The Mineral Account for Australia is one of a series of ABS publications reporting on estimates of Australia's naturally occurring resources, in quantity terms. It presents a set of accounts for Australia's mineral and petroleum resources. These accounts form a major component of a broader project being undertaken by the ABS, that of environmental accounts.
Environmental accounts are important for a number of reasons. They can track the use of materials through the economy (as presented in the Mineral Account). They can also describe the release of wastes or pollutants resulting from the economic activity using the resources. Work is in progress to track this flow in the form of a waste and residuals account and will be published when available. The resulting information system of environmental accounts linked to economic accounts can be used to derive indicators, which are used to address a wide range of policy questions relating to sustainable development.
In Australia, environmental accounting is still a relatively new endeavour. Suggestions and comments on this ABS publication, or environmental accounting in general, would be greatly appreciated and should be sent to the Director, Environment and Energy Statistics Section, Australian Bureau of Statistics, PO Box 10, Belconnen, ACT 2616.
Mineral Account, Australia 1996
The Stock Table
The following discussion relates to movements in the stock (or amount) of minerals and petroleum resources through time. Demonstrated resources are the basis for all movements discussed; where demonstrated resources are those with a high geological assurance.
An average annual rate of change has been used to describe movements that occurred from 1985 to 1990 and 1990 to 1996. It has been calculated by adding the percentage change in demonstrated resources for the years from 1985 to 1990 and 1990 to 1996, then dividing by the respective number of years.
The Flow Table
A flow table represents the flow of commodities from the natural environment through the production process to end-users. It is made up of a supply table and a use table. A supply table shows where a commodity was produced, as part of domestic production or imported. A use table shows the consumption of commodities by industries and end-users.
Taking the coal, oil and gas group as an example:
- Base metals: the average annual rate of change of base metals generally increased between 1985 and 1990. Falls occurred in nickel (-1.4%); cobalt (-0.2%); antimony (-1.3%); and tungsten (-1.6%). The average annual rate of change of base metals generally increased between 1990 and 1996. Falls occurred in lead (-0.1%) and tungsten (-11.1%).
- Precious metals: the average annual rate of change of precious metals generally increased between 1985 and 1990. A drop occurred in silver (-0.1%). The average annual rate of change of precious metals increased for all metals between 1990 and 1996.
- Metallic minerals: the average annual rate of change of bauxite (9.8%) and vanadium (0.1%) increased between 1985 and 1990. A fall occurred for manganese ore (-6.5%). The average annual rate of change of iron ore (2.3%); bauxite (0.8%) and vanadium (0.2%) increased between 1990 and 1996. Falls occurred in magnesite (-9.3%) and manganese ore (-5.9%).
- Mineral sands: the average annual rate of change of mineral sands increased between 1985 and 1996. The biggest increases occurred for the period between 1985 and 1990: ilmenite rose by 31.7%; rutile rose by 48.2%; and zircon rose by 29.0%.
- Other minerals: the average annual rate of change of lithium and phosphate fell by -47.3% and -0.4%, respectively. Between 1990 and 1996 tantalum fell by -2.4%. The largest increase occurred in rare earth oxides (33.9%).
- Energy minerals: the average annual rate of change of energy metals increased between 1985 and 1990. Average annual rates of change fell between 1990 and 1996 for black coal (-0.2%) and brown coal (-0.2%). Demonstrated resources of uranium increased by 5.9% between 1990 and 1996.
- Petroleum commodities: the average annual rate of change of petroleum commodities increased between 1985 and 1996. Between 1985 and 1990 oil increased by 3.5%, condensate increased by 6.1%, gas increased by 4.9% and LPG increased by 12.6%. Between 1990 and 1996 oil increased by 12.0%, condensate increased by 16.6%, gas increased by 9.5% and LPG increased by 11.6%.
ABOUT THIS PUBLICATION
Part of a series of physical environmental accounts that are being developed. This publication focuses on Australian mineral and petroleum resources in physical units. Detailed stock accounts of mineral and petroleum resource quantities, production and consumption are presented. Flow accounts show the use of each mineral in quantity terms in economic sectors.
the following tables present a summary for demonstrated resources of averaged rates of change for each of the minerals and the petroleum commodities shown in the Mineral Account. Demonstrated resources are those resources with a high geological assurance.
- The Supply Table shows that the total supply of coal, oil and gas commodities were mainly produced in Australia, except for crude oil, which in 1992-93 31.3% of total supply was imported and in 1993-94 39.3% was imported. Total supply is the sum of domestic production and imports.
- The Use Table shows, in 1992-93, 57.5% of coal, oil and gas were exported and in 1993-94, 54.3% was exported. In 1992-93, 0.7% of the output of coal, oil and gas were consumed internally by the coal, oil and gas industry. The main industries that used coal, oil and gas were: petroleum and coal products; basic non-ferrous metals etc.; electricity; and the gas industry. In 1993-94, again 0.7% of the output of the coal, oil and gas commodity group was consumed internally by the coal, oil and gas industry. The main industries that used coal, oil and gas were: petroleum and coal products; basic chemicals; cement, lime and concrete slurry; iron and steel; basic non-ferrous metals etc.; and the electricity industry.
Mineral, demonstrated resource movements
Petroleum, demonstrated resource movements
The following is a 1993-94 supply table for coal, oil and gas commodities.
Average annual change 1985-90
Average annual change 1990-96
|Source: BRS data derivation from consultancy service.|
Coal, oil and gas supply table
|Black coal (all types incl briquettes) (kt)|
|Brown coal-lignite (incl briquettes) (kt)|
|Crude oil (incl. condensate) (kL)|
|Natural gas (GL)|
|Liquefied natural gas; liquefied natural petroleum gases; oil and gas n.e.c. (kL)|