The words 'association' and 'correlation' are used interchangeably.
The explanatory variable, if there is one, is almost always plotted on the horizontal or x-axis.
The response variable is always plotted on the vertical or y-axis.
The phrases 'explanatory variable' - 'independent variable' - 'x variable' all mean the same.
The phrases 'response variable' - 'dependent variable' - 'y variable' all mean the same.
For example, in the scatter plot in section 5.3.1 above, the purpose of the plot was to indicate that the amount of shelf space available influences the value of sales. "Shelf space" was specified as the explanatory variable and "sales" was the response variable. However, if the purpose of the scatter plot is to show a relationship, and no assumption is made about whether one variable is explanatory of the other, then either variable can be placed on the horizontal axis.
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