and table 4.1 respectively. For further details see Births, Australia (Cat. no. 3301.0) and Deaths, Australia (Cat. no. 3302.0).
43 The geographic boundaries used in this publication are defined in the Australian Standard Geographical Classification (ASGC) 2000 (Cat. no. 1216.0).
44 The classification of countries used in this publication is the Standard Australian Classification of Countries (SACC). For more detailed information refer to the ABS publication Standard Australian Classification of Countries (SACC) (Cat. no. 1269.0).
45 ABS publications draw extensively on information provided freely by individuals, businesses, governments and other organisations. Their continued cooperation is very much appreciated: without it, the wide range of statistics published by the ABS would not be available. Information received by the ABS is treated in strict confidence as required by the Census and Statistics Act 1905.
SUPPRESSION OF SMALL CELLS
46 For all data in this publication, cell values with small values have been suppressed to assist in the preservation of confidentiality of information.
47 Other ABS products which may be of interest include:
AusStats - electronic data (see paragraph 48)
New South Wales at a Glance (Cat. no. 1314.8)
Regional Statistics, New South Wales (Cat. no. 1362.1)
New South Wales Year Book (Cat. no. 1300.1)
Australian Demographic Statistics (Cat. no. 3101.0)
Australian Demographic Trends (Cat. no. 3102.0)
Births, Australia (Cat. no. 3301.0)
Causes of Death, Australia (Cat. no. 3303.0)
Deaths, Australia (Cat. no. 3302.0)
Demography (Cat. nos 3311.1-8) (State and Territory specific publications)
Experimental Projections of the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Population (Cat. no. 3231.0)
Household and Family Projections, Australia (Cat. no. 3236.0)
Marriages and Divorces, Australia (Cat. no. 3310.0)
Migration, Australia (Cat. no. 3412.0)
Population by Age and Sex, New South Wales (Cat. no. 3235.1)
Population by Age and Sex, Australian States and Territories (Cat. no. 3201.0)
Population Projections (Cat. no. 3222.0)
Regional Population Growth, Australia (Cat. no. 3218.0)
Regional Statistics, Australian Capital Territory (Cat. no. 1313.8)
ADDITIONAL STATISTICS AVAILABLE
48 AusStats is a web based information service which provides the ABS full standard product range on-line. It also includes companion data in multidimensional datasets in SuperTABLE format, and time series spreadsheets.
49 As well as the statistics included in this and related publications, additional information is available from the Demography theme page.
50 Current publications produced by the ABS are listed in the Catalogue of Publications and Products (Cat. no. 1101.0). The ABS also issues, on Tuesdays and Fridays, a Release Advice (Cat. no. 1105.0) which lists publications to be released in the next few days. These publications are available from any ABS office.
51 Appendix 1 of the publication lists characteristics processed by the ABS for population, births, deaths, migration, marriages and divorces. For more information about these statistics contact the National Information and Referral Service on 1300 135 070, or Melissa Webb on Sydney 02 9268 4744.
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