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CHARACTERISTIC: SUPPORT FOR INNOVATION
GOVERNMENT SECTOR FUNDING OF R&D BY SECTORS OF PERFORMANCE
(b) Includes $2,033m of General University funds (GUF), the majority of which is funding from the Commonwealth government.
Source: ABS Research and Experimental Development,All Sector Summary, Australia (cat. no. 8112.0).
R&D is defined in accordance with the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) standard as comprising 'creative work undertaken on a systematic basis in order to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of man, culture and society, and the use of this stock of knowledge to devise new applications'.
The R&D Business survey is conducted annually and collects estimates of Research and Experimental Development expenditure and human resources devoted to R&D by businesses in Australia.
The R&D Higher Education survey is conducted biennially and collects estimates of Research and Experimental Development expenditure and human resources devoted to R&D by higher education organisations in Australia.
The R&D General government survey is conducted biennially and collects estimates of Research and Experimental Development expenditure and human resources devoted to R&D by government organisations in Australia.
The R&D Private non-profit sector survey is conducted biennially and collects estimates of Research and Experimental Development expenditure and human resources devoted to R&D by private non-profit organisations in Australia.
The sector classification used in the compilation of R&D statistics is adapted from the guidelines specified by the OECD for use in the conduct of R&D surveys.
This sector includes all businesses whose primary activity is the production of goods or services for sale to the general public at a price intended to cover at least the cost of production, and the private non-profit institutions mainly serving them. The Business sector for the R&D survey excludes businesses mainly engaged in Agriculture, forestry, and fishing (i.e. industries in Division A of the Australian and New Zealand Standard Industrial Classification (ANZSIC), 1993 (cat. no. 1292.0)), partly because of collection difficulties and partly because such businesses are believed to have very low R&D activity (agricultural R&D activity is generally carried out by specialised research institutes not included in ANZSIC Division A).
This sector includes all Commonwealth, state and local government departments and authorities. The Government sector for the R&D survey excludes local government organisations because it is considered that their contribution to total R&D activity would be minimal. Public sector organisations mainly engaged in higher education (e.g. universities) are included in the Higher education sector whilst those mainly engaged in trading or financial activities are included in the Business sector.
Higher education sector
This sector includes all universities and other institutions of post-secondary education whatever their source of finance or legal status. The Higher education sector for the R&D survey excludes non-university post-secondary education institutions (e.g. Technical and Further Education colleges) because it is considered that their contribution to total R&D activity would be minimal.
Private non-profit sector
This sector includes private or semi-public incorporated organisations which are established with the intention of not making a profit.
Indicator originally proposed in Framework
The ABS Discussion Paper, Measuring a knowledge-based economy and society, An Australian Framework (cat. no. 1375.0) proposed the indicator 'Government funded expenditure on R&D as a proportion of GDP by level of government'. See Innovation and Entrepreneurship indicator, 'Total Research and Experimental Development (R&D) expenditure by sector of performance (business, government, private non-profit, higher education) as a proportion of Gross Domestic Product (GDP)' for GDP ratios.
PERCENTAGE OF GERD FINANCED BY GOVERNMENT
Source: OECD Main Science and Technology Indicators 2004/1 (http://www.oecd.org), ABS Research and Experimental Development,All Sector Summary, Australia (cat. no. 8112.0).
The data in the publication OECD Main Science and Technology Indicators are collected and presented in line with standard OECD methodology for R&D statistics entitled The Measurement of Scientific and Technological Activities: Proposed Standard Practice for Surveys of Research and Experimental Development - Frascati Manual 2002 (OECD).
Though all OECD countries generally collect and report in line with the Frascati Manual, some detailed national specifications may vary from OECD standards. These differences are generally too small to affect the general indicators quoted in OECD Main Science and Technology Indicators. The main exceptions can be found in Annex 1 of the publication.