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1301.0 - Year Book Australia, 2012  
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Transport

TRANSPORT ACTIVITY

DOMESTIC AIRLINE ACTIVITY

The total hours flown and the number of aircraft departures by the major domestic and regional airlines are shown in graph 24.6. In 2010, there were 935,000 hours flown, while aircraft departures totalled 595,000, representing increases of 35% and 24% respectively since 2003.

24.6 Domestic airline activity, Major and regional airlines



In addition to domestic and regional scheduled services, activities undertaken by the general aviation industry include private and business flying, agriculture, charter, training and test and ferry flying (graph 24.7). Flying training, charter and aerial work together accounted for 74% of general aviation hours flown in 2009.

Graph 24.7 General aviation activity, Hours flown - 2009



ROAD TRANSPORT ACTIVITY

Motor vehicles travelled an estimated total distance of 226,632 million kilometres in the year ended 31 October 2010, at an average of 14,900 kilometres per vehicle (table 24.8). Business use accounted for an estimated 35% of aggregate distance travelled and private use accounted for 65%. Of total private use travel, 36% consisted of travel to and from work and 64% was for personal and other use.


24.8 BUSINESS AND PRIVATE VEHICLE USE—Year ended 31 October 2010
Business
Private
Type of vehicle
Laden
Unladen
Total(a)
To and from work
Personal and other use
Total

TOTAL DISTANCE TRAVELLED (mill. km)
Passenger vehicles
37 047
43 732
82 581
163 360
Motor cycles
*186
644
1 564
2 394
Light commercial vehicles
17 035
6 916
23 951
9 023
9 741
42 715
Rigid trucks
6 079
2 582
8 661
^195
^155
9 011
Articulated trucks
5 000
1 905
6 905
10
*2
6 917
Non-freight carrying trucks
205
**6
**—
210
Buses
1 899
22
104
2 024
Total
28 114
11 403
78 853
53 631
94 147
226 632

AVERAGE DISTANCE TRAVELLED(b) (‘000 km)
Passenger vehicles
9.9
6.8
7.8
13.9
Motor cycles
3.2
3.2
3.6
4.7
Light commercial vehicles
13.1
7.9
16.9
8.5
7.5
18.4
Rigid trucks
16.3
9.0
23.1
5.4
4.2
22.6
Articulated trucks
66.5
28.7
91.0
3.8
*2.2
90.8
Non-freight carrying trucks
10.7
**7.5
**0.5
11.0
Buses
30.4
5.1
10.4
29.1
Total
16.1
9.3
13.7
7.0
7.6
14.9

^ estimate has a relative standard error of 10% to less than 25% and should be used with caution
* estimate has a relative standard error of 25% to 50% and should be used with caution
** estimate has a relative standard error greater than 50% and is considered too unreliable for general use
— nil or rounded to zero (including null cells)
(a) Includes business travel of non-freight carrying vehicles.
(b) Average distance travelled for registered vehicles which were used.
Source: Survey of Motor Vehicle Use, Australia (9208.0).


The localities in which motor vehicles travelled are described in table 24.9. Only 5% of total distance travelled represented interstate trips, while 55% of distance travelled was within the capital city of the state or territory in which the vehicle was registered.


24.9 LOCATION OF VEHICLE OPERATION—Year ended 31 October 2010
Within state/territory of registration
Type of vehicle
Capital city
Provincial urban
Other areas of state/territory
Total
Interstate
Australia

TOTAL DISTANCE TRAVELLED (mill. km)
Passenger vehicles
95 619
30 787
31 400
157 806
55 555
163 360
Motor cycles
1 090
428
540
2 058
*335
2 394
Light commercial vehicles
19 726
8 324
12 501
40 572
2 143
42 715
Rigid trucks
4 989
1 342
2 334
8 665
346
9 011
Articulated trucks
1 365
558
3 097
5 020
1 896
6 917
Non-freight carrying trucks
109
37
58
204
**7
210
Buses
1 026
379
553
1 958
67
2 024
Total
123 924
41 854
50 483
216 283
10 349
226 632

AVERAGE DISTANCE TRAVELLED(a) (’000 km)
Passenger vehicles
10.8
7.7
9.0
13.5
6.1
13.9
Motor cycles
3.9
2.3
3.0
4.1
7.9
4.7
Light commercial vehicles
15.0
9.4
13.0
17.7
9.7
18.4
Rigid trucks
22.8
11.9
13.8
22.0
14.6
22.6
Articulated trucks
31.4
19.3
59.1
68.4
86.8
90.8
Non-freight carrying trucks
15.0
8.1
6.6
10.9
*10.1
11.0
Buses
26.7
16.2
19.6
28.4
16.2
29.1
Total
11.5
8.0
10.3
14.4
8.4
14.9

* estimate has a relative standard error of 25% to 50% and should be used with caution
** estimate has a relative standard error greater than 50% and is considered too unreliable for general use
(a) Average distance travelled for registered vehicles which were used.
Source: Survey of Motor Vehicle Use, Australia (9208.0).


