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1301.0 - Year Book Australia, 2012  
Latest ISSUE Released at 11:30 AM (CANBERRA TIME) 24/05/2012   
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Agriculture

AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION

This section includes detailed information on agricultural production in Australia.

The first part covers the gross value of agricultural commodities produced, while the second looks at the value of irrigated production.

The remainder of the section provides detailed data on individual agricultural commodities, including: the areas planted and yields for the major crops grown in Australia; livestock numbers and other information for the main livestock animals produced; and information on the production, value and trade in major livestock products.


GROSS VALUE OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES PRODUCED

The following estimates of gross value of agricultural commodities produced (GVACP) are presented in current prices, and therefore changes between years do not show the impact of changes in prices over time.

The contribution of agriculture to the Australian economy can be measured in a number of ways. The most direct measurement available is the gross value of agricultural production. For the year ending 30 June 2010, the gross value of agricultural production, in current prices, was $39.6 billion (table 16.10). On a commodity basis, cattle and calf slaughterings contributed most to the gross value of production ($7.3b), followed by wheat ($4.8b), milk ($3.4b), vegetables ($3.0b), fruit and nuts ($3.0b) and, sheep and lamb slaughterings ($2.6b).


16.10 GROSS VALUE OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES PRODUCED

2007–08
2008–09
2009–10
$m
$m
$m

Cereals for grain
Wheat
5 291.9
6 021.0
4 765.4
Oats
422.5
251.0
185.6
Barley
2 244.0
1 849.8
1 356.1
Sorghum
977.4
552.5
295.7
Rice
7.3
^34.5
89.9
Other
298.9
113.2
Cotton(a)
227.3
650.8
753.9
Fruit and nuts (excluding grapes)
2 757.5
2 871.0
2 950.3
Grapes
1 693.6
1 213.0
1 109.5
Hay(b)
2 817.9
1 619.8
1 614.8
Legumes for grain
Lupins
221.5
198.1
204.9
Other
424.8
520.1
Nursery production(c)
1 432.8
1 294.9
1 323.7
Oilseeds
Canola
658.6
1 011.4
839.8
Other
87.3
66.0
Sugar cane for crushing
861.0
1 020.8
1 381.7
Vegetables
3 362.7
3 012.3
3 023.2
All other crops(d)
842.1
^444.7
*666.3
Total crops
23 818.2
22 856.6
21 260.1
Livestock slaughterings and other disposals
Cattle and calves
7 353.3
7 451.7
7 267.7
Sheep and lambs(e)
2 167.9
2 492.2
2 627.0
Pigs
901.7
894.7
902.8
Poultry
1 636.6
1 861.5
1 784.7
Other livestock
44.2
51.6
76.6
Total livestock slaughterings and other disposals
12 103.6
12 751.7
12 658.7
Livestock products
Wool(f)
2 309.0
1 805.7
1 927.5
Whole milk
4 571.7
3 987.6
3 371.3
Eggs
467.6
446.9
427.5
Total livestock products
7 348.3
6 240.3
5 726.3
Total Agriculture
43 270.2
41 848.6
39 645.1

^ estimate has a relative standard error of 10% to less than 25% and should be used with caution
* estimate has a relative standard error of 25% to 50% and should be used with caution
(a) Includes value of cotton lint and cotton seed.
(b) Includes pastures, cereals and other crops cut for hay.
(c) Includes nurseries, cut flowers and cultivated turf.
(d) In 2009–10, component commodity items were not collected separately.
(e) Excludes value of wool on skins.
(f) Includes value of dead wool and wool on skins.

Source: Value of Agricultural Commodities Produced, Australia, 2009–10 (7503.0).


Table 16.11 shows the gross value of agricultural production by state and territory. The value in 200910 was highest for Victoria ($10.3b), followed by Queensland ($9.1b).


