4512.0 - Corrective Services, Australia, December quarter 2018 Quality Declaration 
Latest ISSUE Released at 11:30 AM (CANBERRA TIME) 14/03/2019   
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SUMMARY OF FINDINGS

PERSONS IN CORRECTIVE SERVICES

The Corrective Services, Australia publication presents data for three different populations:

    • persons in full-time custody;
    • persons in community-based corrections; and
    • prisoner receptions.

These populations cannot be compared directly. However, they are presented together to provide an overview of persons in corrective services.


Dec Qtr 18
Sep Qtr 18 to Dec Qtr 18

% change

Dec Qtr 17 to Dec Qtr 18

% change


Persons in full-time custody
42,779
-0.6%
3.7%
Persons in community-based corrections
73,428
5.3%
6.2%


PERSONS IN CUSTODY

In the December quarter 2018, the average daily number of full-time prisoners in Australia was 42,779. This was a decrease of less than 1% (239 persons) from the September quarter 2018, the first decrease since the September quarter 2014.

New South Wales was the main contributor to the decrease in prisoners since the September quarter 2018, decreasing by 3% (348 persons). There were also small decreases in South Australia, Western Australia, the Northern Territory and the Australian Capital Territory.

The other states and territories increased since the September quarter 2018.

Over the year, there was a 4% (1,509 persons) increase in Australia from the December quarter 2017.

In the last five years (from the December quarter 2013 to the December quarter 2018), the average number of persons in custody has increased by 33% (10,539 persons). (Table 1 and historical data)

PERSONS IN FULL-TIME CUSTODY(a), Dec 2013 to Dec 2018

PERSONS IN FULL-TIME CUSTODY(a), Dec 2013 to Dec 2018

Footnote(s): (a) Based on average daily number

Commonwealth of Australia 2019

In the December quarter 2018, the largest contributors to the national prisoner population were:
    • New South Wales (31% or 13,276 persons);
    • Queensland (21% or 8,935 persons);
    • Victoria (19% or 8,013 persons); and
    • Western Australia (16% or 6,867 persons). (Table 1)

Sex

The average daily number of females and males in custody both decreased since the September quarter 2018, with females decreasing at a slightly higher rate (3% or 117 persons) than males (less than 1% or 122 persons).

Over the past five years, the number of males in custody increased by 32% (9,525 persons) and the number of females in custody increased by 40% (1,014 persons). (Table 1 and historical data)

For the December quarter 2018, the average daily imprisonment rate for males was 410 persons per 100,000 adult male population, which was more than eleven times the rate for females (36 female persons per 100,000 adult female population). (Table 5)

Type of full-time custody

Prisoners can be housed in either:
    • Secure custody, where they are held in medium or maximum security custodial facilities requiring them to be confined by a secure physical barrier; or
    • Open custody, where they are housed in minimum security custodial facilities that do not require them to be confined by a secure perimeter or physical barrier, irrespective of whether a physical barrier exists.

During the December quarter 2018, 81% of prisoners in full-time custody were held in secure custody and the remaining 19% in open custody, representing an average daily number of 34,715 and of 8,064 prisoners respectively.

Since the December quarter 2017, the secure custody prisoner population increased by 6% (1,962 persons) and the open custody prisoner population decreased by 5% (453 persons). (Table 6)

Legal status

Legal status refers to where a person may be either sentenced or unsentenced depending on the warrant(s) or court order(s) that provide the legal basis for the administration of the person through the criminal justice system.

In the December quarter 2018, the average number of full-time prisoners on the first day of the month was 42,904, of which:
    • 67% (28,851) were sentenced; and
    • 33% (13,970) were unsentenced. (Table 8)

UNSENTENCED PRISONERS(a), Dec 2013 to Dec 2018

UNSENTENCED PRISONERS(a), Dec 2013 to Dec 2018

Footnote(s): (a) Based on average number on the first day of the month

Commonwealth of Australia 2019

Federal prisoners

Federal prisoners are persons charged and sentenced under a Commonwealth statute or transferred from another country to serve their sentence in Australia.

During the December quarter 2018, the average daily number of federal sentenced prisoners in Australia was 930, an increase of 2% (16 persons) from the September quarter 2018.

Three states and territories represented 85% of the federal sentenced prisoners in the December quarter 2018:
    • New South Wales (50% or 467 persons);
    • Victoria (24% or 221 persons); and
    • Western Australia (11% or 105 persons). (Table 10)

Rates per 100,000 adult population

Nationally, the average daily imprisonment rate for the December quarter 2018 was 220 per 100,000 adult population, decreasing from 222 persons in the September quarter 2018.

The Northern Territory continued to have the highest imprisonment rate of all states and territories with 905 persons per 100,000 adult population, decreasing from 920 persons in the September quarter 2018. Western Australia had the next highest imprisonment rate with 344 persons per 100,000 adult population, decreasing from 346 per 100,000 adult population in the September quarter 2018.