Registered motor vehicles in Australia consumed an estimated 31,186 million litres of fuel in the 12 months ended 31 October 2010 (table 24.10). Of the total fuel consumed by motor vehicles in this period, 58% was petrol and 36% was diesel.

Passenger vehicles used 15,497 million litres of petrol in the 12 months to 31 October 2010. This was 84% of all fuel used by passenger vehicles. Only 8% of passenger vehicle fuel used was diesel.

A total of 6,334 million litres of diesel was used by articulated and rigid trucks. This was 57% of all diesel used. Light commercial vehicles used 2,665 million litres, which was 24% of all diesel.

The average rate of fuel consumption for all motor vehicles in the 12 months ended 31 October 2010 was 13.8 litres per 100 kilometres. Articulated trucks had the highest average fuel consumption with 56.2 litres per 100 kilometres, followed by buses with 29.5 litres per 100 kilometres and non-freight carrying trucks with 29.0 litres per 100 kilometres. The average fuel consumption rate for passenger vehicles was 11.3 litres per 100 kilometres.

In March 2003, the Federal Chamber of Automotive Industries (FCAI) adopted a voluntary target aimed at progressively improving fuel consumption for new petrol passenger vehicles to an average of 6.8 litres per 100 kilometres by 2010.

In mid 2005, to reflect the need to reduce carbon emissions, a new industry target was established to reduce average carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions for all new light vehicles (less than 3.5 tonnes gross mass) to 222 grams of CO2 per kilometre by 2010. This target incorporates a significant range of vehicles (cars, SUVs and light trucks, etc.) and all fuel types (petrol, diesel, LPG, etc.).

Over recent years, there has been a continuous improvement in average new vehicle emissions. From an estimated 252 grams of CO2 per kilometre in 2002, national average carbon emissions (NACE) for all new light vehicles sold in Australia for 2010 was 212.6 grams of CO2 per kilometre. This decline in carbon emissions of new vehicles was well below the voluntary target of 222 grams of CO2 per kilometre set five years earlier.


24.10 MOTOR VEHICLE FUEL CONSUMPTION—Year ended 31 October 2010
Type of vehicle
Type of fuel
Passenger vehicles
Motor cycles
Light commercial vehicles
Rigid trucks
Articulated trucks
Non-freight carrying trucks
Buses
Total

TOTAL FUEL CONSUMPTION (million litres)
Petrol
15 497
146
2 410
23
**—
*1
31
18 108
Diesel
1 550
**1
2 665
2 497
3 837
58
496
11 087
LPG/CNG/dual fuel/hybrid
1 384
471
*16
*47
**2
71
1 992
Total
18 431
147
5 546
2 519
3 884
61
598
31 186

AVERAGE RATE OF FUEL CONSUMPTION(a) (litres per 100 kilometres)
Petrol
11.1
6.1
13.6
21.3
**47.6
16.2
15.4
11.3
Diesel
11.4
**14.5
12.2
28.0
56.0
29.5
30.0
20.9
LPG/CNG/dual fuel/hybrid
13.6
15.1
*28.8
79.2
24.2
41.2
14.7
Total
11.3
6.1
13.0
28.0
56.2
29.0
29.5
13.8

* estimate has a relative standard error of 25% to 50% and should be used with caution
** estimate has a relative standard error greater than 50% and is considered too unreliable for general use
— nil or rounded to zero (including null cells)
(a) Calculated using the total fuel consumption divided by the total kilometres travelled.
Source: Survey of Motor Vehicle Use, Australia (9208.0).


Graph 24.11 shows the total fuel consumption of registered vehicles for the yearly collection periods of the ABS Survey of Motor Vehicle Use for 1999 to 2010.

