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1301.0 - Year Book Australia, 2006  
Previous ISSUE Released at 11:30 AM (CANBERRA TIME) 20/01/2006   
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Contents >> Chapter 17 - Energy >> Energy use

ENERGY USE

TOTAL ENERGY USE

In 2003-04 total energy use in Australia, comprising both primary and derived energy, was 5,346 PJ, of which around two-thirds (3,545 PJ) was delivered to end-users and the remaining third (1,801 PJ) was lost in conversion processes, transmission and distribution (diagram 17.1). Graph 17.14 shows the growth in total energy use since 1973-74.

Graph 17.14: TOTAL ENERGY USE


ENERGY CONVERSION AND SUPPLY LOSSES

The energy conversion sectors represent an intermediate stage in the energy supply chain. These sectors transform primary energy products into more useful, higher value-added secondary (derived) energy products. Petroleum refiners, for example, transform crude oil into petroleum products such as petrol and diesel.

The main energy conversion sectors, comprising electricity generators, gas manufacturers, petroleum refiners, and operators of coke ovens and blast furnaces, are significant users of primary energy products. Of the conversion sectors, the petroleum refining and electricity generation sectors are the two main users of energy. In 2003-04 these two conversion sectors used 1,511 PJ and 2,334 PJ respectively (table 17.15). Since 1998-99 energy use by the petroleum refining sector has declined by 10% and energy use by the electricity generation sector has increased by 15% since 1998-99.

17.15 ENERGY USED IN CONVERSION, By sector

1998-99
2002-03
2003-04
PJ
PJ
PJ

Coke oven operation
169
127
133
Briquetting
9
13
13
Petroleum refining
1,683
1,678
1,511
Electricity generation
2,025
2,235
2,334
Gas manufacturing
2
2
2
Other conversion(a)
104
72
78
Fuel used in conversion
213
263
239
Total
4,205
4,390
4,310

(a) Includes: return streams to refineries from the petrochemical industry; consumption of coke in blast furnaces; blast furnace gas manufacture; electricity produced through cogeneration; brown coal tar produced in tar manufacture.

Source: ABARE 2004b, 2005b, Table A.


ENERGY END-USE BY SECTOR

In 2003-04, Australia's end-users of energy, comprising household and industry (excluding the conversion sectors), used 3,545 PJ of energy (table 17.16). This is an increase of 8.7% compared with energy end-use in 1998-99.

The transport sector (including household transport) is the largest end-user of energy, using 1,251 PJ in 2003-04. In 2003-04, road transport accounted for 80% (1,004 PJ) of the transport sectors energy use, with the remaining contributors being air transport (162 PJ), water transport (54 PJ) and rail transport (32 PJ).

The manufacturing sector is also a large energy end-user, using 1,138 PJ of energy in 2003-04. Together with the transport sector, these two sectors account for 67% of total energy end-use.

Energy end-use in the commercial sector and residential sector has grown by 11% and 9% respectively since 1998-99.

17.16 ENERGY END-USE, By sector

1998-99
2002-03
2003-04
PJ
PJ
PJ

Agriculture
68
106
95
Mining
267
296
314
Manufacturing
1,004
1,122
1,138
Construction
49
28
28
Transport(a)
1,217
1,207
1,251
Commercial(b)
212
236
235
Residential(c)
386
413
421
Other(d)
58
60
63
Total
3,261
3,467
3,545

(a) Includes all transport use, including household motor vehicle use.
(b) Includes wholesale and retail trade, communications, finance and insurance, property and business services, government administration and defence, education, health and community services, cultural and recreational services, and personal and other services, along with water, sewerage and drainage.
(c) Transport use by households is included in transport.
(d) Includes lubricants and greases, bitumen and solvents, as well as energy consumption in the gas production and distribution industries.

Source: ABARE 2004b, 2005b, Table A.


RESIDENTIAL ENERGY USE

Australia has a very high level of car ownership and use, and a high level of total personal travel. Table 17.17 shows, of people who work or study aged 18 years and over, the proportion driving to work or study has remained unchanged between 1996 (70.1%) and 2003 (70.3%).

