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3301.0 - Births, Australia, 2008 Quality Declaration 
Previous ISSUE Released at 11:30 AM (CANBERRA TIME) 11/11/2009   
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Contents >> Summary of findings >> INTERNATIONAL FERTILITY RATES

INTERNATIONAL FERTILITY RATES

According to the United Nations, the projected world average TFR for 2005-2010 is 2.6 babies per woman, declining from the relatively constant 5 births per woman that existed until the 1960s. However, TFRs for individual countries vary considerably. There are many factors that can influence a country's fertility rate, such as differences in social and economic development and contraceptive prevalence. In general, developing countries have higher fertility rates while developed countries have lower rates.

Australia's TFR for 2008 of 1.97 babies per woman is well below the world average (2.6), although it is above the average TFR for developed countries (1.6). According to United Nations projections, a number of European and developed Asian countries will have low fertility rates in 2005-2010. Hong Kong's projected TFR of 1.0 is one of the lowest in the world, while Japan and Singapore are both projected to have a TFR of 1.3. In Europe, low TFRs are projected for Germany (1.3) and Spain, Italy and Greece (each 1.4). Middle Eastern and African countries have the highest fertility rates, with Niger (7.2), Afghanistan (6.6) and Uganda (6.4) some of the highest. East Timor also has a high total fertility rate, of 6.5 babies per woman.

Projected fertility rates for the United States of America and New Zealand (2.1 and 2.0 respectively) are higher than Australia while the rate for Canada is lower (1.6).

2.18 International Total Fertility Rates - 1965-1970 to 2005-2010

1965-1970
1970-1975
1975-1980
1980-1985
1985-1990
1990-1995
1995-2000
2000-2005
2005-2010

Afghanistan
7.7
7.7
7.7
7.8
7.9
8.0
8.0
7.4
6.6
Australia
2.9
2.5
2.0
1.9
1.9
1.9
1.8
1.8
1.8
Canada
2.6
2.0
1.7
1.6
1.6
1.7
1.6
1.5
1.6
China
5.9
4.8
2.9
2.6
2.6
2.0
1.8
1.8
1.8
East Timor
6.2
6.2
4.3
5.4
5.2
5.7
7.0
7.0
6.5
France
2.6
2.3
1.9
1.9
1.8
1.7
1.8
1.9
1.9
Germany
2.3
1.6
1.5
1.5
1.4
1.3
1.3
1.4
1.3
Greece
2.4
2.3
2.3
2.0
1.5
1.4
1.3
1.3
1.4
Hong Kong
4.0
2.9
2.3
1.8
1.3
1.3
1.1
1.0
1.0
India
5.6
5.3
4.9
4.5
4.2
3.9
3.5
3.1
2.8
Indonesia
5.6
5.3
4.7
4.1
3.4
2.9
2.6
2.4
2.2
Italy
2.5
2.4
1.9
1.5
1.3
1.3
1.2
1.3
1.4
Japan
2.0
2.1
1.8
1.8
1.7
1.5
1.4
1.3
1.3
Korea, Republic of
4.7
4.3
2.9
2.2
1.6
1.7
1.5
1.2
1.2
Malaysia
5.9
5.2
4.2
4.2
4.0
3.5
3.1
2.9
2.6
New Zealand
3.4
2.8
2.2
2.0
2.0
2.1
2.0
2.0
2.0
Niger
7.5
7.7
8.0
8.1
7.9
7.8
7.6
7.4
7.2
Papua New Guinea
6.2
6.1
5.9
5.5
5.0
4.7
4.6
4.4
4.1
Singapore
3.5
2.6
1.9
1.7
1.7
1.8
1.6
1.4
1.3
Somalia
7.3
7.1
7.0
6.7
6.7
6.5
6.5
6.5
6.4
Spain
2.9
2.9
2.6
1.9
1.5
1.3
1.2
1.3
1.4
Sweden
2.2
1.9
1.7
1.7
1.9
2.0
1.6
1.7
1.9
Uganda
7.1
7.1
7.1
7.1
7.1
7.1
7.0
6.7
6.4
United Kingdom
2.5
2.0
1.7
1.8
1.8
1.8
1.7
1.7
1.8
United States of America
2.6
2.0
1.8
1.8
1.9
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.1
Viet Nam
7.3
6.7
5.9
4.5
4.0
3.3
2.5
2.3
2.1
Yemen
8.6
8.7
8.7
8.7
8.4
7.7
6.7
5.9
5.3
World
4.8
4.3
3.8
3.6
3.4
3.1
2.8
2.7
2.6

Source: Population Division of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat, World Population Prospects: The 2008 Revision, Medium variant <http://esa.un.org/unpp>.

