|Module 2: Describing, Clarifying and Presenting Data |
1. Horin, A. (1999). Our children are 'fifth poorest', Sydney Morning Herald, December 6: p. 4
2. Australian Bureau of Statistics. (1996). Aspects of Literacy: Assessed literacy skills, 1996. ABS Catalogue No. 4228.0 http//:www.abs.gov.au
3. Crossen, C. (1994). Tainted truth: The manipulation of fact in America. New York: Simon & Schuster.
4. Ehrenberg, A. S. C. (1981). The problem of numeracy. The American Statistician, 35 (2): 67-71.
5. For more information see Griffiths, D., Stirling, W. D., & Weldon, K. L. (1998). Understanding data: Principles and practice of statistics. Milton, QLD.: Jacaranda Wiley Ltd: 193-222
6. Tufte, E. R. (1983). The visual display of quantitative information. Cheshire, CN.: Graphics Press, Chapter 5
7. Griffiths, D., Stirling, W. D., & Weldon, K. L. (1998). Understanding data: Principles and practice of statistics. Milton, QLD.: Jacaranda Wiley Ltd: 209-212
8. This is a modified version of an example taken from Griffiths, Stirling and Weldon, 1998: 210-211.
9. "When a graph contains little or no information the plot can look quite empty and thus raise suspicions in the viewer that there is nothing to be communicated. (Wainer, 1984, p. 139) One way people try to avoid these suspicions is to fill up the plot with 'chart junk' and therefore try to hide the lack of information from the reader. Tufte, (1983), p. 71
9 cnt. Wainer, H. (1984). How to display data badly. The American Statistician, 38 (2): 137-147.
10. Loane, S., (1998) Stay-at-home mothers have the most children Sydney Morning Herald, 20/04/98: p. 4
11. Winkler, A. & McCuen, J. R. (1994). Writing the research paper: A handbook. Fort Worth, Texas, Harcourt Brace.
12. Eells, W. C. (1926). The relative merits of circles and bars for representing component parts. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 21 : 119-132.
13. Weintraub, S. (1967). Reading graphs, charts and diagrams. The Reading Teacher, 20: 345-349.
14. Tufte argues that "given their low data density and failure to order numbers along a visual dimension, pie charts should never be used" (1983, p. 178).
15. If you want to learn more about drawing stem and leaf plots see Griffiths, D., Stirling, W. D., & Weldon, K. L. (1998). Understanding data: Principles and practice of statistics. Milton, QLD, Jacaranda Wiley Ltd: 24-31
16. Modified from Consumer Reports, June 1986, pp. 366-367. As reported in Moore, D. (1995). The basic practice of statistics. New York, W. H. Freeman: p. 52.
17 Weiers, R.M., (2005) Introduction to Business Statistics 5th Edition, Thomson Brooks Cole, California: p. 85.