16.11 GROSS VALUE OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES PRODUCED, By state and territory—2009–10

NSW
Vic.
Qld
SA
WA
Tas.
NT
ACT
$m
$m
$m
$m
$m
$m
$m
$m

Cereals for grain
Wheat
1 154.7
648.2
301.1
839.3
1 815.3
6.8
*0.1
Oats
40.8
^57.2
^1.3
15.7
69.5
1.2
*–
Barley
^230.0
332.5
24.1
313.7
447.9
8.0
Sorghum
^123.7
171.9
Rice
88.9
**0.1
^0.9
Other
^43.3
^17.1
^25.2
^13.8
^13.2
^0.7
^–
Cotton(a)
452.8
301.1
Fruit and nuts (excluding grapes)
474.3
833.8
1 009.7
287.0
^217.1
83.4
45.0
Grapes
173.8
^378.9
^35.7
385.4
*112.5
^19.0
3.9
*0.3
Hay(b)
257.0
806.5
136.4
194.3
142.4
64.9
13.1
^0.1
Legumes for grain
Lupins
^31.1
^10.8
*0.1
15.2
147.6
*0.2
Other
173.1
^84.4
91.0
146.2
^24.9
0.5
Nursery production(c)
299.8
450.8
327.8
^63.2
^144.2
29.0
6.3
2.4
Oilseeds
Canola
122.8
^147.5
**0.5
108.6
459.4
1.0
Other
^41.6
**2.1
^15.6
**1.3
*5.3
0.1
Sugar cane for crushing
^65.4
1 316.2
Vegetables
375.2
727.4
868.8
480.1
316.1
233.1
22.4
*0.1
All other crops(d)
^30.6
**342.3
^128.3
^35.1
*14.4
114.5
1.1
*–
Total crops
4 179.0
4 839.4
4 755.7
2 898.9
3 929.8
562.4
91.8
3.0
Livestock slaughterings and other disposals
Cattle and calves
1 487.6
1 276.3
3 228.7
308.2
537.1
142.5
285.2
2.3
Sheep and lambs(e)
584.3
1 045.6
45.1
448.4
460.9
41.1
1.7
Pigs
214.8
166.7
230.9
np
np
np
Poultry
576.9
487.1
358.5
np
np
np
0.2
Other livestock
7.9
26.5
24.6
8.4
6.0
3.1
Total livestock slaughterings and other disposals
2 871.5
3 002.1
3 887.8
1 174.2
1 220.1
210.7
288.3
4.1
Livestock products
Wool(f)
641.1
435.1
87.2
284.0
415.4
64.6
0.1
Whole milk
522.4
1 961.9
296.2
209.6
148.6
232.6
Eggs
^145.3
108.7
110.3
12.3
38.8
8.7
3.4
Total livestock products
1 308.8
2 505.8
493.6
505.9
602.9
305.8
3.6
Total Agriculture
8 359.2
10 347.3
9 137.1
4 578.9
5 752.8
1 078.9
380.1
10.7

– nil or rounded to zero
^ estimate has a relative standard error of 10% to less than 25% and should be used with caution
* estimate has a relative standard error of 25% to 50% and should be used with caution
** estimate has a relative standard error greater than 50% and is considered too unreliable for general use
np not available for publication but included in totals where applicable, unless otherwise indicated
(a) Includes value of cotton lint and cotton seed.
(b) Includes pastures, cereals and other crops cut for hay.
(c) Includes nurseries, cut flowers and cultivated turf.
(d) In 2009–10, component commodity items were not collected separately.
(e) Excludes value of wool on skins.
(f) Includes value of dead wool and wool on skins.

Source: Value of Agricultural Commodities Produced, Australia, 2009–10 (7503.0).


GROSS VALUE OF IRRIGATED PRODUCTION

The following estimates of gross value of irrigated agricultural production (GVIAP) are presented in current prices, and therefore changes between years do not show the impact of changes in prices over time.

In 2009–10, irrigated agricultural land comprised less than 1% of all agricultural land in Australia. However, the gross value of production from irrigated land was $11.5 billion, which represented 29% of the total gross value of agricultural production in 2009–10 (table 16.12). The vegetable commodity group was the highest contributor to the total value of irrigated production, at $2,386 million, followed by fruit ($2,242m) and dairy production ($1,826m). These three commodities accounted for 56% of total GVIAP in 2008–09.

