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1301.0 - Year Book Australia, 2012  
Latest ISSUE Released at 11:30 AM (CANBERRA TIME) 24/05/2012   
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Health

COMMUNICABLE DISEASES

Communicable diseases are capable of being transmitted from one person to another, or, in some cases, from one species to another. Through the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System (NNDSS), state and territory health authorities submit reports of 65 communicable disease notifications for compilation by the Department of Health and Ageing (DoHA).

There were 203,189 notifications to NNDSS in 2010, a decrease of 14% on the 236,696 notifications made in 2009 (table 11.17). The peak in notifications in 2009 was largely due to cases of influenza A (H1N1). In 2010, sexually transmittable infections (STI) were the most commonly reported communicable diseases, accounting for 43% of all notifications. This was followed by vaccine preventable diseases (VPD) (30%) and gastrointestinal diseases (16%).

Chlamydia was the most common STI with 74,305 notifications (86% of total STIs). Pertussis (whooping cough) was the most common VPD with 34,793 notifications (56% of total VPDs). Campylobacteriosis was the most common gastroenteritis, with 16,966 notifications (54% of total gastrointestinal diseases).


11.17 NOTIFICATIONS(a) OF COMMUNICABLE DISEASES, Australia—2009 and 2010

2009
2010

Bloodborne diseases
Hepatitis (NEC)
0
0
Hepatitis B (newly acquired)
241
229
Hepatitis B (unspecified)(b)
7 094
4 446
Hepatitis C (newly acquired)(c)
385
362
Hepatitis C (unspecified)(b)
11 089
7 286
Hepatitis D
35
35
Gastrointestinal diseases
Botulism
1
0
Campylobacteriosis
16 081
16 966
Cryptosporidiosis
4 626
1 480
Haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS)
13
8
Hepatitis A
563
263
Hepatitis E
33
38
Listeriosis
92
71
STEC, VTEC
130
81
Salmonellosis
9 586
11 993
Shigellosis
622
552
Typhoid Fever
116
96
Other bacterial infections
Legionellosis
302
298
Leprosy
4
11
Meningococcal disease (invasive)
259
230
Tuberculosis
1 324
1 327
Quarantinable diseases
Cholera
5
3
HPAIH
0
0
Plague
0
0
Rabies
0
0
Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS)
0
0
Smallpox
0
0
Viral haemorrhagic fever (NEC)
0
0
Yellow fever
0
0
Sexually transmissible infections
Chlamydial infection
62 632
74 305
Donovanosis
1
1
Gonococcal infection
7 963
9 971
Syphilis – congenital
3
3
Syphilis < 2 years
1 310
1 099
Syphilis > 2 years or unspecified duration
1 398
1 241
Vaccine preventable diseases
Diphtheria
0
0
Haemophilus influenzae type b
19
24
Influenza (laboratory confirmed)
59 090
13 419
Measles
104
70
Mumps
165
95
Pertussis
29 794
34 793
Pneumococcal disease (invasive)
1 557
1 644
Poliomyelitis
0
0
Rubella
27
44
Rubella Congenital
0
0
Tetanus
3
2
Varicella zoster (Chickenpox)+
1 753
1 743
Varicella zoster (Shingles)+
2 716
2 978
Varicella zoster (Unspecified)+
6 775
7 152
Vectorborne diseases
Arbovirus infection (NEC)
8
24
Barmah Forest virus infection
1 480
1 471
Chikungunya virus infection
28
54
Dengue virus infection
1 406
1 201
Japanese encephilitis virus infection
0
0
Kunjin virus infection
2
2
Malaria
508
399
Murray Valley encephalitis virus infection
4
0
Ross River virus infection
4 796
5 147
Zoonoses
Anthrax
0
1
Australian bat lyssavirus
0
0
Brucellosis
32
21
Leptospirosis
146
131
Lyssavirus (NEC)
0
0
Ornithosis
65
56
Q fever
310
323
Tularaemia
0
0

(a) Diseases reported to NNDSS from all jurisdictions except campylobacteriosis and varicella, which are not notifiable in New South Wales.
(b) Notifications of hepatitis B (unspecified) and hepatitis C (unspecified) from New South Wales for 2010 have been excluded due to data quality issues.
(c) Notifications of incident hepatitis C are reported as hepatitis C (unspecified) in Queensland.

Source: Department of Health and Ageing, Nationally Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System, extracted on 27 June 2011.


HIV and AIDS

In collaboration with jurisdictional health authorities and the Australian Government, surveillance for Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is conducted by the Kirby Institute for Infection and Immunity in Society (formerly the National Centre in HIV Epidemiology and Clinical Research). The Kirby Institute is directly affiliated with the Faculty of Medicine at the University of New South Wales, and receives funding through the Australian Government Department of Health and Ageing (DoHA).

