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1301.0 - Year Book Australia, 2012  
Latest ISSUE Released at 11:30 AM (CANBERRA TIME) 24/05/2012   
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INTERNATIONAL COMPARISONS

Table 26.11 shows BERD to GDP ratios for member countries of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), while table 26.12 shows GERD to GDP ratios and table 26.13 shows HERD to GDP ratios. Users should note that, for tables 26.11 to 26.13, data for the final year of the series are unavailable for a number of countries at time of preparation. Once additional country data become available, the order of countries may change.


26.11 BUSINESS EXPENDITURE ON R&D to GDP RATIOS OF OECD COUNTRIES(a)(b)
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
%
%
%
%
%

Israel
3.43
3.50
3.88
3.78
3.42
Finland
2.46
2.48
2.51
2.76
2.83
Sweden
2.59
2.75
2.47
2.74
2.55
Japan
2.54
2.63
2.68
2.70
2.53
Korea, Republic of (South)
2.15
2.32
2.45
2.53
na
Switzerland
na
na
na
2.20
na
United States of America
1.80
1.86
1.92
2.02
na
Denmark
1.68
1.66
1.80
2.01
2.02
Austria
1.73
1.73
1.78
1.88
1.94
Germany
1.72
1.77
1.77
1.86
1.88
Iceland
1.43
1.59
1.46
1.44
na
France
1.30
1.32
1.31
1.32
1.37
Belgium
1.25
1.29
1.32
1.32
1.32
Australia(c)
1.04
1.16
1.27
1.38
1.30
Luxembourg
1.35
1.43
1.32
1.22
1.24
Slovenia
0.84
0.94
0.87
1.07
1.20
Ireland
0.82
0.83
0.85
0.94
1.17
United Kingdom
1.06
1.08
1.11
1.10
1.12
Canada
1.14
1.14
1.09
0.99
1.00
Czech Republic
0.89
1.01
0.95
0.91
0.92
Norway
0.82
0.82
0.85
0.86
0.91
Netherlands
1.01
1.01
0.96
0.88
0.86
Portugal
0.30
0.46
0.60
0.75
0.77
Spain
0.60
0.67
0.71
0.74
0.72
Hungary
0.41
0.48
0.49
0.52
0.66
Italy
0.55
0.55
0.61
0.65
0.65
Estonia
0.42
0.50
0.52
0.56
0.64
New Zealand
0.47
na
0.50
na
na
Turkey
0.20
0.21
0.30
0.32
0.34
Slovakia
0.25
0.21
0.18
0.20
0.20
Mexico
0.19
0.18
0.18
na
na
Poland
0.18
0.18
0.17
0.19
0.19
Greece
0.18
0.17
0.17
na
na
Chile
na
na
0.11
0.16
na
Total OECD
1.51
1.55
1.58
1.62
na

na not available
(a) BERD/GDP ratios for some countries are projected or estimated as per the OECD source table.
(b) Countries are ranked by the most recent available BERD/GDP ratio. Once additional 2009 data become available, the order of countries may change.
(c) Data are for 2005–06, 2006–07, 2007–08, 2008–09 and 2009–10.

Source: Except for Australia, the BERD/GDP ratios shown for OECD countries are sourced from Main Science and Technology Indicators, Vol. 2011/1, OECD. Ratios for Australia have been calculated using ABS values for BERD and GDP