Information on use of agricultural water for irrigation can be found in Chapter 2 ENVIRONMENT.


16.12 GROSS VALUE OF IRRIGATED AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION AUSTRALIA(a)

Commodity groups
2004–05
2005–06
2006–07
2007–08
2008–09
2009–10
$m
$m
$m
$m
$m
$m

Cereals for grain and seed(b)
207.3
200.3
223.2
318.7
316.7
143.1
Total hay production(c)
221.9
240.0
295.4
247.6
170.0
191.8
Cereals for hay(d)
^17.3
na
na
na
^21.1
na
Pastures for hay(d)
204.6
na
na
na
148.8
na
Pastures for seed(d)
*44.5
na
na
na
^60.0
na
Cotton(e)
^908.1
869.8
485.8
208.1
620.3
664.3
Rice
100.6
273.7
^55.0
7.3
^34.5
89.9
Sugar cane(f)
459.9
496.9
583.1
451.6
537.1
750.4
Other broadacre crops
^72.2
65.7
52.6
52.2
86.9
115.9
Fruit and nuts(g)
1 948.8
2 137.2
2 913.2
2 291.9
2 389.6
2 242.3(h)
Grapes
1 361.9
1 251.5
1 040.5
1 597.2
1 200.4
1 069.5
Vegetables for human consumption and seed(i)
1 741.3
2 453.2
2 677.9
2 971.9
2 624.9
2 385.8
Nurseries, cut flowers and cultivated turf
651.0
1 165.9
1 187.4
1 171.8
982.8
1 036.5
Dairy production
1 802.5
1 877.7
1 697.1
2 288.8
2 273.8
1 825.6
Production from meat cattle
810.9
968.1
989.1
496.0
454.7
608.1
Production from sheep and other livestock(j)
239.4
257.2
287.3
208.2
201.1
^361.6
Total
10 570.3
12 257.2
12 487.6
12 311.3
11 952.7
11 484.6

na not available
^ estimate has a relative standard error of 10% to less than 25% and should be used with caution
* estimate has a relative standard error of 25% to 50% and should be used with caution
(a) Current prices.
(b) Excludes rice.
(c) Includes 'other crops for hay' in 2005–06, 2006–07 and 2007–08. However, in 2004–05 and 2008–09, 'other crops for hay' is included in Other broadacre crops.
(d) Data not collected as a separate data item in 2005–06, 2006–07 and 2007–08.
(e) Includes value of cotton seed.
(f) Includes sugar cane cut for crushing and plants.
(g) Includes fruit trees, nut trees, plantation and berry fruits; excludes grapes.
(h) Excludes nuts.
(i) In 2007–08, production information on Vegetables for Seed was not collected.
(j) Includes value of sheep and lambs slaughtered and value of wool. Includes value of domesticated buffalo and goats slaughtered. Excludes all cattle, pigs, poultry and eggs.

Source: Experimental Estimates of the Gross Value of Irrigated Agricultural Production, 2000–01 to 2009–10 (4610.0.55.008).


CROPS

In 2009–10, 26.0 million hectares were sown to crops, excluding land used for pastures and grasses. Western Australia cropped 8.6 million hectares while New South Wales and South Australia cropped 6.9 million hectares and 4.1 million hectares respectively (table 16.13). Wheat was Australia's biggest crop in terms of area used, with 13.9 million hectares planted, or over half the land area dedicated to cropping (table 16.14). In terms of production, sugar cane for crushing reaped the most plentiful yield, with 80.2 tonnes per hectare.


16.13 AREA PLANTED TO CROPS(a), By state and territory—Year ended 30 June

NSW
Vic.
Qld
SA
WA
Tas.
NT
ACT
Aust.

'000 ha
'000 ha
'000 ha
'000 ha
'000 ha
'000 ha
'000 ha
'000 ha
'000 ha
2008
6 816
3 655
2 183
4 257
7 396
52
*14
*1
24 374
2009
7 650
4 189
2 795
4 493
8 306
73
6
1
27 511
2010
6 940
3 989
2 321
4 080
8 564
66
7
^1
25 968

^ estimate has a relative standard error of 10% to less than 25% and should be used with caution
* estimate has a relative standard error of 25% to 50% and should be used with caution
(a) Excludes crops harvested for hay and seed, and pastures and grasses.

