Australian Bureau of Statistics

Rate the ABS website
ABS Home > Statistics > By Catalogue Number
1301.0 - Year Book Australia, 2012  
Latest ISSUE Released at 11:30 AM (CANBERRA TIME) 24/05/2012   
   Page tools: Print Print Page RSS Feed RSS Bookmark and Share Search this Product

Int Relations

WHERE WE GIVE AID

In 2011–12, Australian aid reached a total of 113 countries. As figure 3 shows, our near neighbours in the Pacific and East Asia receive the highest levels of Australian assistance. Our region has high numbers of poor people and is where Australia can make the most difference. Australia is the largest bilateral donor to the Pacific, and a major donor in East Asia. Australia also contributes to efforts in South and West Asia, Africa, the Middle East, Latin America and the Caribbean.

Information on our biggest and most important programs is presented below, with some summary information provided on all our programs. Key statistics are presented for most countries and are described in terms of the official development assistance (ODA) budget, population and 2011 Human Development Index (HDI) ranking (tables 5.4 to 5.8).

The HDI is a comparative measure of life expectancy, literacy, education, and standard of living for 187 countries worldwide. A high HDI ranking for a country indicates that human development in that country is poor.

Further information is available at Australian Aid.


5.3   GEOGRAPHICAL ALLOCATION OF AUSTRALIA’S AID—2011–12

THE PACIFIC

The Pacific region, including Papua New Guinea (PNG), is vast, with great diversity amongst its countries, but with many common challenges such as geographic isolation, small populations and markets that limit economies of scale. The region is also vulnerable to climate change and natural disasters. The economic and social performance of the region has been mixed. There have been some successes, but many nations struggle to deliver essential services to their populations, and the region remains home to five of the world’s least developed countries. Australia’s aid programs with Papua New Guinea and the Solomon Islands are our second and third largest respectively. Australia is the leading donor to the region as a whole.

Papua New Guinea

PNG faces serious challenges in delivering services to its fast-growing population, and is unlikely to meet any of the MDGs by 2015. It has some of the worst health and education outcomes in the region, driven by high levels of poverty and a largely rural and often remote population. In 2011, Australia repositioned the program in PNG to focus more strongly on education (including higher education), health (including HIV/AIDS), law and justice and transport infrastructure.

Key statistics
  • 2011–12 ODA Budget: $482.3m
  • Population: 6.9 million
  • HDI rank: 153 of 187.

Priority areas
  • Education
  • Health
  • Law and justice
  • Transport infrastructure.

Some program highlights:
  • In 2010, Australia funded the supply of 539,000 new textbooks for more than 3,400 primary schools and eight teacher training colleges, and our support allowed school fees to be abolished for the first three grades of school, supporting the PNG Government’s aim to abolish all school fees by 2015.
  • Australian support meant that thousands of people in PNG were able to access treatment for HIV. In 2010, the number of HIV testing sites increased to 266 with 134,798 people tested compared to only 32,645 people accessing testing services in 2006.
  • In Bougainville, Australian support contributed to an estimated reduction in maternal deaths from 235 per 100,000 in 2005 to 123 per 100,000 in 2009.
  • We are helping provide better access to justice, especially for women, at the village level. In 2004, there were about 10 female village court magistrates in PNG. At the end of 2011, there were over 700, with another 200 in the process of being appointed.
  • Australia has helped maintain 2,153 kilometres of national roads, and achieve safety certification for 16 airports.

Solomon Islands

In Solomon Islands, more than half a million people live on around 90 dispersed islands, and more than 70 languages are spoken across the country. Challenges lie in communication, transport and delivery of efficient health and education services. In the late 1990s, Solomon Islands experienced civil unrest and instability, leading to a breakdown in the delivery of basic services, including law and order. The Regional Assistance Mission to the Solomon Islands (RAMSI) was launched by Pacific island countries (including Australia and New Zealand) in response to a request for assistance from Solomon Islands’ government.

Key statistics
  • 2011–12 ODA Budget: $261.6m
  • Population: 515,817
  • HDI rank: 142 of 187.

Priority areas
  • Health
  • Education and scholarships
  • Economic growth
  • Equitable development
  • Governance.