Between 1999 and 2010, total consumption for all types of petrol rose from 16,026 million litres to 18,108 million litres, a rise of 13%. Over the same period, the consumption of diesel fuel rose from 6,285 million litres to 11,087 million litres, an increase of 76%, while the use of other fuel types fell by 10%, from 2,221 million litres in 1999 to 1,992 million litres in 2010.

24.11 Total fuel consumption(a), Type of fuel(b)



Table 24.12 shows the sales of petroleum products for Australia for the years 1990 to 2010. Sales of automotive gasoline (petrol) in 2010 totalled 18,668 million litres, an increase of 1,517 million litres or 8.8%, compared with total sales of 17,151 million litres in 1990.

Unleaded petrol was introduced into the Australian market at the start of 1986 to reduce the toxicity of emissions into the atmosphere from motor vehicle engines. The use of unleaded petrol allowed catalytic converters to be fitted to, and used by, the motor vehicles which were sold in Australia from 1986, as the lead in leaded petrol (used as an engine anti-knock agent and valve seat lubricant) contaminates the converter and prevents it from treating the engine's exhaust gases.

Leaded petrol was phased out in Australia as of the first of January 2002. It was replaced with the alternative lead replacement petrol (LRP), consisting of a high octane, 96 Research Octane Number (RON) premium unleaded petrol containing a non-lead additive that protected against valve-seat recession. In 2002, sales of LRP were 2,051 million litres. The number of cars that require LRP has gradually reduced to the point that it has become effectively not viable for fuel suppliers to produce, store and distribute the fuel, and for service stations to retail it. This has resulted in a very limited availability of LRP, as it is being progressively phased out of the market. Sales of this fuel were 100,000 litres in 2010.

In 2005, sales of premium unleaded petrol, which can have a RON of 95 to 98, depending on the particular product (compared with 91 for regular unleaded petrol) were 2,494 million litres, falling to 2,051 million litres in 2010.

Unleaded petrol sales accounted for 30% of total automotive gasoline sales in 1990. By 2010, unleaded petrol accounted for 100% of total automotive gasoline sales (standard unleaded 64%, premium unleaded 11%, proprietary brand fuel 10% and E10 fuel 15%). Federal Government legislation imposes a 10% limit on the amount of ethanol in automotive petrol.

In 2010, automotive diesel fuel sales volume was 19,287 million litres, a rise of 9,265 million litres (92%) compared with 10,022 million litres sold in 1990.


24.12 SALES OF PETROLEUM PRODUCTS
AUTOMOTIVE GASOLINE
Unleaded
Premium
unleaded
Proprietary
brand(a)
Leaded
or lead
replacement(b)
E10(c)
Total
Automotive
diesel fuel
million litres
million litres
million litres
million litres
million litres
million litres
million litres

1990
5 219.0
na
na
11 932.0
na
17 151.0
10 022.0
1991
6 022.0
na
na
10 858.0
na
16 880.0
9 783.9
1992
6 853.0
na
na
10 256.0
na
17 109.0
10 053.4
1993
7 857.0
na
na
9 569.0
na
17 426.0
10 538.1
1994
9 343.8
na
na
8 339.8
na
17 683.6
11 050.7
1995
10 297.5
na
na
7 451.5
na
17 749.0
11 453.5
1996
11 186.0
na
na
6 781.5
na
17 967.5
12 133.4
1997
11 982.2
na
na
5 914.5
na
17 896.7
12 574.1
1998
12 888.0
na
na
5 123.1
na
18 011.1
12 616.9
1999
14 028.7
na
na
4 374.6
na
18 403.3
13 207.1
2000
14 751.3
na
na
3 406.7
na
18 158.0
12 877.9
2001
15 795.6
na
na
2 636.1
na
18 431.7
13 274.3
2002
16 832.5
na
na
2 051.3
na
18 883.8
13 720.1
2003
18 198.9
na
na
1 406.4
na
19 605.3
14 258.8
2004
18 283.5
773.6
na
840.8
na
19 901.3
14 803.4
2005
15 885.4
2 493.6
585.6
154.7
12.1
19 131.4
15 387.3
2006
15 934.9
1 794.0
1 157.3
0.5
151.3
19 038.0
16 464.3
2007
15 623.7
1 843.7
1 406.7
0.1
495.2
19 369.5
17 550.7
2008
14 502.6
1 710.4
1 388.5
0.2
1 308.5
18 910.2
18 725.7
2009
13 350.5
1 778.9
1 657.3
0.2
1 972.4
18 759.2
18 686.6
2010
11 936.1
2 050.5
1 878.4
0.1
2 802.8
18 667.9
19 287.4