Source: Agricultural Commodities, Australia (7121.0).

16.14 CROP PRODUCTION—Year ended 30 June

Area

Production

unit
2008
2009
2010
unit
2008
2009
2010


VEGETABLES(a)

Carrots
(ha)
4 934
5 174
5 494
(t)
272 601
263 527
267 442
Mushrooms
(ha)
179
159
139
(t)
47 103
43 416
41 295
Onions(b)
(ha)
5 013
5 463
5 329
(t)
254 362
283 819
259 947
Potatoes(c)
(ha)
38 190
32 579
36 379
(t)
1 400 206
1 178 534
1 278 118
Tomatoes(c)
(ha)
6 796
6 789
7 734
(t)
381 824
440 093
471 883


CROPS FOR GRAIN

Barley
('000 ha)
4 902
5 015
4 422
('000 t)
7 160
7 997
7 865
Grain sorghum
('000 ha)
942
767
498
('000 t)
3 790
2 692
1 508
Oats
('000 ha)
1 238
870
850
('000 t)
1 502
1 160
1 162
Rice
('000 ha)
2
^7
19
('000 t)
18
^61
197
Wheat
('000 ha)
12 578
13 530
13 881
('000 t)
13 569
21 420
21 834
Lupins
('000 ha)
752
577
692
('000 t)
662
708
823


OTHER CROPS

Canola
('000 ha)
1 277
1 693
1 695
('000 t)
1 214
1 844
1 907
Cotton lint
('000 ha)
69
159
196
('000 t)
119
309
352
Sugar cane cut for crushing
('000 ha)
381
391
389
('000 t)
32 621
31 457
31 235


CITRUS FRUITS

Mandarins
Trees ('000)
1 340
1 291
1 447
(t)
^94 364
90 316
91 002
Oranges
Trees ('000)
6 053
6 759
6 791
(t)
409 273
347 724
391 343


POME(d)

Apples
Trees ('000)
8 685
7 642
7 501
(t)
265 481
295 134
264 401
Pears(e)
Trees ('000)
1 729
1 643
1 427
(t)
130 492
120 376
95 111


OTHER FRUIT AND NUTS

Bananas(f)
Area (ha)
9 853
11 992
11 543
(t)
207 062
270 393
302 173
Strawberries(f)
Area (ha)
1 297
1 184
1 747
(t)
24 507
28 246
29 334
Macadamias
Trees ('000)
3 416
3 872
3 898
(t)
32 787
29 661
31 314
Mangoes
Trees ('000)
1 287
1 342
1 178
(t)
48 928
40 660
44 342
Peaches(c)
Trees ('000)
2 270
2 127
2 077
(t)
68 369
76 791
77 683

^ estimate has a relative standard error of 10% to less than 25% and should be used with caution
(a) Vegetable data for 2007–08 are sourced from a supplementary Vegetable Survey.
(b) Includes brown, red and white onions.
(c) Includes fresh market and processing.
(d) Apples and Pears data for 2007–08 are sourced from a supplementary Apples and Pears Survey.
(e) Includes Nashi pears.
(f) Area refers to area of bearing age.

Source: Agricultural Commodities Australia (7121.0).


In Australia, cereals are divided into autumn-winter-spring growing (winter cereals) and spring-summer-autumn growing (summer cereals). In temperate regions, winter cereals such as wheat, oats, barley and rye are often grown in rotation with pastures, such as subterranean clover, medics or lucerne, and with other winter crops such as canola, field peas and lupins. Rice, maize and sorghum are summer cereals, often grown in rotation with winter cereals in some areas.

Table 16.15 shows production and area planted for major broadacre crops by state.