2.19 SUMMARY, Australia - Selected years

1988
1993
1998
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008

FERTILITY RATES

Age-specific fertility rates(a)
15-19 years(b)
20.3
20.9
18.9
16.1
16.0
15.7
15.3
16.0
17.3
20-24 years
81.5
71.3
61.4
54.2
52.7
51.8
51.4
55.5
57.1
25-29 years
136.9
129.8
111.4
102.5
101.8
102.0
101.0
105.6
105.8
30-34 years
93.3
105.4
107.0
112.3
114.0
117.0
120.4
125.9
127.8
35-39 years
30.5
38.9
45.5
54.2
57.2
60.3
63.4
67.8
70.9
40-44 years
4.6
6.3
8.0
10.0
10.5
10.8
11.3
12.6
14.1
45-49 years(c)
0.2
0.2
0.3
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.7
Total fertility rate(d)
1.831
1.859
1.762
1.748
1.763
1.791
1.817
1.920
1.969
Crude birth rate(e)
14.9
14.7
13.3
12.6
12.6
12.7
12.8
13.5
13.8
Net reproduction rate(f)
0.877
0.893
0.848
0.839
0.848
0.858
0.870
0.878
nya

BIRTHS

Total births
246 193
260 229
249 616
251 161
254 246
259 791
265 949
285 213
296 621
Males
126 223
133 572
128 016
129 193
130 600
133 428
136 692
146 456
152 287
Females
119 970
126 657
121 600
121 968
123 646
126 363
129 257
138 757
144 334
Sex ratio
105.2
105.5
105.3
105.9
105.6
105.6
105.8
105.5
105.5
Indigenous births registered(g)
1 999
5 523
10 445
11 740
12 006
12 078
12 496
14 192
15 011
Age of mother
15-19 years(b)
13 961
13 175
11 849
10 811
10 857
10 744
10 552
11 204
12 326
20-24 years
53 171
50 681
40 052
36 302
36 146
36 482
37 151
40 907
42 678
25-29 years
95 241
88 279
81 677
69 604
68 846
69 420
70 224
75 998
79 012
30-34 years
61 651
77 004
75 876
86 077
87 395
89 158
89 883
93 072
94 124
35-39 years
19 357
26 728
34 223
39 876
42 139
44 873
48 505
53 561
56 976
40-44 years
2 634
4 092
5 632
7 706
8 183
8 376
8 679
9 642
10 771
45-49 years(c)
96
140
215
330
379
358
438
506
512
Age of father
15-19 years(h)
2 938
3 500
3 566
3 405
3 425
3 558
3 469
3 910
4 391
20-24 years
26 926
27 420
22 499
20 271
20 652
21 110
21 345
23 537
24 550
25-29 years
76 442
67 659
61 579
52 195
51 538
51 616
52 456
56 589
59 254
30-34 years
74 819
84 083
77 580
82 525
83 064
85 212
85 548
89 233
89 871
35-39 years
36 231
44 045
50 102
52 765
54 780
56 814
60 659
66 157
69 784
40-44 years
11 894
15 113
17 441
21 746
22 613
23 168
23 802
25 556
27 202
45-49 years
3 252
4 557
5 266
6 004
6 482
6 718
7 010
8 109
8 566
50 years and over
1 595
1 881
2 292
2 648
2 769
3 050
3 135
3 340
3 507
Nuptial births
199 425
195 355
178 046
171 853
172 481
176 078
179 019
189 896
194 704
Exnuptial births
46 768
64 874
71 570
79 308
81 765
83 713
86 930
95 317
101 917
Exnuptial paternity acknowledged
34 773
53 016
62 345
69 952
72 915
75 353
78 550
86 640
92 512
Exnuptial paternity not acknowledged
11 995
11 858
9 225
9 356
8 850
8 360
8 380
8 677
9 405