Some program highlights:
  • Australian funding improved access to clean water and sanitation facilities for 14,000 people in 2010 and 15,500 people in 2011 in communities across Solomon Islands.
  • In 2010–11, Australia supported a Solomon Islands Government initiative to remove school fees. This has helped more than 140,000 young Solomon Islanders get an education, including the poorest students who otherwise would have missed out on attending school.
  • Australian support helped maintain 270 km of roads, which enable access to services and markets for people in rural areas. There were economic benefits to local communities as well: the road works generated up to 50,000 workdays per year in rural areas, with 50% of this work going to local women.
  • With Australian support through RAMSI, revenue collection increased to over SBD1 billion in December 2010 – double that collected since 2007. The improved financial position enabled the government to maintain spending on essential services, such as health and education, across the country.

5.4 AUSTRALIA’S ASSISTANCE TO THE PACIFIC—2011–12
Country
2011–12 ODA
budget ($m)
Population (no.)
HDI rank
Priority areas

Papua New Guinea
482.3
6.9 million
153 of 187
Education, health, law and justice, transport infrastructure
Solomon Islands
261.6
515 817
142 of 187
Health, education and scholarships, economic growth, equitable development and governance
Vanuatu
70.1
245 786
125 of 187
Education and scholarships, health, economic growth, governance
Samoa
43.7
178 943
99 of 187
Economic growth, health, education and scholarships, governance, climate change and environmental sustainability
Fiji
37.5
854 098
100 of 187
Education and scholarships, health, equitable development, economic growth
Tonga
32.1
104 260
90 of 187
Governance, health, education and scholarships, economic growth
Kiribati
28.2
99 547
122 of 187
Education and scholarships, economic growth
Nauru
26.2
10 254
unranked
Governance, education and scholarships, health, economic growth
Tuvalu
9.9
9 970
unranked
Contribution to the Tuvalu Trust Fund, with a focus on improving health and education services
Cook Islands
4.4
19 933
unranked
Contributions to NZ aid program, focusing on education, infrastructure, private sector development and water and sanitation
Niue
4.6
1 438
unranked
Contribution to the Niue Trust Fund, support for the delivery of essential services
North Pacific
10.7
Multiple countries
varied
Minor, targeted interventions such as in the environment, public sector strengthening, and water and sanitation areas
Pacific Regional Programs
149.7
Multiple countries
varied
Education, climate change and environmental sustainability, economic growth, governance

Source: AusAID.


EAST ASIA

East Asia is home to over two billion people, and a spread of the world’s wealthiest and poorest countries. Since the 1960s, the region has seen greater economic growth and poverty reduction than any other region of the world, but this growth has also brought new development challenges such as pandemics and emerging infectious diseases, including HIV/AIDS; illicit drugs; and human trafficking. Australia’s biggest single development program is with Indonesia, the second most populated country in the region.

Indonesia

Indonesia is one of Australia’s closest neighbours and continues to face increasingly complex development challenges. Like other developing countries, Indonesia has had recent success achieving economic growth but is still afflicted by poverty. About 120 million Indonesians live on less than $US2 a day, meaning that any shock, like a natural disaster or an economic downturn, can be devastating. Australia is committed to helping Indonesia open up opportunities for the poor, ensure that all children receive a basic education, drive health care reform, promote good governance and establish key infrastructure.

Key statistics
  • 2011–12 ODA Budget: $558.1m
  • Population: 240 million
  • HDI rank: 124 of 187.

Priority areas
  • Education and scholarships
  • Economic growth
  • Health
  • Humanitarian, emergency and refugee aid
  • Civil society, justice and democracy
  • Economic and public sector reform
  • Climate change and environmental sustainability.

Some program highlights:
  • Between 2005 and 2010, Australia helped build more than 2,074 junior secondary schools (years 7–9), creating around 330,000 new school places.
  • We have trained more than 5,000 health workers and managers to support childbirth.
  • Between June 2010 and June 2011, Australia connected more than 410,000 people in urban areas to water and/or sanitation services.
  • In 2009, Australian-funded activities reached almost 35,000 injecting drug users and over 70,000 prisoners, providing information regarding HIV prevention, counselling and referrals.
  • More than 21,800 Supreme Court decisions are online, providing greater transparency in the court system.
  • In 2010, Australia assisted communities in West Sumatra to rebuild more earthquake resilient buildings following the 2009 earthquake.