26.12 GOVERNMENT EXPENDITURE ON R&D TO GDP RATIOS OF OECD COUNTRIES(a)(b)

2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
%
%
%
%
%

Iceland
na
0.65
0.61
0.48
0.47
Korea, Republic of (South)
0.32
0.33
0.35
0.37
na
Germany
0.34
0.35
0.35
0.35
na
New Zealand
na
0.30
na
0.33
na
France
0.37
0.37
0.35
0.32
0.33
Czech Republic
0.28
0.28
0.29
0.32
0.31
Finland
0.33
0.33
0.32
0.29
0.30
United States of America
0.31
0.31
0.30
0.29
0.29
Japan
0.30
0.28
0.28
0.27
na
Australia(c)
0.28
na
0.28
na
0.27
Spain
0.17
0.19
0.20
0.22
0.25
Luxembourg
0.18
0.19
0.20
0.21
0.25
Norway
0.25
0.24
0.24
0.25
0.24
Hungary
0.26
0.27
0.25
0.23
na
Netherlands
0.26
0.24
0.23
0.22
na
Poland
0.22
0.21
0.21
0.20
0.21
Canada
0.18
0.20
0.20
0.19
0.19
Sweden
0.11
0.18
0.17
0.17
0.17
Belgium
0.14
0.15
0.15
0.15
0.17
Italy
0.20
0.19
0.20
0.17
0.16
United Kingdom
0.18
0.18
0.18
0.16
0.16
Slovakia
0.16
0.15
0.16
0.16
0.15
Austria
0.12
0.13
0.13
0.14
na
Greece
0.11
0.12
0.12
0.12
na
Portugal
0.12
0.12
0.12
0.11
0.12
Mexico
0.10
0.10
0.10
0.10
na
Ireland
0.09
0.09
0.09
0.09
0.11
Denmark
0.17
0.16
0.16
0.08
0.09
Turkey
0.04
0.07
0.07
0.08
na
Switzerland
0.03
na
0.02
0.02
Total OECD
0.26
0.26
0.26
0.25
na

– nil or rounded to zero (including null cells)
na not available
(a) GOVERD/GDP ratios for some countries are projected or estimated as per the OECD source table.
(b) Countries are ranked by the most recent available GOVERD/GDP ratio. Once additional 2008 data become available, the order of countries may change.
(c) Data are for 2004–05, 2006–07 and 2008–09.

Source: Except for Australia, the GOVERD/GDP ratios shown for OECD countries are sourced from Main Science and Technology Indicators, Vol 2011/1, OECD. Ratios for Australia have been calculated using ABS values for GOVERD and GDP


26.13 HIGHER EDUCATION EXPENDITURE ON R&D TO GDP RATIOS OF OECD COUNTRIES(a)(b)

2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
%
%
%
%
%

Sweden
0.83
0.79
0.77
0.77
0.80
Denmark
0.61
0.61
0.64
0.68
0.71
Iceland
na
0.61
0.71
0.68
0.67
Finland
0.68
0.66
0.65
0.65
0.66
Canada
0.70
0.69
0.66
0.67
0.64
Switzerland
0.67
na
0.66
na
na
Austria
0.60
0.61
0.60
0.61
na
Netherlands
0.52
0.54
0.53
0.52
na
Australia
0.47
na
0.50
na
0.53
Norway
0.47
0.47
0.46
0.52
0.51
Portugal
0.28
0.29
0.33
0.36
0.51
United Kingdom
0.42
0.45
0.46
0.47
0.47
Japan
0.43
0.45
0.43
0.43
na
Germany
0.41
0.41
0.41
0.41
na
Belgium
0.40
0.41
0.40
0.40
0.41
France
0.40
0.40
0.40
0.40
0.40
New Zealand
na
0.38
na
0.36
na
Italy
0.36
0.33
0.34
0.36
0.39
Ireland
0.33
0.34
0.34
0.35
0.39
United States of America
0.37
0.36
0.35
0.35
0.36
Turkey
0.35
0.32
0.30
0.35
na
Korea, Republic of (South)
0.27
0.28
0.30
0.34
na
Spain
0.31
0.33
0.33
0.33
0.36
Greece
0.27
0.28
0.28
0.29
na
Czech Republic
0.18
0.23
0.25
0.26
0.25
Hungary
0.21
0.24
0.24
0.23
na
Poland
0.18
0.18
0.17
0.19
0.20
Slovakia
0.10
0.10
0.12
0.12
0.11
Mexico
0.12
0.12
0.10
0.10
na
Luxembourg
0.02
0.02
0.04
0.05
0.05
Total OECD
0.39
0.39
0.38
0.39
na

na not available
(a) HERD/GDP ratios for some countries are projected or estimated as per the OECD source table.
(b) Countries are ranked by the most recent available HERD/GDP ratio. Once additional 2008 data become available, the order of countries may change.

Source: Except for Australia, the HERD/GDP ratios shown for OECD countries are sourced from the Main Science and Technology Indicators, Vol 2011/1, OECD. Ratios for Australia have been calculated using ABS values for HERD and GDP.

 

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Statistics contained in the Year Book are the most recent available at the time of preparation. In many cases, the ABS website and the websites of other organisations provide access to more recent data. Each Year Book table or graph and the bibliography at the end of each chapter provides hyperlinks to the most up to date data release where available.

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