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NOM and the states and territories
Much of the migration of travellers across Australia's border occurred within the more populated states as seen in Figure 3.7. New South Wales had the largest number of NOM arrivals (174,800 persons) and the largest number of NOM departures (85,300 persons). Conversely, Tasmania had the smallest flows with both the smallest number of arrivals (4,200 persons) and the smallest number of departures (2,100 persons).
The combined flows of overseas migration (arrivals and departures) show there were 760,500 people crossing Australia's border who impacted on NOM in 2008-09. Of these, there were 529,700 arrivals contributing to NOM (NOM arrivals) and 230,800 departures contributing to NOM (NOM departures).
However, the effect of these flows varies for each state and territory. In order to assess this effect, it is useful to consider the size of each flow as a proportion of a state or territory's population (Figure 3.8).
Western Australia experienced the greatest effect proportionally from NOM arrivals in 2008-09, with a 3.2% increase to its population, while the Northern Territory showed a 1.5% loss from NOM departures, the largest loss of all the states and territories. In contrast, the effect NOM arrivals and NOM departures had on Tasmania's population was small at 0.8% and 0.4% respectively.
In 2008-09, the population turnover due to overseas migration (gross overseas flows in relation to size of the population) was the highest in Western Australia at 4.4% (i.e. NOM arrivals and NOM departures combined). This was followed by the Australian Capital Territory (3.8%), and then New South Wales and the Northern Territory (3.7% each). Of the remaining states and territories, Queensland's and Victoria's population turnover from overseas migration was 3.5% each and South Australia 2.3%. Tasmania had the lowest population turnover due to NOM in 2008-09 at 1.3%.
NOM rates (quarterly)
Net overseas migration has a notable impact on the population of Australia's states and territories. The net overseas migration rate (NOM per 1,000 population) shows how the impact varies between the states and territories and over time.
Using data based on the improved methodology for NOM with the time series starting from December quarter 2003 (i.e. all quarterly NOM data currently available using the 12/16 month rule), the quarterly NOM rates for each state and territory are presented in Figures 3.9 to 3.11.
The three graphs (Figures 3.9 to 3.11), clearly show the seasonality of overseas migration with the March quarter providing the highest rates each year for the majority of the states and territories.
Figure 3.10 shows that the quarterly NOM rates for Western Australia displayed strong seasonality for the period between December quarter 2003 to June quarter 2009. During this time period the highest NOM rate was also recorded by Western Australia at 6.6 per 1,000 population in the March quarter 2009. In the same March quarter, the Australian Capital Territory had the next highest rate at 5.2 (Figure 3.10), whereas the national rate was 4.5. For Western Australia, the NOM rates over time were higher than the total Australian rate, whereas rates in New South Wales, Victoria and Queensland were fairly consistent with that of Australia (Figure 3.9). The remaining states and territories were mainly below the national rate, with Tasmania and the Northern Territory (Figure 3.11) not displaying as strong seasonality as that shown by the other states and territories.