16.15 BROADACRE CROPS, By state and territory—2009–10

NSW
Vic.
Qld
SA
WA
Tas.
Aust.(a)


BARLEY

Production ('000 t)
^1 236
1865
113
2 068
2 554
29
7 865
Area ('000 ha)
951
976
69
997
1 420
9
4 422

CANOLA

Production ('000 t)
281
^331
**1
260
1 031
2
1 907
Area ('000 ha)
298
^231
**3
181
981
1
1 695

COTTON LINT

Production ('000 t)
214
138
352
Area ('000 ha)
^109
88
196

GRAIN SORGHUM

Production ('000 t)
^581
926
1 508
Area ('000 ha)
164
333
1
498

LUPINS

Production ('000 t)
^84
^33
*–
74
631
*–
823
Area ('000 ha)
102
^36
*–
53
500
*–
692

OATS

Production ('000 t)
211
^300
^7
144
493
7
1 162
Area ('000 ha)
307
168
^12
96
263
4
850

RICE

Production ('000 t)
195
**–
^2
197
Area ('000 ha)
np
np
np
19

SUGAR CANE CUT FOR CRUSHING

Production ('000 t)
^1 905
29 330
31 235
Area ('000 ha)
^19
370
389

WHEAT

Production ('000 t)
5 350
2 995
1 346
4 001
8 114
27
21 834
Area ('000 ha)
3 983
1 801
962
2 122
5 006
7
13 881


np not available for publication but included in totals where applicable, unless otherwise indicated
^ estimate has a relative standard error of 10% to less than 25% and should be used with caution
* estimate has a relative standard error of 25% to 50% and should be used with caution
** estimate has a relative standard error greater than 50% and is considered too unreliable for general use
– nil or rounded to zero (including null cells)
(a) Includes all states and territories.

Source: Agricultural Commodities, Australia (7121.0).


Wheat

Wheat is produced in all states but primarily on the mainland in a narrow crescent known as the ‘wheat belt’. Inland of the Great Dividing Range, the wheat belt stretches in a curve from central Queensland through New South Wales, Victoria and southern South Australia. In Western Australia, the wheat belt continues around the south-west of the state and some way north, along the western edge of the continent.

Graph 16.16 shows wheat production in Australia from 1910 to 2010.

Graph 16.16   WHEAT PRODUCTION(a)—1910–2010



In 2009–10, farmers planted 13.9 million hectares to wheat and harvested 21.8 million tonnes. Western Australia planted and harvested the most wheat followed by New South Wales and South Australia (table 16.15 and graph 16.17).

New varieties of wheat have enabled it to be grown in more marginal areas. In particular, the development of dual purpose winter wheat varieties which, like oats, allow grazing of the plant up to a few months prior to harvest, have become very popular in some areas.

16.17 Wheat Production and area, by state–2009–10



Oats

Oats are traditionally grown in moist, temperate regions. However, improved varieties and management practices have enabled oats to be grown over a wider range of soil and climatic conditions. Oats have a high fodder feed value and, with the exception of dual purpose varieties of wheat, produce a greater bulk of growth than other winter cereals. They need less cultivation, and respond well to superphosphate and nitrogen. Oats have two main uses – as a grain crop and as a fodder crop. Fodder crops can be grazed in the initial stages of growth and then locked up for a period prior to harvesting for grain, or cut for hay, silage or chaff.

The majority of Australian oats harvested for grain are used domestically for stock feed purposes. A small proportion of high quality grain is used either domestically or exported for human consumption.

In 2009–10, farmers planted 850,000 hectares of oats and harvested 1.2 million tonnes. Western Australia produced the most oats (493,000 tonnes), followed by Victoria (300,000 tonnes) (table 16.15 and graph 16.18).

16.18 Oats Production and area, by state–2009–10



Barley

Barley has two main groups of varieties, 2-row and 6-row (the number of rows referring to the number of rows of seed on each stalk). The former is generally, but not exclusively, preferred for malting purposes. Barley is grown principally as a grain crop, although in some areas it is used as a fodder crop for grazing, with grain being subsequently harvested if conditions are suitable. It is often grown as a rotation crop with wheat, oats and pasture. As barley has a short growing period, it may provide quick grazing or timely fodder supplies when other sources are not available. Barley grain may be crushed to meal for stock feed or sold for malting.