CONFINEMENTS

All confinements
243 193
256 703
245 898
247 089
250 045
255 481
261 550
280 781
291 974
Nuptial
196 900
192 518
175 162
168 777
169 312
172 894
175 827
186 694
191 385
Exnuptial
46 293
64 185
70 736
78 312
80 733
82 587
85 723
94 087
100 589
Exnuptial paternity acknowledged
34 419
52 448
61 616
69 055
72 002
74 340
77 471
85 517
91 323
Exnuptial paternity not acknowledged
11 874
11 737
9 120
9 257
8 731
8 247
8 252
8 570
9 266
Median age of mother (years)(i)
All confinements
27.9
28.9
29.5
30.5
30.6
30.7
30.8
30.7
30.7
Nuptial
28.6
29.7
30.5
31.4
31.6
31.7
31.8
31.8
31.9
Exnuptial
23.7
24.5
25.7
26.7
26.9
27.0
27.2
27.1
27.0
Exnuptial paternity acknowledged
24.2
24.8
25.9
26.9
27.1
27.2
27.4
27.2
27.1
Exnuptial paternity not acknowledged
22.2
23.2
23.9
24.8
25.0
25.1
25.3
25.4
25.5
Median age of father (years)(i)
All fathers where age is known
30.6
31.4
32.0
32.6
32.8
32.9
33.1
33.1
33.1
Nuptial
31.0
32.0
32.9
33.5
33.6
33.7
33.9
34.0
34.1
Exnuptial paternity acknowledged
27.0
27.5
28.4
29.6
29.7
29.8
30.0
29.9
29.8
Median duration of marriage (years)
4.6
4.6
4.6
4.4
4.4
4.4
4.3
4.1
4.1

nya not yet available
(a) Births per 1,000 women.
(b) Includes births to mothers aged less than 15 years.
(c) Includes births to mothers aged 50 years and over.
(d) Births per woman.
(e) Births per 1,000 estimated resident pooulation.
(f) Daughters surviving to reproductive age per woman.
(g) Due to changes in identification of Indigenous births, care should be taken when interpreting changes in the number of Indigenous births over time.
(h) Includes births to fathers aged less than 15 years.
(i) Prior to 2007, median age of parents may be overstated. For more information, see paragraph 44 of the Explanatory Notes.

2.20 Summary, States and territories - 2008

NSW
Vic.
Qld
SA
WA
Tas.(a)
NT
ACT
Aust.(b)

FERTILITY RATES

Age-specific fertility rates(c)
15-19 years(d)
14.0
10.7
24.7
18.3
22.8
27.6
52.2
8.0
17.3
20-24 years
52.8
42.2
73.8
57.9
66.9
88.1
105.3
35.3
57.1
25-29 years
102.3
93.1
119.8
110.6
117.2
133.0
111.1
84.3
105.8
30-34 years
126.5
131.5
124.7
127.1
132.0
127.8
105.4
130.6
127.8
35-39 years
72.6
77.9
63.7
62.3
71.1
58.1
57.7
77.5
70.9
40-44 years
14.9
15.9
12.3
12.2
13.1
11.9
12.5
15.5
14.1
45-49 years(e)
0.6
0.8
0.6
0.8
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.5
0.7
Total fertility rate(f)
1.917
1.861
2.100
1.952
2.120
2.241
2.224
1.760
1.969
Crude birth rate(g)
13.6
13.4
14.7
12.6
14.7
13.6
17.9
13.9
13.8
Net reproduction rate(h)
nya
nya
nya
nya
nya
nya
nya
nya
nya

BIRTHS

Total births
94 684
71 175
63 132
20 229
31 850
6 775
3 942
4 804
296 621
Males
48 321
36 781
32 589
10 333
16 317
3 453
2 007
2 469
152 287
Females
46 363
34 394
30 543
9 896
15 533
3 322
1 935
2 335
144 334
Sex ratio
104.2
106.9
106.7
104.4
105.0
103.9
103.7
105.7
105.5
Indigenous births registered(i)
4 003
1 096
4 402
976
2 473
364
1 560
134
15 011
Age of mother
15-19 years(d)
3 226
1 864
3 636
953
1 686
449
412
95
12 326
20-24 years
12 619
7 963
11 160
3 154
5 069
1 309
893
507
42 678
25-29 years
25 234
17 644
17 762
5 576
8 612
1 852
1 076
1 247
79 012
30-34 years
30 908
24 542
18 264
6 292
9 646
1 814
945
1 708
94 124
35-39 years
18 903
15 946
10 316
3 509
5 748
986
514
1 048
56 976
40-44 years
3 635
3 051
1 876
691
1 027
200
np
np
10 771
45-49 years(e)
158
154
96
46
42
7
np
np
512
Age of father
15-19 years(j)
1 137
637
1 352
325
598
170
138
33
4 391
20-24 years
6 656
4 336
7 144
1 819
3 017
821
502
251
24 550
25-29 years
18 465
12 790
14 038
4 353
6 431
1 475
807
891
59 254
30-34 years
29 461
22 891
17 972
5 956
9 272
1 861
865
1 585
89 871
35-39 years
22 990
18 783
13 020
4 473
7 326
1 286
643
1 256
69 784
40-44 years
9 189
7 372
4 873
1 825
2 744
482
246
469
27 202
45-49 years
2 978
2 170
1 524
549
874
206
107
156
8 566
50 years and over
1 198
846
667
260
362
74
43
57
3 507
Nuptial births
66 478
51 131
36 423
12 584
19 713
3 400
1 476
3 474
194 704
Exnuptial births
28 206
20 044
26 709
7 645
12 137
3 375
2 466
1 330
101 917
Exnuptial paternity acknowledged
25 599
18 701
24 179
6 980
10 952
2 992
1 882
1 224
92 512
Exnuptial paternity not acknowledged
2 607
1 343
2 530
665
1 185
383
584
106
9 405