At 31 December 2010, 30,486 cases of HIV infection had been diagnosed in Australia, and an estimated 21,391 people were living with a diagnosed HIV infection. The number of new HIV diagnoses in Australia in 2010 was 1,043. The annual number of new HIV diagnoses has remained relatively stable at around 1,000 since 2006 (table 11.18).


11.18 NEWLY DIAGNOSED HIV CASES(a)(b)—2006–2010

2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
Total(c)

HIV cases(a)
1 009
1 051
1 012
1 062
1 043
30 486

(a) Not adjusted for multiple reporting. Cumulative to 31 December 2010.
(b) The number of HIV/AIDS diagnoses for each year may be revised over time due to late reports, updated information on exposure and testing history for reported cases, and removal of previously unrecognised duplicate diagnoses.
(c) Includes all cases reported prior to 2006.

Source:
The Kirby Institute. HIV, viral hepatitis and sexually transmissible infections in Australia Annual Surveillance Report 2011.


Transmission of HIV in Australia continues to be mainly through sexual contact between men (67% in 2010), with the rate of exposure through heterosexual contact being 28% in 2010 (table 11.19).


11.19 CHARACTERISTICS OF CASES OF NEWLY DIAGNOSED HIV INFECTION, By year of diagnoses(a), Number and distribution of cases

Units
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
Total(b)

Total cases
no.
913
965
1 009
1 051
1 012
1 062
1 043
30 486
Males
%
86.0
90.2
85.2
86.8
86.0
86.3
85.5
90.9
State or territory
New South Wales
%
45.3
42.2
39.0
39.6
36.3
35.7
33.7
52.9
Victoria
%
23.5
26.6
28.3
27.1
28.2
27.3
26.8
22.3
Queensland
%
17.1
17.6
16.4
18.7
19.8
19.7
23.2
12.6
South Australia
%
5.9
5.3
6.0
5.3
4.6
5.0
3.9
5.2
Western Australia
%
5.5
6.6
7.8
7.3
8.1
8.4
9.7
7.5
Tasmania
%
1.0
0.6
0.7
0.7
1.3
1.3
1.0
0.8
Northern Territory
%
0.9
0.3
1.1
0.6
1.1
1.5
0.6
0.9
Australian Capital Territory
%
0.8
0.7
0.6
0.9
0.7
1.1
1.2
0.9
Exposure category(c)
Male homosexual contact
%
67.4
72.1
67.5
68.2
65.7
64.6
67.0
74.1
Male homosexual contact and injecting drug use
%
4.1
4.5
3.9
2.8
3.3
3.5
2.3
4.2
Injecting drug use(d)
%
4.4
3.4
2.8
2.8
3.2
2.3
2.4
3.8
Heterosexual contact
%
23.8
19.3
25.2
25.1
27.0
28.4
27.7
14.5
Haemophilia/coagulation disorder
%
1.1
Receipt of blood/tissue
%
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.9
Mother with/at risk of HIV infection
%
0.1
0.6
0.6
0.9
0.6
1.1
0.6
0.4
Health care setting
%
0.2
Other/undetermined
%
7.4
9.2
6.8
6.5
4.4
5.7
7.4
14.7

— nil or rounded to zero (including null cells)
(a) The number of HIV/AIDS diagnoses for each year may be revised over time due to late reports, updated information on exposure and testing history for reported cases, and removal of previously unrecognised duplicate diagnoses.
(b) Includes all reported cases prior to 2004. Not adjusted for multiple reporting.
(c) The ‘Other/undetermined’ category was excluded from the calculation of the percentage of cases attributed to each HIV exposure category.
(d) Excludes males who also reported a history of homosexual/bisexual contact.

Source: The Kirby Institute. HIV, viral hepatitis and sexually transmissible infections in Australia Annual Surveillance Report 2011.


CHILDREN'S IMMUNISATION

Immunisation programs for children are recognised as an effective public health intervention and have been responsible for eradicating or minimising serious infectious diseases such as measles, diphtheria and polio in Australia.

The Australian Childhood Immunisation Register (ACIR), which commenced operation on 1 January 1996, aims to provide accurate and comprehensive information about immunisation coverage for all children under the age of seven. The ACIR is administered by Medicare Australia and is a key component of initiatives to improve the immunisation status of Australian children.

Immunisation coverage goals for Australia for the year 2000, recommended by the NHMRC, called for 90% or more coverage of children at two years of age, and near universal coverage of children at school-entry age, against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis (whooping cough), poliomyelitis, measles, mumps, rubella and Hib (Haemophilus influenza type b).

From 1 July 2010 to 30 June 2011, an estimated 91% of one-year olds, 93% of two-year olds and 89% of five-year olds were fully-immunised as recorded in ACIR.

 

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Statistics contained in the Year Book are the most recent available at the time of preparation. In many cases, the ABS website and the websites of other organisations provide access to more recent data. Each Year Book table or graph and the bibliography at the end of each chapter provides hyperlinks to the most up to date data release where available.


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