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1301.0 - Year Book Australia, 2012  
Latest ISSUE Released at 11:30 AM (CANBERRA TIME) 24/05/2012   
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Population

INTERNATIONAL COMPARISONS

This section presents a range of data comparing Australia with other countries.

FERTILITY

According to the United Nations Population Division's World Population Prospects: The 2010 Revision, the world average total fertility rate for the period 2005–2010 is estimated at 2.52 babies per woman. However, total fertility rates for individual countries vary considerably. Many factors can influence a country's fertility rate, such as differences in social and economic development and the prevalence of contraceptive use. In general, less developed countries have higher fertility rates than more developed countries.

Over the last 30 years, fertility has declined in most countries. According to the United Nations, Indonesia displayed a large decline in the average total fertility rate – from 4.73 in the period 1975–1980 to 2.19 in the period 2005–2010 (graph 7.45). During the period 2005–2010, Hong Kong (SAR of China) is projected to have one of the lowest average total fertility rates (0.99) followed by Macau (SAR of China) (1.02). Several European countries also have low fertility, including Poland (1.32), Germany (1.36) and Italy (1.38). Although below the world average of 2.52, Australia's total fertility rate for 2010 of 1.89 babies per woman is comparable to other developed countries.

In contrast, many African countries have high fertility. Projections for the period 2005–2010 have Niger (7.19) among the highest. In South-East Asia, Timor-Leste (6.53) has one of the world's highest fertility rates, increasing from a total fertility rate in the period 1975–1980 of 4.31 babies per woman. For more information, see table 7.47.



Graph 7.45 Total fertility rates(a), Selected countries



LIFE EXPECTANCY

Australians have a life expectancy at birth which compares well with that of other developed nations. Life expectancy at birth of Australian males (79.5 years) for the 2008–2010 period, was similar to Japan and Switzerland. For the same period, life expectancy at birth of Australian females (84.0 years) was exceeded by Japan, Hong Kong (SAR of China), France and Switzerland.

In the 2008–2010 period, the combined Australian male and female life expectancy at birth was 81.7 years. This was higher than the level recorded by the United Nations for the period 2005–2010 for Canada (80.5 years), New Zealand (80.1 years), the United Kingdom (79.6 years) and the United States of America (78.0 years). For more information, see table 7.47.

INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION

The United Nations Population Division's World Population Prospects: The 2010 Revision presents international migration statistics averaged over five years to improve comparability between countries. As with Australia, countries such as Canada, the United States of America, the United Kingdom and New Zealand experienced high net international migration rates in 2005–10 (rates above 3.0 per 1,000 population). In numeric terms in the 2005–10 period for the selected countries (table 7.46), the gains from net international migration ranged from an average 13,000 persons per year for New Zealand to 991,000 persons for the United States of America. The losses ranged from 6,000 persons for Korea, Republic of (South) to 600,000 persons for India. Information on migration rates for more countries can be found in table 7.47.


7.46 NET INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION, Selected countries

2000–2005
2005–2010
Average
number(a)
Migration
rate(b)
Average
number(a)
Migration
rate(b)
Percentage change
2000–2005
to 2005–2010
'000
rate
'000
rate
%

Australia(c)
117
5.9
231
10.9
97.4
Canada
218
6.9
220
6.6
0.9
China (excludes SARs and Taiwan)
–460
–0.4
–377
–0.3
–18.0
India
–385
–0.4
–600
–0.5
55.8
Japan
10
0.1
54
0.4
440.0
Korea, Republic of (South)
–20
–0.4
–6
–0.1
–70.0
Malaysia
79
3.2
17
0.6
–78.5
New Zealand
27
6.8
13
3.1
–51.9
South Africa
140
3.0
140
2.9
0.0
United Kingdom
194
3.3
204
3.3
5.2
United States of America
1 239
4.3
991
3.3
–20.0

(a) The yearly average of each five year period (2000–2005 and 2005–10).
(b) Net overseas migration per 1,000 population.
(c) Data for Australia are calculated based on financial year data from the most recent official population counts by the ABS.
Source: Australian Demographic Statistics (3101.0); United Nations Population Division, World Population Prospects: The 2010 Revision, Medium variant.