In the December quarter 2018, the Australian Capital Territory had the lowest average daily imprisonment rate for the second consecutive quarter with 147 persons per 100,000 adult population, decreasing from 151 persons per 100,000 adult population from the September quarter 2018. (Table 3)

AVERAGE DAILY IMPRISONMENT RATE(a), By states and territories, Dec 2017 and Dec 2018

AVERAGE DAILY IMPRISONMENT RATE(a), By states and territories, Dec 2017 and Dec 2018

Footnote(s): (a) Rate is the number of prisoners per 100,000 adult population. Based on average daily number.

Commonwealth of Australia 2019

Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander prisoners

The average daily number of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander prisoners during the December quarter 2018 was 11,776 persons. This represented a slight decrease of less than 1% (66 persons) since the September quarter 2018 and an increase of 4% (438 persons) since the December quarter 2017.

Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander prisoners represented 28% of the total full-time adult prisoner population during the December quarter 2018.

Three states continue to account for nearly three-quarters of the total Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander prisoner population:
    • New South Wales (28% or 3,304 persons);
    • Queensland (24% or 2,771 persons); and
    • Western Australia (23% or 2,676 persons). (Table 1)

Based on first day of the month figures, there were 11,792 Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander prisoners in the December quarter 2018, of which 67% (7,903 persons) were sentenced and 33% (3,856 persons) were unsentenced. (Table 13)

The national average daily Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander imprisonment rate was 2,466 persons per 100,000 adult Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population. The highest Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander imprisonment rate was recorded in Western Australia (4,203 persons per 100,000 adult Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population) and the lowest was in Tasmania (721 persons per 100,000 adult Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population).

There have been two consecutive quarterly decreases in the national average daily Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander imprisonment rate:
    • For the December quarter 2018, there was a quarterly decrease of 14 persons per 100,000 adult Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population since the September quarter 2018.
    • This followed a quarterly decrease of 25 persons per 100,000 adult Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population from the June quarter 2018 to the September quarter 2018.

Since the December quarter 2017, the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander imprisonment rate decreased in South Australia by 5% (139 persons per 100,000 adult Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population) and in Queensland by 1% (31 persons per 100,000 adult Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population). (Table 12)

ABORIGINAL AND TORRES STRAIT ISLANDER IMPRISONMENT RATE(a), By states and territories, Dec 2017, Sep 2018 and Dec 2018

ABORIGINAL AND TORRES STRAIT ISLANDER IMPRISONMENT RATE(a), By states and territories, Dec 2017, Sep 2018 and Dec 2018

Footnote(s): (a) Rate is the number of prisoners per 100,000 adult Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population. Based on average daily number

Commonwealth of Australia 2019

PERSONS IN COMMUNITY-BASED CORRECTIONS

Reported daily averages for number of persons serving community-based corrections orders are based on first day of the month figures. For the community-based corrections order types, offenders may be counted more than once if they have two or more different types of community-based corrections orders operating simultaneously. For more information, please refer to the Explanatory Notes, Introduction and Counting Rules sections.

Community-based corrections orders are non-custodial orders served under the authority of adult corrective services agencies and include restricted movement, reparations (fine option and community service), supervision orders (parole, bail, sentenced probation) and post-sentence supervision orders.

Number of persons in community-based corrections

The average daily number of persons serving community-based corrections orders in the December quarter was 73,428 persons representing a quarterly increase of 5% (3,668 persons) associated with introduction of two new sentence types: Community Correction Order (CCO) and Conditional Release Order (CRO) under the NSW Sentencing Reform. For more information, please refer to the Explanatory Notes, Comparability and Significant Events, New South Wales section.

There was a national increase of 6% (4,273 persons) in the average daily number of persons serving community-based corrections orders since the December quarter 2017.

PERSONS IN COMMUNITY-BASED CORRECTIONS(a), Dec 2013 to Dec 2018

PERSONS IN COMMUNITY-BASED CORRECTIONS(a), Dec 2013 to Dec 2018

Footnote(s): (a) Based on average number on the first day of the month

Commonwealth of Australia 2019

Three states accounted for over three-quarters of the national number of persons in community-based corrections:
    • New South Wales (31% or 23,048 persons);
    • Queensland (29% or 21,102 persons); and
    • Victoria (19% or 13,721 persons).

Over the past five years (since the December quarter 2013), persons serving community-based corrections orders increased by 32% or 17,647 persons. (Table 1 and historical data)

Sex

In the December quarter 2018, males accounted for 81% (59,268 persons) of the total persons serving community based corrections orders, and the remaining one-fifth were female (14,143
persons).