17.17 TRANSPORT USED TO TRAVEL TO WORK OR STUDY, By persons travelling

1996
2000
2003
%
%
%

Car/truck/van as driver
70.1
72.2
70.3
Car/truck/van as passenger
5.0
5.1
4.2
Motorbike/motorscooter
1.0
0.7
0.6
Train
6.3
6.9
6.7
Bus
4.3
4.0
4.3
Tram/light rail
0.4
0.6
0.8
Ferry/boat
0.2
0.2
0.2
Taxi
0.2
0.1
*0.1
Bicycle
1.8
1.1
1.2
Walk
4.3
4.2
3.9
Other
0.3
0.3
0.1
Do not travel (work/study at home)
6.2
4.8
7.5

Source: Environmental Issues: People's Views and Practices, March 2003 (4602.0).


The 1970s and 1980s saw an increase in the variety of energy-using home appliances available for purposes such as heating, cooling and cooking. Natural gas and electricity continue to be the key energy sources of space heating, water heating and cooking (table 17.18). In 2002, 81% of Australian residences had room heating, with the main energy source being natural gas for 34% of these residences (up from 31% in 1994), followed by electricity (31%) and wood (14%). Electricity is the major source of energy for both heating water (about 61% in 2002) and cooking (about 57% in 2002).

17.18 PRINCIPAL FUEL TYPES USED IN DWELLINGS, Number of dwellings by purpose

Room heating
Water heating
Cooking(a)



1994
1999
2002
1994
1999
2002
1999
2002
'000
'000
'000
'000
'000
'000
'000
'000

Electricity
1,906.4
1,997.3
2,309.2
3,999.3
4,253.8
4,588.0
4,181.1
4,270.0
Gas
2,044.3
2,349.6
2,555.0
2,153.8
2,526.7
2,810.1
2,887.0
3,169.1
Wood
1,130.4
1,118.3
1,024.2
(b)
73.9
44.9
51.4
34.6
Solar
3.8
*0.8
*1.0
317.1
344.7
322.4
-
-
Oil
200.0
156.3
92.6
(b)
2.2
*1.9
0.9
-
Coal/coke
(b)
*2.7
*1.3
(b)
-
*0.6
-
-
Other
90.6
44.5
31.6
141.9
12.4
15.3
14.8
-
Don't know
(b)
*7.5
-
(b)
36.9
117.6
-
-
None
1,039.1
1,458.1
1,458.7
-
-
-
-
-
Total dwellings
6,414.5
7,135.2
7,473.7
6,414.5
7,135.2
7,473.7
7,135.2
7,473.7

(a) Not collected in 1994.
(b) Included in Other.

Source: Environmental Issues: People's Views and Practices, March 2002 (4602.0).


INDICATORS OF ENERGY USE

Australia's total energy consumption increased by 9% from 1998-99 to 2003-04. In this period the population increased by 6%, and gross domestic product (GDP) in chain volume terms increased by almost 18%. Consequently, there has been a continuing decline in Australia's aggregate energy intensity, that is, energy consumed per unit of GDP over the five-year period. While electricity use (up 19% in 2003-04 compared to 1998-99) marginally outgrew population growth over the period, it broadly matched growth in GDP (table 17.19).

17.19 SELECTED ENERGY INDICATORS

Energy
consumption(a)
Electricity generation(b)
GDP(c)
Energy
consumption
per person
Electricity generation
per person
Energy consumption/
GDP
Electricity
generation/
GDP
PJ
PJ
$m
GJ/person(d)
GJ/person(d)
GJ/$m
GJ/$m

1998-99
4,884.7
674.9
667,780
258.1
35.7
7,315
1,011
1999-2000
4,971.0
703.9
692,889
259.5
36.8
7,174
1,016
2000-01
5,034.1
739.9
707,140
259.3
38.1
7,119
1,046
2001-02
5,110.8
752.7
734,575
260.2
38.3
6,957
1,025
2002-03
5,145.1
778.2
758,147
262.4
39.2
6,879
1,026
2003-04
5,345.7
800.0
786,754
265.8
39.8
6,795
1,017

(a) Primary plus derived energy.
(b) Thermal electricity.
(c) Chain volume measures, reference year is 2002-03.
(d) Estimated residential population at 30 June.

Source: Australian Demographic Statistics (3101.0); Australian System of National Accounts, 2003-04 (5204.0); ABARE 2004b, Table A, 2005b, Tables A and F.


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