CONFINEMENTS

All confinements
93 238
69 976
62 072
19 937
31 418
6 683
3 903
4 718
291 974
Nuptial
65 418
50 187
35 727
12 390
19 424
3 349
1 461
3 405
191 385
Exnuptial
27 820
19 789
26 345
7 547
11 994
3 334
2 442
1 313
100 589
Exnuptial paternity acknowledged
25 257
18 467
23 855
6 888
10 829
2 952
1 865
1 207
91 323
Exnuptial paternity not acknowledged
2 563
1 322
2 490
659
1 165
382
577
106
9 266
Median age of mother (years)
All confinements
31.0
31.6
29.7
30.3
30.3
29.2
28.1
31.6
30.7
Nuptial
31.8
32.3
31.5
31.6
31.8
31.6
31.1
32.2
31.9
Exnuptial
27.4
28.6
26.1
26.6
26.3
25.7
25.4
28.9
27.0
Exnuptial paternity acknowledged
27.5
28.7
26.2
26.8
26.6
25.8
25.9
29.2
27.1
Exnuptial paternity not acknowledged
26.6
28.3
24.9
25.1
24.1
24.5
23.8
24.6
25.5
Median age of father (years)
All fathers where the age is known
33.4
33.8
32.1
32.7
32.8
31.9
31.4
33.8
33.1
Nuptial
34.2
34.4
33.6
33.8
34.1
33.8
33.8
34.2
34.1
Exnuptial paternity acknowledged
30.2
31.1
28.8
29.5
29.3
28.8
28.7
31.4
29.8
Median duration of marriage (years)
4.2
4.2
3.9
4.1
3.9
3.9
3.4
4.1
4.1
Previous children of the mother(k)
0
39 319
32 725
30 965
8 512
13 658
1 187
1 561
2 458
na
1
30 593
23 904
19 065
6 703
10 177
2 056
1 105
1 929
na
2
13 930
9 702
7 747
2 982
4 636
1 040
638
756
na
3
5 047
3 002
2 525
1 070
1 644
415
300
245
na
4
1 882
934
823
404
626
181
128
77
na
5 or more
1 047
685
606
311
537
113
107
65
na
Average number of previous children of the mother(k)
1.95
1.85
1.79
1.97
1.96
2.35
2.14
1.88
na

na not available
np not available for publication but included in totals where applicable, unless otherwise indicated
nya not yet available
(a) For Tasmania, some characteristics of births are not collected for the birth notification. For further information see paragraphs 36 to 38 of the Explanatory Notes.
(b) Includes Other Territories.
(c) Births per 1,000 women.
(d) Includes births to mothers aged less than 15 years.
(e) Includes births to mothers aged 50 years and over.
(f) Births per woman.
(g) Births per 1,000 estimated resident population.
(h) Daughters surviving to reproductive age per woman.
(i) Due to changes in identification of Indigenous births, care should be taken when interpreting changes in the number of Indigenous births over time.
(j) Includes births to fathers aged less than 15 years.
(k) By state/territory of registration. Includes all children born to a mother, for all states and territories excluding Victoria and Queensland. For Victoria and Queensland, includes previous children of the current relationship only. Due to the high proportion of confinements in Tasmania for which no information on previous children of mother was available, data for Tasmania should be interpreted with caution. See paragraph 40 to 43 of the Explanatory Notes for more information.



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