Over the past five years (since December quarter 2013), females serving community-based corrections orders have increased at a higher rate than males, increasing by 38% (3,923 persons) compared to males by 30% (13,750 persons). (Table 1 and historical data)

Type of orders

A person may be serving more than one type of CBC order at the same time. Therefore, the total count of orders may be greater than the total count of persons serving CBC orders. For more information, please refer to the Explanatory Notes, Counting Rules section.

In the December quarter 2018, there was a 10% (7,488 orders) increase in the number of CBC orders served to 81,584 orders since the September quarter 2018.

The three most prevalent order types in Australia were:
    • Sentenced probation (59% or 47,852 orders);
    • Parole (21% or 17,362 orders); and
    • Community service orders (13% or 10,627 orders).

Since the September quarter 2018, Sentenced probation had the largest increase of all CBC order types, increasing by 19% (7,606 orders), driving the overall increase for the quarter. Almost one third (35% or 16,741 orders) were in New South Wales where Sentenced Probation orders increased by 79% (7,370 orders). The increase can be linked to the inclusion of Intensive Corrections Orders and the introduction of two new sentence types: Community Correction Order (CCO) and Conditional Release Order (CRO) under the NSW Sentencing Reform. For more information, please refer to the Explanatory Notes, Comparability and Significant Events, New South Wales section.

Community service had the largest numeric decrease, decreasing by 3% (289 orders) since the September quarter 2018. (Table 17)

PROPORTION CBC ORDER TYPES, Dec 2017, Sep 2018 and Dec 2018

PROPORTION CBC ORDER TYPES, Dec 2017, Sep 2018 and Dec 2018

Footnote(s): (a) Based on average number on the first day of the month

Commonwealth of Australia 2019

Rates per 100,000 adult population

In the December quarter 2018, the daily average national rate of persons in community-based corrections was 377 persons per 100,000 adult population. The rate was an increase from 360 persons per 100,000 adult population in the September quarter 2018 and an increase from 361 persons per 100,000 adult population in the December quarter 2017. (Table 16)

COMMUNITY-BASED CORRECTIONS RATE(a), By states and territories, Dec 2017, Sep 2018 and Dec 2018

COMMUNITY-BASED CORRECTIONS RATE(a), By states and territories, Dec 2017, Sep 2018 and Dec 2018

Footnote(s): (a) Rate per 100,000 persons for the state/territory of interest.

Commonwealth of Australia 2019

Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander persons in community-based corrections

Nationally, the average daily number of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander persons in community-based corrections for the December quarter 2018 was 15,613, representing increases of 6% (842 persons) since the September quarter 2018 and of 8% (1,175 persons) since the December quarter 2017. The increase for the quarter can be linked to the introduction of two new sentence types: Community Correction Order (CCO) and Conditional Release Order (CRO) under the NSW Sentencing Reform. For more information, please refer to the Explanatory Notes, Comparability and Significant Events, New South Wales section.

Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander persons make up just over one fifth (21%) of the total community-based corrections population, of which more than three-quarters (78%) were located within three states:
    • New South Wales (35% or 5,388 persons);
    • Queensland (32% or 4,950 persons); and
    • Western Australia (12% or 1,889 persons). (Table 18)

ABORIGINAL AND TORRES STRAIT ISLANDER PERSONS IN COMMUNITY-BASED CORRECTIONS(a), Dec 2016 to Dec 2018

ABORIGINAL AND TORRES STRAIT ISLANDER PERSONS IN COMMUNITY-BASED CORRECTIONS(a), Dec 2016 to Dec 2018

Footnote(s): (a) Rate per 100,000 persons for the state/territory of interest.

Commonwealth of Australia 2019

PRISONER RECEPTIONS

A reception refers to the entry into full-time adult corrective services custody from the community.

In the December quarter 2018, there were 17,342 prisoner receptions in Australia.

Prisoner receptions increased by:
    • 3% (561 persons) since the September quarter 2018; and
    • 6% (919 persons) since the December quarter 2017.

The majority of prisoner receptions in the December quarter 2018 were male, comprising 86% (14,868 persons) of all prisoner receptions with females accounting for 2,472 prisoner receptions.

Male prisoner receptions increased by 3% (466 persons) since the September quarter 2018. Female prisoner receptions increased for the quarter by 4% (93 persons). (Table 20)

Unsentenced prisoner receptions accounted for just over three quarters (13,231 persons) of all prisoner receptions. The remaining quarter (4,111 persons) were sentenced. (Table 21)

There were 5,666 Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander prisoner receptions; an increase of 7% (358 persons) since the September quarter 2018.

Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander prisoner receptions represented 33% of the overall prisoner receptions population.

Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander prisoner receptions increased by:
    • 6% (256 persons) for males; and
    • 11% (102 persons) for females since the September quarter 2018. (Table 20)