5.5 AUSTRALIA’S ASSISTANCE TO EAST ASIA—2011–12
Country
2011–12 ODA
budget ($m)
Population (no.)
HDI rank
Priority areas

Indonesia
558.1
240 million
124 of 187
Education and scholarships; economic growth; health; humanitarian, emergency and refugee aid; civil society, justice and democracy; economic and public sector reform; climate change and environmental sustainability
Vietnam
137.9
89 million
128 of 187
Education and scholarships, economic growth, climate change and environmental sustainability
Philippines
123.1
93.6 million
112 of 187
Education and scholarships; governance; humanitarian, emergency and refugee aid; climate change and environmental sustainability
East Timor
123.7
1.2 million
147 of 187
Education and scholarships, health, economic growth, governance
Cambodia
77.4
15.1 million
139 of 187
Education and scholarships; health; economic growth; governance; humanitarian, emergency and refugee aid
Burma
47.6
50.5 million
149 of 187
Health, education and scholarships, economic growth
Lao People’s Democratic Republic
42.1
6.4 million
138 of 187
Education and scholarships, economic growth, governance
China
35.7
1.4 billion
101 of 187
Equitable development, health, climate change and environmental sustainability
Mongolia
12.2
2.7 million
110 of 187
Education, water and sanitation
East Asia Regional Programs
108.0
Multiple countries
varied
Economic growth; humanitarian, emergency and refugee aid; health; climate change and environmental sustainability

Source: AusAID.


SOUTH AND WEST ASIA

South and West Asia is home to around one-fifth of the world’s people and has the largest concentration of poor people in the world, the highest rate of child malnutrition, and the lowest income per capita. The region is also highly vulnerable to the adverse impacts of climate change, threatening water and food security, and increasing the risk of natural disasters and displacement of vulnerable people. Australia’s program in Afghanistan is our biggest in the region, and our fourth biggest country program overall. It is an important part of Australia’s broader efforts towards fostering stability in the country.

Afghanistan

Afghanistan is one of the world’s least developed countries. Uruzgan province, where our development efforts are focused, has some of the worst development indicators in the country. Only 8% of men and 1% of women are literate. About 37% of children die before they reach the age of five.

Australia's mission in Afghanistan combines military action, development and political effort. Our development objectives are to:
  • strengthen the ability of the Afghan Government to deliver basic services, and to help the provincial administration in Uruzgan assume responsibility for civil roles and
  • help train the Afghan National Police to help with civil policing in Uruzgan.

Key statistics
  • 2011–12 ODA Budget: $165.1m
  • Population: 29.1m
  • HDI rank: 172 of 187.

Priority areas
  • Basic service delivery (health and education)
  • Rural livelihoods
  • Governance
  • Support for vulnerable populations.

Some program highlights:
  • Supporting, through the Afghanistan Reconstruction Trust Fund, the delivery of major national health, education and rural development programs that have:
      • increased school enrolments from around one million children in 2001 to over seven million, including over 2.5 million girls
      • increased access to basic health care services from less than 10% of the population under the Taliban to around 85%
      • improved over 10,000 km of rural roads, supporting the employment of hundreds of thousands of local workers.
  • Training 60 Afghan master teacher trainers in Malaysia, who in turn have so far trained 168 teacher trainers in Afghanistan.
  • In Uruzgan province, where around 20% of Australian assistance is delivered, some examples of what Australia has achieved are:
      • providing basic health and hygiene education to 1,780 primary school students, 34% of whom are girls
      • enabling community de-mining and mine risk education, through the training of over 100 local people in mine safety and the clearing of more than 244,000 square metres of contaminated land and
      • contributing to the distribution of 4,703 metric tonnes of food.