na not available
(a) Propriety brand gasoline is gasoline sold under a company brand name. Each major company typically adds proprietary additives to the basic gasoline recipe, in order to provide or enhance performance features. It is not possible to split proprietary brand fuel into unleaded and premium unleaded.
(b) Leaded petrol was phased out in Australia as at 1 January 2002 – it was replaced with alternative lead replacement petrol.
(c) E10 is a specific blend of unleaded petrol with up to 10% ethanol.
Source: Department of Resources, Energy and Tourism – Australian Petroleum Statistics.


TRANSPORT PASSENGER ACTIVITY

Personal travel occurs for many reasons, including school, business, recreation and travel to and from work. While road transport accounts for the majority of domestic passenger trips undertaken, rail services are used by a considerable number of urban commuters. Air services provide for a large proportion of long distance passenger travel.

Road passenger vehicle activity

In the year ended 31 October 2010, Australia’s 12.3 million registered passenger vehicles travelled an estimated 163.4 billion kilometres (table 24.13), each averaging 13,200 km. Australia’s 653,186 motor cycles travelled 2.4 billion km, while the fleet of 72,509 buses travelled 2.0 billion km.

24.13 MOTOR VEHICLE USE, By state/territory of registration—2010(a)
Passenger vehicles
Motor cycles
Buses

TOTAL DISTANCE TRAVELLED (mill. km)
New South Wales
49 696
681
603
Victoria
44 968
*406
403
Queensland
32 024
787
445
South Australia
10 517
132
137
Western Australia
18 567
269
271
Tasmania
3 427
*39
52
Northern Territory
1 186
*30
np
Australian Capital Territory
2 974
49
np
Australia
163 360
2 394
2 024

NUMBER OF VEHICLES(b)
New South Wales
3 695 202
173 305
19 789
Victoria
3 260 945
157 326
15 207
Queensland
2 439 291
151 212
16 898
South Australia
967 314
45 891
4 612
Western Australia
1 386 404
93 472
10 089
Tasmania
295 514
93 472
1 958
Northern Territory
83 414
14 116
np
Australian Capital Territory
213 177
5 922
np
Australia
12 341 262
653 186
72 509

* estimate has a relative standard error of 25% to 50% and should be used with caution
np not available for publication but included in totals where applicable, unless otherwise indicated
(a) Year ended 31 October 2010.
(b) The average number of vehicles registered for the twelve months. Includes registered vehicles that did not travel during the year.
Source: Survey of Motor Vehicle Use, Australia (9208.0).


Rail passenger activity

The passenger operations of rail operators are shown in table 24.14. The number of urban and non-urban rail journeys remained fairly steady between 2008–09 and 2009–10. Heavy rail accounted for 80% of urban rail passenger journeys in 2009–10.


24.14 RAIL PASSENGER OPERATIONS
Urban
Heavy rail
Tram and light rail
Total
Non-urban
Total
mill. journeys
mill. journeys
mill. journeys
mill. journeys
mill. journeys

2008–09
603
156
759
15
773
2009–10
602
153
755
15
770

Source: Australasian Railway Association Inc.


Domestic air passenger activity

At 31 December 2010, four major domestic airlines operated in Australia – Qantas, Virgin Blue, Jetstar and Tiger Airways. Regional airlines such as Regional Express Airlines (REX), Brindabella Airlines, Northwest Regional Airlines and others provided connecting services to regional airports. There were 188 security-regulated airports in Australia at the end of 2007.

Passenger departures were 7% higher in 2010, compared with 2009 (table 24.15). In both 2009 and 2010, domestic airlines accounted for 89% of total Australian domestic passenger departures, and regional airlines accounted for 11%.


24.15 DOMESTIC AIRLINE ACTIVITY
2009
2010

Passenger departures(a)
Domestic airlines
'000
44 357
47 285
Regional airlines
'000
5 490
6 056
Total
'000
49 848
53 341
Other activity (domestic airlines only)
Revenue passenger-kilometres(b)
mill.
54 079
57 623
Seat-kilometres available(c)
mill.
66 956
72 054
Percentage of vacant seat-kilometres
%
19.2
20.0

(a) The unit of measurement is traffic on board (which includes transit traffic). Includes revenue passengers only.
(b) The sum for all flights of the number of revenue passengers travelling on each flight stage multiplied by the distance between airports.
(c) The sum for all flights of the number of seats available on each flight stage multiplied by the distance between airports.
Source: Bureau of Infrastructure, Transport and Regional Economics.


