Australian Bureau of Statistics

Rate the ABS website
ABS Home > Statistics > By Catalogue Number
1301.0 - Year Book Australia, 2012  
Latest ISSUE Released at 11:30 AM (CANBERRA TIME) 24/05/2012   
   Page tools: Print Print Page RSS Feed RSS Bookmark and Share Search this Product

Tourism

TOURISM INDUSTRY

Tourism is not an industry in the conventional sense. In the Australian and New Zealand Standard Industrial Classification (ANZSIC), 2006 (1292.0), industries are defined on the basis of the primary goods and services that they produce. However, tourism is defined according to the status of the consumer, that is, the characteristics of the consumer determine whether the production is included within the scope of tourism. For example, expenditure on a restaurant meal by a visitor contributes to tourism's share of the economy, whereas expenditure by a local resident does not.

Although a considerable amount of tourism spending may take place within the usual environment (e.g. purchase of air tickets, tour packages, luggage), the consumption of most tourism services occurs outside of the usual environment. Visitors have a positive economic impact on their destination by generating additional consumption at the destination over and above that generated by resident consumers. This combined value of tourists’ consumption (relating to the trip) provides the basis for the economic activity generated by tourism.

Visitors can be classified into national (domestic) and international visitors. National visitors consist of Australian residents who travel outside their usual environment within Australia. They include both overnight visitors (staying one or more nights at a location) and same-day visitors. International visitors are those persons who travel to a country other than that in which they have their usual residence.

The contribution of an industry to the overall production of goods and services in an economy, gross domestic product (GDP), is measured by gross value added (GVA). Information on the relationship between industry GVA and GDP is provided in the INDUSTRY STRUCTURE AND PERFORMANCE chapter. A tourism satellite account (TSA) is recognised internationally as the best method for measuring the economic contribution of tourism. Tourism GVA and Tourism GDP are the major economic aggregates derived in the TSA.

The tourism industry share of total GVA in 2009–10 was 2.6% (table 23.1). This share has declined from a peak of 3.5% in 1998–99.


23.1 TOURISM SHARE OF GROSS VALUE ADDED AND GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT
2005–06
2006–07
2007–08
2008–09
2009–10

Tourism characteristic industries GVA(a)
Accommodation
$m
4 192
4 867
5 325
5 284
5 339
Ownership of dwellings
$m
1 830
1 935
2 239
2 485
2 705
Cafes, restaurants and takeaway food services
$m
3 104
3 216
3 446
3 337
3 461
Clubs, pubs, taverns and bars
$m
1 158
1 202
1 282
1 254
1 286
Rail transport
$m
378
473
460
452
458
Taxi transport
$m
268
400
390
385
379
Other road transport
$m
409
547
548
541
552
Air, water and other transport
$m
4 166
4 345
4 522
4 516
4 618
Motor vehicle hiring
$m
596
652
646
654
685
Travel agency and tour operator services
$m
1 447
1 446
1 508
1 445
1 429
Cultural services
$m
393
417
434
463
507
Casinos and other gambling services
$m
209
197
204
207
204
Other sports and recreation services
$m
463
469
489
521
572
Total
$m
18 613
20 165
21 493
21 544
22 196
Direct GVA of tourism connected industries(b)
$m
5 224
5 623
5 948
6 261
6 373
Direct GVA of all other industries(c)
$m
1 969
2 085
2 120
2 120
2 232
Direct Tourism GVA
$m
25 806
27 873
29 560
29 924
30 802
Tourism share of GVA
%
2.8
2.8
2.7
2.6
2.6
Tourism net taxes on products
$m
2 423
2 644
2 868
2 860
2 940
Direct Tourism GDP
$m
28 229
30 517
32 428
32 784
33 742
Tourism share of GDP
%
2.8
2.8
2.8
2.6
2.6

(a) Tourism characteristic industries in the Australian Tourism Satellite Account (TSA) include: (i) a core list of tourism characteristic industries as defined in the 2008 international standards for Tourism Satellite Accounts (which are based on their link to tourism in the worldwide context); and (ii) any other industries where at least 25% of their output is consumed by visitors (e.g. Casinos and other gambling services).
(b) Tourism connected industries are those industries not classified as characteristic that have products that are consumed by visitors in volumes that are significant (e.g. Education and training).
(c) The share of GVA of all industries that provide outputs to visitors not included in characteristic or connected industries.
Source: Australian National Accounts: Tourism Satellite Account (5249.0).


The tourism industry employed 500,200 people in 2009–10 (table 23.2). The number of tourism employed persons grew 5.2% between 2005–06 and 2009–10, slower than the growth in total employed persons (9.3%) over that period. Consequently, the tourism share of total employed persons fell slightly between 2005–06 and 2009–10.