7.47 INTERNATIONAL COMPARISONS(a), Selected countries and indicators
POPULATION
EXPECTATION OF LIFE AT BIRTH(b)
NET INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION
Number
Average annual growth rate 2005–2010
Density
Total fertility rate(c)
Males
Females
Persons
Number
Migration rate(d)
'000
%
persons per sq km
rate
years
years
years
'000
rate

Australia
22 300
1.80
2.9
1.89
79.5
84.0
81.7
231
10.9
Afghanistan
31 412
2.58
48.2
6.62
47.2
47.5
47.3
–76
–2.6
Canada
34 017
1.05
3.4
1.65
78.2
82.8
80.5
220
6.6
China (excludes SARs and Taiwan)
1 341 335
0.51
139.8
1.64
71.1
74.5
72.7
–377
–0.3
Fiji
861
0.91
47.1
2.75
66.1
71.9
68.8
–6
–6.8
France
62 787
0.58
113.8
1.97
77.5
84.3
81.0
100
1.6
Germany
82 302
–0.06
230.5
1.36
77.2
82.4
79.8
110
1.3
Hong Kong (SAR of China)
7 053
0.70
6 417.8
0.99
79.0
84.3
81.6
35
5.1
Iceland
320
1.52
3.1
2.10
79.5
83.1
81.3
2
6.8
India
1 224 614
1.43
372.5
2.73
62.8
65.7
64.2
–600
–0.5
Indonesia
239 871
1.08
125.9
2.19
66.3
69.4
67.9
–259
–1.1
Iraq
31 672
2.93
72.3
4.86
63.4
71.7
67.3
–30
–1.0
Italy
60 551
0.63
201.0
1.38
78.6
84.0
81.4
400
6.7
Japan
126 536
0.02
334.9
1.32
79.3
86.1
82.7
54
0.4
Korea, Republic of (South)
48 184
0.48
484.1
1.29
76.5
83.3
80.0
–6
–0.1
Lebanon
4 228
0.85
406.5
1.86
69.9
74.2
72.0
–3
–0.6
Macau (SAR of China)
544
2.43
20 909.8
1.02
77.7
82.6
80.0
10
19.8
Malaysia
28 401
1.69
86.1
2.72
71.2
75.7
73.4
17
0.6
Nepal
29 959
1.87
203.6
2.95
66.7
68.0
67.4
–20
–0.7
New Zealand
4 368
1.10
16.1
2.14
78.0
82.2
80.1
13
3.1
Niger
15 512
3.54
12.2
7.19
52.7
53.6
53.1
–6
–0.4
Papua New Guinea
6 858
2.36
14.8
4.10
59.5
63.7
61.5
na
na
Poland
38 277
0.06
118.4
1.32
71.2
79.9
75.5
11
0.3
Russian Federation
142 958
–0.12
8.4
1.44
61.6
74.0
67.7
227
1.6
Singapore
5 086
3.52
7 447.2
1.25
78.5
82.7
80.6
144
30.9
South Africa
50 133
0.96
41.1
2.55
50.1
52.1
51.2
140
2.9
Spain
46 077
1.20
91.1
1.41
77.2
83.8
80.5
450
10.1
Sudan
43 552
2.51
17.4
4.60
58.6
62.0
60.3
27
0.7
Sweden
9 380
0.76
20.8
1.90
78.8
82.9
80.9
53
5.8
Switzerland
7 664
0.66
185.6
1.46
79.3
84.1
81.8
37
4.8
Thailand
69 122
0.71
134.7
1.63
70.2
77.1
73.6
98
1.5
Timor-Leste
1 124
2.14
75.6
6.53
59.9
61.7
60.8
–10
–9.4
United Kingdom
62 036
0.60
255.4
1.83
77.4
81.7
79.6
204
3.3
United States of America
310 384
0.89
32.2
2.07
75.4
80.5
78.0
991
3.3
Vietnam
87 848
1.10
264.9
1.89
72.3
76.2
74.3
–86
–1.0
Yemen
24 053
3.05
45.6
5.48
62.5
65.4
63.9
–27
–1.2
World
6 895 889
1.16
50.6
2.52
65.7
70.1
67.9
. .
. .

. . not applicable
na not available
(a) Reference years: Australia: Population, 30 June 2010; Total fertility rate, 2010; Expectation of life at birth, 2008–2010; Net international migration 2005–2010. Selected countries: 2010 for population and 2005–2010 for the remaining indicators as published by the United Nations. See Source below.
(b) Expectation of life at age zero.
(c) Births per woman.
(d) Net overseas migration per 1,000 population.
Source: Australia data: Population, Australian Demographic Statistics, Australia (3101.0); Total fertility rates, Births, Australia (3301.0); Expectation of life at birth, Deaths, Australia (3302.0); International migration, Migration, Australia (3412.0). Selected countries data: United Nations Population Division, World Population Prospects: The 2010 Revision.

 

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Statistics contained in the Year Book are the most recent available at the time of preparation. In many cases, the ABS website and the websites of other organisations provide access to more recent data. Each Year Book table or graph and the bibliography at the end of each chapter provides hyperlinks to the most up to date data release where available.


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