4737.0 - Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples: Smoking Trends, Australia, 1994 to 2014-15 Quality Declaration 
Latest ISSUE Released at 11:30 AM (CANBERRA TIME) 19/10/2017  First Issue
   Page tools: Print Print Page Print all pages in this productPrint All RSS Feed RSS Bookmark and Share Search this Product


SMOKING PREVALENCE

In 1994, 55% of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples aged 18 years and over were smokers; 20 years later, in 2014–15, this had declined to 45%. Over a similar 20 year period, the proportion of non-Indigenous people aged 18 years and over who were smokers also declined, from 24% in 1995 to 16% in 2014–15.

Figure 1.1 Smoking prevalence(a), persons aged 18 years and over
Graph: Shows proportion of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population and non-Indigenous population who were smokers declined between 1994/1995 and 2014-15.

(a) Current smokers as a proportion of total population.
(b) 2004 refers to 2004–05 NATSIHS and 2004–05 NHS; 2007 refers to 2007–08 NHS; 2011 refers to 2011–12 AHS; 2012 refers to 2012–13 AATSIHS; 2014 refers to 2014–15 NATSISS and 2014–15 NHS.
Source: 1994 NATSIS; 2002, 2008 and 2014–15 NATSISS; 2004–05 NATSIHS; 2012–13 AATSIHS; 1995, 2001, 2004–05, 2007–08 and 2014–15 NHS; 2011–12 AHS.


Between 1994 and 2014–15, the proportion of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples aged 18 years and over in non-remote areas who were smokers declined from 55% to 42%, while the proportion in remote areas remained relatively stable at between 54% and 56%.

Figure 1.2 Smoking prevalence(a) by remoteness, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander persons aged 18 years and over

Graph: Shows proportion of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population who were smokers declined from 55% to 42% in non-remote areas and remained relatively stable at between 54% and 56% in remote areas between 1994 and 2014-15.

(a) Current smokers as a proportion of total population.
(b) 2004 refers to 2004–05 NATSIHS; 2012 refers to 2012–13 AATSIHS; 2014 refers to 2014–15 NATSISS.
Source: 1994 NATSIS; 2002, 2008 and 2014–15 NATSISS; 2004–05 NATSIHS; 2012–13 AATSIHS.


In 2014–15, 45% of the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population aged 18 years and over were smokers. Of these:
    • the vast majority (93%) were daily smokers, and
    • the remainder (7%) smoked less than daily.


One quarter (25%) of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples aged 18 years and over were ex-smokers, and almost one third (31%) had never smoked.

Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander males were more likely than Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander females to be smokers (47% compared with 42%), and Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples in remote areas were more likely than those in non-remote areas to be smokers (54% compared with 42%).

Graph Image for Figure1.3 Smoker status, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander persons aged 18 years and over 2014-15

Source(s): 2014-15 National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Social Survey



In 2014–15, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples aged 18 years and over who had completed Year 12 or equivalent were less likely to be smokers than those who had not completed Year 12 or equivalent or who had never attended school (29% compared with 51%).


ESTIMATES OF AVERAGE ANNUAL RELATIVE CHANGE

There were significant average annual relative decreases in smoking prevalence among both the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population and the non-Indigenous population aged 18 years and over during the period 1994/1995 to 2014–15. After controlling for age and sex only, the estimated annual relative decrease was not significantly different among the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population (a decrease of 1.9% per year) compared with the non-Indigenous population (a decrease of 2.5% per year). However, after controlling for all variables (age, sex, remoteness, state/territory and education), the estimated annual relative decrease was significantly different between these two populations, with a slower rate of decrease among the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population (1.0% per year) than among the non-Indigenous population (2.7% per year). Further detail about these results, including significance levels and confidence intervals, can be found in Appendix 2: Results of Modelling.

Among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples aged 18 years and over, the estimated annual relative decreases in smoking prevalence between 1994 and 2014–15 were faster for those in younger age groups, after controlling only for sex. There was a 3.1% decrease per year for those aged 18–24 years, a 2.2% decrease per year for those aged 25–34 years and a 1.9% decrease per year for those aged 35–44 years, while smoking prevalence did not change for those aged 45–54 years and 55 years and over.

Among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples aged 18 years and over in non-remote areas, the annual relative decreases in smoking prevalence were significantly faster between 1994 and 2014–15 for those who had completed Year 12 or equivalent (3.3% per year) compared with those had not completed Year 12 or equivalent or who had never attended school (1.3% per year), after controlling for age, sex and state/territory. In contrast, in remote areas, smoking prevalence did not change for those who had completed Year 12 or equivalent, and increased by 1.2% per year for those who had not completed Year 12 or had never attended school.

The estimated annual relative change among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples aged 18 years and over decreased significantly faster during the period 2008 to 2014–15 (a decrease of 2.1% per year) than during the period 1994 to 2004–05 (an increase of 0.7% per year), after controlling for all variables (age, sex, remoteness, state/territory and education). There was no such difference among the non-Indigenous population aged 18 years and over when comparing the periods 1995 to 2008 and 2011–12 to 2014–15; however, the second period only includes data from two surveys (2011–12 and 2014–15).


ESTIMATES OF AVERAGE ANNUAL ABSOLUTE CHANGE

Smoking prevalence for the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population aged 18 years and over was 31 percentage points higher than that for the non-Indigenous population (55% compared with 24%) in 1994/1995, and 29 percentage points higher in 2014–15 (45% compared with 16%). This section explores whether the average annual percentage point change for each population over this period was statistically significant.

The results showed there were significant average annual absolute decreases in smoking prevalence among both the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population and the non-Indigenous population aged 18 years and over between 1994/1995 and 2014–15; however, the decreases were not significantly different between the two populations and so the percentage point gap did not change over this period. The estimated annual absolute decrease in smoking prevalence for those aged 18 years and over was 0.3 percentage points per year for both the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population and the non-Indigenous population, after controlling for all variables (age, sex and remoteness).

Among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples aged 18 years and over, the estimated annual absolute decrease in smoking prevalence was 0.6 percentage points per year for those in non-remote areas, compared with no significant change for those in remote areas, after controlling for age and sex only.

The estimated average annual absolute change among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples aged 18 years and over during the period 2008 to 2014–15 was no different to that for the period 1994 to 2004–05, after controlling for all variables (age, sex, and remoteness). Similarly, there was no significant difference among the non-Indigenous population aged 18 years and over when comparing the periods 1995 to 2008 and 2011–12 to 2014–15 (decrease of 0.2 percentage points per year for each period). However, as noted earlier in the results for relative change, the second period only includes data from two surveys.