23.2 TOURISM INDUSTRY EMPLOYMENT
2005–06
2006–07
2007–08
2008–09
2009–10

Tourism characteristic and connected industries(a)
'000
453.5
455.5
468.2
470.0
476.1
All other industries(b)
'000
21.8
22.6
23.2
23.6
24.1
Total tourism employed persons
'000
475.3
478.1
491.4
493.6
500.2
Total employed persons
'000
10 139.9
10 441.0
10 759.7
10 947.1
11 084.7
Tourism share of total employment
%
4.7
4.6
4.6
4.5
4.5

(a) Tourism characteristic and connected industries are those industries that have products which are consumed by visitors in volumes that are significant.
(b) The share of GVA of all industries that provide outputs to visitors but are not included in characteristic or connected industries.
Source: Australian National Accounts: Tourism Satellite Account (5249.0).


Tourism consumption is the amount paid by a visitor, or on behalf of a visitor, for and during his/her trip and stay at the destination. It also includes imputed consumption by resident and non-resident visitors on tourism-related products; for instance, the imputed values of non-market services provided directly to visitors such as public museums (even though these may be provided for free).

In 2009–10, tourism consumption was largest for Long distance passenger transportation (16% of consumption) and Takeaway and restaurant meals (15%), followed by Shopping (including gifts and souvenirs) with 14%, and Accommodation services (11%) (table 23.3).

However, there are some marked differences in consumption patterns by type of visitor. Long distance passenger transportation is the dominant tourism product consumed by domestic business/government (34%) and international visitors (19%). In contrast, domestic household visitor consumption is dominated by Takeaway and restaurant meals (17%) and expenditure on Shopping (including gifts and souvenirs) (16%).


23.3 SHARE OF TOURISM CONSUMPTION ON SELECTED TOURISM PRODUCTS, By type of visitor—200910

Households
Business/government
International
All visitors
%
%
%
%

Long distance passenger transportation
10.9
34.2
19.4
15.6
Takeaway and restaurant meals
16.9
15.1
10.6
15.2
Shopping (including gifts and souvenirs)
16.4
. .
12.2
13.5
Accommodation services
8.4
19.4
13.7
10.9
Fuel (petrol, diesel)
9.5
11.4
1.7
7.9
Food products
8.9
2.1
8.0
7.9
Alcoholic beverages and other beverages
4.7
3.5
4.7
4.6
Imputed and actual rent on dwellings
5.0
. .
3.1
3.9
Recreational, cultural and sporting services
5.1
. .
1.9
3.8
Education services
0.3
0.7
12.0
3.2
Travel agency and tour operator services
2.8
6.9
0.9
2.8
All other tourism products
11.1
6.7
11.8
10.7
Total
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

. . not applicable
Source: Australian National Accounts: Tourism Satellite Account (5249.0).


Total international visitor consumption decreased by 2.5% between 2008–09 and 2009–10, while total exports of goods and services fell by 11% over the same period (table 23.4). Growth in international visitor consumption was strongest during 2006–07. In 2009–10, international visitors consumed $22.7 billion worth of goods and services produced by the Australian economy, representing 8.9% of the total exports of goods and services.


23.4 EXPORTS OF TOURISM GOODS AND SERVICES
2005–06
2006–07
2007–08
2008–09
2009–10

International visitor consumption(a)
$m
19 749
21 199
22 377
23 275
22 686
Total exports(b)
$m
195 944
216 795
233 813
284 571
253 762
Tourism share of exports
%
10.1
9.9
9.6
8.2
8.9
Growth in international visitor consumption(c)
%
3.4
7.3
5.6
4.0
–2.5
Growth in total exports(c)
%
17.5
10.6
7.8
21.7
–10.8

(a) Australian National Accounts: Tourism Satellite Account (5249.0).
(b) Balance of Payments and International Investment Position, Australia (5302.0).
(c) There are some conceptual differences between 5249.0 and 5302.0. See the explanatory notes in 5249.0 for further details.
Source: Australian National Accounts: Tourism Satellite Account (5249.0); Balance of Payments and International Investment Position, Australia (5302.0).

 

Previous Page | Next Page


Statistics contained in the Year Book are the most recent available at the time of preparation. In many cases, the ABS website and the websites of other organisations provide access to more recent data. Each Year Book table or graph and the bibliography at the end of each chapter provides hyperlinks to the most up to date data release where available.


Bookmark and Share. Opens in a new window

Commonwealth of Australia 2014

Unless otherwise noted, content on this website is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 2.5 Australia Licence together with any terms, conditions and exclusions as set out in the website Copyright notice. For permission to do anything beyond the scope of this licence and copyright terms contact us.