The number of domestic passenger movements at the top 10 airports in Australia is shown in table 24.16. In 2010, all these airports recorded increases in passenger movements compared with 2009. The strongest growth, in percentage terms, was recorded by the Gold Coast (11%), followed by Melbourne (9%) and Sydney and Darwin (both 8%). The lowest growth was recorded by Hobart (0.4%).


24.16 DOMESTIC PASSENGER MOVEMENTS(a),Top 10 Australian airports
2009
2010
Airport
'000
'000

Sydney
22 637
24 478
Melbourne
19 945
21 728
Brisbane
14 716
15 462
Perth
6 842
7 321
Adelaide
6 383
6 779
Gold Coast
4 311
4 764
Cairns
3 242
3 398
Canberra
3 149
3 305
Hobart
1 875
1 882
Darwin
1 733
1 870

(a) The number of passengers on board arriving at or departing from each airport. Includes passengers in transit, who are counted as both arrivals and departures at airports through which they transit.
Source: Bureau of Infrastructure, Transport and Regional Economics.


International air passenger activity

Passengers arriving or departing Australia primarily travel by air.

Of total international passengers (26.8 million) carried to and from Australia in 2010, 5.5 million travelled between Australia and New Zealand and 4.0 million travelled between Australia and Singapore (table 24.17).


24.17 SCHEDULED INTERNATIONAL PASSENGER TRAFFIC TO AND FROM AUSTRALIA(a)—2010
Inbound
Outbound
Total
Country to/from
'000 passengers
'000 passengers
'000 passengers

Argentina
54.9
55.4
110.3
Brunei Darussalam
77.6
78.4
156.0
Canada
80.2
80.3
160.5
Chile
30.3
29.5
59.9
China (excludes SARs and Taiwan)
452.6
447.6
900.2
Cook Islands
2.6
2.7
5.2
Fiji
376.4
376.2
752.7
France
0.9
0.8
1.6
Germany
45.2
42.7
87.9
Guam
16.7
17.2
34.0
Hong Kong (SAR of China)
1 054.2
1 013.7
2 067.9
India
7.3
4.4
11.7
Indonesia
823.9
827.7
1 651.6
Japan
495.3
497.1
992.3
Kiribati
0.3
0.4
0.7
Korea, Republic of (South)
246.1
245.9
492.1
Malaysia
899.5
913.1
1 812.6
Mauritius
19.2
18.9
38.0
Nauru
1.8
1.8
3.6
New Caledonia
71.0
72.0
143.0
New Zealand
2 768.8
2 771.7
5 540.5
Papua New Guinea
131.7
132.6
264.3
Philippines
115.7
106.4
222.1
Qatar
64.4
59.2
123.5
Reunion
9.8
10.0
19.8
Singapore
2 013.3
2 017.1
4 030.4
Solomon Islands
24.8
25.5
50.4
South Africa
168.5
162.2
330.7
Taiwan
116.7
113.7
230.4
Thailand
692.6
676.1
1 368.8
Tonga
11.5
11.6
23.1
United Kingdom
304.2
298.8
603.0
United Arab Emirates
917.6
894.7
1 812.3
United States of America
1 104.4
1 126.9
2 231.2
Vanuatu
75.3
75.4
150.7
Vietnam
135.1
133.5
268.6
Samoa
20.1
20.3
40.4
Total
13 430.4
13 361.5
26 791.9

(a) Based on the movement of traffic between two airports where the airports are linked by the same flight number.
Source: Bureau of Infrastructure, Transport and Regional Economics.


Graph 24.18 shows the number of international passengers who travelled through each of Australia's international airports in 2010. Sydney's share of total international passenger traffic was 43%, followed by Melbourne (22%), Brisbane (16%) and Perth (12%).

24.18 International passengers, Australian international airports - 2010

 

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Statistics contained in the Year Book are the most recent available at the time of preparation. In many cases, the ABS website and the websites of other organisations provide access to more recent data. Each Year Book table or graph and the bibliography at the end of each chapter provides hyperlinks to the most up to date data release where available.


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