In 2009–10, 7.9 million tonnes of barley were harvested from 4.4 million hectares (table 16.15 and graph 16.19). The largest areas planted were in Western Australia (1.4 million ha), followed by South Australia and Victoria (each with nearly 1.0 million ha). Production was highest in Western Australia with 2.6 million tonnes, followed by South Australia and Victoria, with 2.1 million tonnes and 1.9 million tonnes respectively.

16.19 Barley Production and area, by state—2009–10


Grain sorghum

Grain sorghum is used primarily as stock feed and is an important source for supplementing other coarse grains for this purpose.

Grain sorghum was only grown in significant quantities during 200910 in Queensland and New South Wales, with Queensland growing 926,000 tonnes on 333,000 hectares and New South Wales growing 581,000 tonnes on 164,000 ha (table 16.15).

Rice

Almost all of Australia's rice is grown in New South Wales, with production centred in the Murrumbidgee Irrigation Area. Rice production is largely dependent on supplies of irrigation water.

In 2009–10, rice plantings covered 19,000 hectares and produced 197,000 tonnes (table 16.15).

Canola

Canola is Australia's most commonly grown oilseed crop and is used for the production of oil and as a protein source in stock feed. Over the three years, 2007–08 to 2009–10, canola accounted for over 90% of the value of all oilseed production. Canola was first planted in Australia in 1980 but it was not until the late 1980s that high yielding blackleg-resistant varieties became available. By the early 1990s, production was becoming more widespread and canola was emerging as the main oilseed crop. From a production level of 70,000 tonnes in 1990–91, a record high of 2.8 million tonnes was achieved nine years later in 1999–2000. In 2009–10, farmers harvested 1.9 million tonnes, a slight increase on the previous year (table 16.14). Western Australia produced 54% of the total canola production for Australia (table 16.15 and graph 16.20).

16.20 Canola Production and area, by state–2009–10



Cotton

Cotton is grown mainly in inland areas of northern New South Wales and southern Queensland, primarily for its fibre (lint), and relies heavily on irrigation water to produce profitable yields. When the cotton is mature, seed cotton is taken to a gin where it is separated (ginned) into cotton lint and cotton seed. The lint is used for yarn while the cotton seed is further processed at an oil mill, where the short fibres (linters) remaining on the cotton seed after ginning are removed. These fibres are too short to make into cloth, but are used for wadding, upholstery and paper. The seeds are then separated into kernels and hulls. The hulls are used for stock feed and as fertiliser, while the kernels are crushed to extract oil. The oilcake residue (crushed kernels) is ground into meal and used as a stock feed.

In 2009–10, cotton lint production was estimated at 352,000 tonnes from 196,000 hectares harvested (table 16.14). New South Wales was the dominant growing state, with 61% of total production (214,000 tonnes) on 109,000 hectares (table 16.15). Queensland harvested 88,000 hectares and produced 138,000 tonnes of cotton lint.

Sugar cane

Sugar cane is grown commercially in Australia along the east coast over a distance of more than 2,000 kilometres from Maclean in northern New South Wales to Mossman in Queensland. In 2009–10, a total of 389,000 hectares of sugar cane was cut for crushing (table 16.14).

More than 90% (29.3 million tonnes) of the 31.2 million tonnes of sugar cane cut in 2009–10 was grown in Queensland from 370,000 hectares (table 16.15).

Vegetables

Australia produces an extremely wide variety of vegetables. Many vegetables, such as spring onions, mushrooms and fresh tomatoes are grown close to major capital cities, taking advantage of proximity to markets and low transport costs. However, the majority of vegetables are produced in the major irrigation areas of each state and territory, where access to land and water are the key drivers of investment.

In 2009–10, potatoes were by far the largest vegetable crop in terms of both area and production, covering 36,400 hectares and producing 1.3 million tonnes (table 16.14). South Australia, Tasmania and Victoria produced over 75% of the total potato crop. Tomato production ranked second, with Victoria and Queensland producing over 80% of the 472,000 tonnes grown nationally.

