Australian Bureau of Statistics
4613.0 - Australia's Environment: Issues and Trends, 2006
Previous ISSUE Released at 11:30 AM (CANBERRA TIME) 10/11/2006
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MARINE AND COASTAL WATERS
The number of species classified has increased during the decade; nevertheless, some species or stocks assigned lower priority and many by-product species, remain unclassified. The fisheries encompassed in the table do not include those where state/territory Government agencies have primary management responsibility, for example, the Norfolk Island Fishery.
STATUS OF FISH STOCKS MANAGED BY THE AUSTRALIAN GOVERNMENT
Efforts to preserve Australia’s marine environment include the establishment of a system of protected areas and guidelines to select and manage protected areas. Protected Areas are not the only mechanism for conserving biodiversity but they are an important element of the overall approach.
In 1994, Australia adopted the World Conservation Union (IUCN) definition of a protected area and the internationally recognised IUCN six level system of categories used to describe the management intent as basis for documenting Australia's various types of protected areas. The six categories are:
The IUCN defines a protected area as: "An area of land and/or sea especially dedicated to the protection and maintenance of biological diversity, and of natural and associated cultural resources, and managed through legal or other effective means".
The total number of marine parks and protected areas in Australia and its external territories has increased in number from 148 (and nearly 39 million hectares) in 1997 to 212 in 2004 to encompass nearly 72 million hectares.
Pressures on coastal ecosystems are increasing due to rising population and the ongoing demand for, and increasing access to, tourist and recreation facilities in these areas. Developments such as marinas, dredging lagoon channels and beach groynes all degrade coastal habitats and affect ecosystems.
Australia’s estimated resident population at June 2005 was 20.3 million, an increase of 237,100 people compared with June 2004. This represents an annual growth rate of 1.2%, the same as the average annual growth rate for the five years to June 2005.
All states and territories experienced population growth in 2004–05, with the largest increases occurring in Queensland (up 75,900 people), Victoria (up 59,400 people) and New South Wales (up 53,500 people).
In each state and territory, the areas with the largest or fastest population growth tended to be outer suburbs, inner cities and certain regional centres, especially along the coast.
The largest growth outside capital cities occurred in coastal Australia. Most of the growth in coastal regions is from internal migration as people from inland areas and from larger cities move to the coast – a phenomenon that has been described as “sea change”.
In Australia's coastal regions, the largest increase in population between 2000 and 2005 occurred in Gold Coast-Tweed region, up by an average 14,500 people per year (or 3.3% per year). Mandurah, to the south of Perth, recorded the fastest growth over the same period with an average growth rate of 5.1% per year. This growth was also faster than any capital city. Hervey Bay experienced the second fastest growth (up 4.3% per year) followed by the Sunshine Coast (3.5% per year).
This page last updated 7 December 2007
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