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4125.0 - Gender Indicators, Australia, Jan 2012  
Previous ISSUE Released at 11:30 AM (CANBERRA TIME) 07/02/2012   
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PARTICIPATION AND RETENTION


KEY SERIES



EDUCATION PARTICIPATION RATE (a)(b), 15-24 years

2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011

%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%

Males
56.1
55.9
55.9
56.2
56.1
56.5
59.7
57.8
58.4
58.4
Females
57.9
58.5
57.8
58.1
57.5
57.9
58.1
58.3
59.8
60.3


(a) Includes persons enrolled in formal or non-formal learning. For more information see Glossary (Education).
(b) Males and females participating in education as proportion of persons aged 15-24 years for each sex.

Source: ABS data available on request, Survey of Education and Work.



RELATED SERIES


APPARENT RETENTION RATE FOR FULL-TIME SCHOOL STUDENTS (a)(b)(c), Year 7/8 to Year 12

2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010

%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%

Males
68.1
69.8
70.3
70.4
69.9
69.0
68.8
68.9
70.8
73.2
Females
79.1
80.7
80.7
81.4
81.0
80.7
80.1
80.5
81.4
83.0


(a) For definition of Apparent Retention Rate, see Glossary (Education).
(b) Relatively small changes in students numbers can create apparently large movements in apparent retention rates for apparent retention rates calculated for small populations.
(c) Year 7 is the first year of secondary school in New South Wales, Victoria, Tasmania, Northern Territory and the Australian Capital Territory and Year 8 is first year of secondary school in Queensland, South Australia and Western Australia.

Source: ABS Schools, Australia, 2011 (cat. no. 4221.0).

COMMENTARY
EDUCATION PARTICIPATION AND RETENTION

In 2011, about 60% of both men and women aged 15-24 years were participating in education. The education participation rate for women was higher than for men in each of the older ten year age groups up to 64 years. In 2010, the apparent retention rate through secondary school to Year 12 for full-time students was higher for females (83%) than for males (73%).

Participation in education is frequently used as an indicator of the wellbeing of young people. Many young people continue in full-time education immediately after completing compulsory schooling. Participation in education is measured in two different ways: by the proportion of selected age groups who are students; and also by the apparent retention rate of students from Year 7/8 to either Year 10 or Year 12.

Education and training help people to develop knowledge and skills that may be used to enhance their own wellbeing and that of the broader community. For an individual, education is widely regarded as a key factor in developing a rewarding career. For the nation, having a skilled work force is vital in supporting ongoing economic development and in improving living conditions. Changes in social attitudes towards the roles and responsibilities of males and females in the latter part of the last century have led to a increases in the educational participation of females across all age groups. (Endnote 1)

EDUCATION PARTICIPATION RATE, 15-24 YEARS

About 60% of those aged 15-24 years are participating in education beyond compulsory schooling. In 2011, the participation rate for both males and females in the 15-19 year age group (around 80%) was close to double that for the 20-24 year age group. While the participation rate for the 20-24 year old females group was lower than for the 15-19 year age group, between 2002 and 2011 participation in education by the older female age group rose more strongly than their younger counterparts.

The 60% or so participation rate for both males and females aged 15-24 years in 2011 was up around 2 percentage points from 2002.




APPARENT RETENTION RATE

As noted above, in 2010 the apparent retention rate for full-time students through secondary school, from Year 7/8 to Year 12, was higher for females ( 83%) than for males (73%), and it has been higher in each of the previous nine years.

The apparent retention rate for full-time students is an indicator that measures the extent to which young persons are continuing their participation in secondary school education and is regarded as an important measure of the performance of education systems and related government policies. (Endnote 1)

An apparent retention rate is a measure of the number of school students in a designated year of education expressed as a percentage of their respective cohort group in a base year, such as from the first year in the secondary school (Year 7/8) to Year 10 or Year 12. Apparent retention rates are useful but they do not account for students repeating a year or migrating into or out of the relevant school student population. (See the Glossary (Education) for more information on apparent retention rates.)




ABORIGINAL AND TORRES STRAIT ISLANDER PEOPLES

A key element in 'closing the gap' between Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians and non-Indigenous Australians relates to educational participation and attainment. While the education gap has narrowed somewhat over recent years, educational participation and attainment rates for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians still remain well below those of non-Indigenous Australians. This is due to a range of factors including economic disadvantage, social marginalisation, health problems, differences in community expectations and geographical isolation. (Endnote 1)

Education participation rate

In 2008, the participation rate in formal learning for both male and female Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians aged 15-24 years was 41%. The participation rate was much higher for the 15-19 year age group (around 60%) compared to the 20-24 year age group (around 16%).

Apparent retention rate

The apparent retention rate from Year 7/8 to Year 12 for full-time Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students has improved since 2001. For male students it rose from 33% in 2001 to 44% in 2010, and for female students it increased from 39% to 50%. While these improvements in retention rates are much greater than those achieved for the total population over this period, in 2010 the apparent retention rate from Year 7/8 to Year 12 for full-time Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students was still only about 60% of that achieved for the total population.


ENDNOTES

1. Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2010, Measures of Australia's Progress, 2010 (cat. no. 1370.0) <www.abs.gov.au>.

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