5.6 AUSTRALIA’S ASSISTANCE TO SOUTH AND WEST ASIA—2011–12
Country
2011–12 ODA
budget ($m)
Population (no.)
HDI rank
Priority areas

Afghanistan
165.1
29.1m
172 of 187
Basic service delivery (health and education), rural livelihoods, governance, support for vulnerable populations
Pakistan
92.8
184.8 million
145 of 187
Education and scholarships; health; humanitarian, emergency and refugee aid; economic growth; governance
Bangladesh
92.0
164.4 million
146 of 187
Education and scholarships, health, economic growth, climate change and environmental sustainability, governance
Sri Lanka
43.5
20.4 million
97 of 187
Humanitarian, emergency and refugee aid; education and scholarships; economic growth; climate change and environmental sustainability; governance
Nepal
26.6
29.9 million
157 of 187
Health, education and scholarships
India
25.0
1.2 billion
134 of 187
Climate change and environmental sustainability, health
Bhutan
8.0
708 484
141 of 187
Education, justice and democracy
Maldives
5.0
313 920
109 of 187
Education, justice and democracy
Regional Programs
7.1
Multiple countries
varied
Economic growth, climate change and environmental sustainability, health

Source: AusAID.


AFRICA AND THE MIDDLE EAST

Africa is the world’s most impoverished continent, with African countries comprising 33 of the 48 least developed countries. Our assistance in Africa is focused on areas where Australia has expertise and experience, and is best able to make a difference. This includes helping African countries reach their MDGs in the areas of agriculture and food security, maternal and child health, water and sanitation, and natural resource management (particularly mining). Underpinning Australia’s assistance in these areas is a focus on helping build Africa’s own human resource capacity through a significantly expanded scholarships program, targeted technical assistance and the placement of Australian volunteers. In North Africa and the Middle East, our assistance focuses on activities that will help to reduce conflict, improve security and encourage regional stability. In 2011, Australia responded to the pro-democracy movements that occurred across the Middle East and North Africa (known as the Arab Spring) through humanitarian and development assistance to Libya, Egypt, Tunisia, Syria and Yemen.


5.7 AUSTRALIA’S ASSISTANCE TO AFRICA AND THE MIDDLE EAST—2011–12
Country
2011–12 ODA
budget ($m)
Population (no.)
HDI rank
Priority areas

Africa Regional Program
291.3
Multiple countries
Varied, but comprising many of the lowest-ranked countries
Health; economic growth; governance; humanitarian, emergency and refugee aid
Iraq
36.6
31.5 million
132 of 187
Governance; humanitarian, emergency and refugee aid
Palestinian Territories
56.0
4.4 million
114 of 187
Governance; humanitarian, emergency and refugee aid; economic growth
Arab Spring Countries
99.5
Multiple countries
varied
Food security and rural development, post-conflict stabilisation and recovery, humanitarian assistance

Source: AusAID.


LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN

Australia's aid program to Latin America and the Caribbean supports our commitment to address global poverty and accelerate progress towards achieving the MDGs. Despite healthy indicators for some countries in both regions, there are significant levels of poverty and income inequality in many countries. According to World Bank statistics, more than 17% of the population of Latin America lives on less than US$2 a day – that is almost 100 million people. In Haiti, one of the world's poorest countries, 77% of the population live on less than US$2 a day and 52% live on less than US$1 a day.


5.8 AUSTRALIA’S ASSISTANCE TO LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN—2011–12
Country
2011–12 ODA
budget ($m)
Population (no.)
HDI rank
Priority areas

Latin America Regional Program
27.2
Multiple countries
varied
Rural development, human resource development, natural resource governance
Caribbean Regional Program
20.7
Multiple countries
varied
Climate change and environmental sustainability, governance

Source: AusAID.

 

Previous Page | Next Page


Statistics contained in the Year Book are the most recent available at the time of preparation. In many cases, the ABS website and the websites of other organisations provide access to more recent data. Each Year Book table or graph and the bibliography at the end of each chapter provides hyperlinks to the most up to date data release where available.

Bookmark and Share. Opens in a new window

Commonwealth of Australia 2014

Unless otherwise noted, content on this website is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 2.5 Australia Licence together with any terms, conditions and exclusions as set out in the website Copyright notice. For permission to do anything beyond the scope of this licence and copyright terms contact us.