Fruit (excluding grapes)

A wide variety of fruit is grown in Australia, ranging from tropical fruit such as mangoes and bananas in the north to pome, stone and berry fruits in temperate regions. The most significant crops in terms of production weight in 2009–10 were oranges, bananas and apples (table 16.14).

Wine grapes

Grapes are a temperate crop optimally requiring rainfall during the winter period and warm to hot conditions for ripening. In addition, most grape producers in Australia use irrigation water to supplement rainfall. An absence of late spring frosts is essential to prevent the loss of developing fruit. Grapes are grown for winemaking, drying and table use. The better known grape producing areas are the Adelaide Hills, Barossa Valley, Clare Valley, Riverland, McLaren Vale and Coonawarra (all in South Australia); Sunraysia and the Yarra Valley (Victoria); the Hunter and Riverina (New South Wales); the Swan Valley and Margaret River (Western Australia); and the Tamar Valley and Coal River Valley (Tasmania).

In 2009–10, Australia's vineyards produced 1.5 million tonnes of wine grapes on 152,000 hectares of bearing vines. Table 16.21 shows information on wine grape production, including the area of vines and the quantity of grapes produced. South Australia produced 48% of the total grape harvest, with 731,000 tonnes, while New South Wales (443,000 tonnes) and Victoria (284,000 tonnes) also produced large quantities (table 16.22).


16.21 WINE GRAPE VARIETALS, Area, production and yield—2009–10

Area not yet bearing (planted or grafted)

Bearing area(a)
Before the 2009 harvest
After the 2009 harvest
Total area(b)
Area removed(c)
Production(d)
Yield(e)

ha
ha
ha
ha
ha
t
t/ha
Red wine grapes
92 431
1 554
825
94 809
3 847
845 305
9.1
White wine grapes
59 358
1 884
581
61 823
4 316
687 941
11.6
Total wine grapes
151 789
3 438
1 406
156 632
8 164
1 533 246
10.1

(a) Bearing area includes area of vines with no or minimal yields.
(b) Total area of grapes refers to the area of vines at harvest and includes bearing area and not yet bearing area.
(c) Area of varieties removed by grubbing, grafting off or abandoning to die, after the 2009 harvest but before the 2010 harvest.
(d) Production for winemaking or distillation (fresh weight).
(e) Yield represents the quantity of grapes produced per hectare of bearing vines.

Source: Vineyards Estimates, Australia, 2009–10 (1329.0.55.002).

16.22 WINE GRAPE VARIETALS: AREA, PRODUCTION AND YIELD, By state and territory—2009–10

NSW
Vic.
Qld
SA
WA
Tas.
ACT
Aust.


RED WINE GRAPES

Total area of grapes (ha)(a)
20 959
15 353
497
51 506
5 791
646
58
94 809
Production (t)(b)
192 151
139 476
869
482 262
26 675
3 547
324
845 305
Yield (t/ha)(c)
9.4
9.3
1.8
9.6
4.7
5.9
5.9
9.1


WHITE WINE GRAPES

Total area of grapes (ha)(a)
21 662
11 145
285
21 903
6 031
742
55
61 823
Production (t)(b)
250 457
144 579
582
248 366
39 792
3 841
324
687 941
Yield (t/ha)(c)
12.2
13.3
2.2
11.7
7.0
5.9
5.9
11.6


TOTAL WINE GRAPES

Total area of grapes (ha)(a)
42 621
26 498
782
73 409
11 822
1 388
113
156 632
Production (t)(b)
442 608
284 055
1 452
730 628
66 467
7 388
648
1 533 246
Yield (t/ha)(c)
10.8
11.0
1.9
10.2
5.9
5.9
5.9
10.1

(a) Total area of grapes refers to the area of vines at harvest and includes bearing area and not yet bearing area.
(b) Production for winemaking or distillation (fresh weight).
(c) Yield represents the quantity of grapes produced per hectare of bearing vines.

Source:
Vineyards Estimates, Australia, 2009–10 (1329.0.55.002).


LIVESTOCK

Cattle, sheep and pigs are the main livestock grown in Australia and have been present since the earliest days of European settlement.

Table 16.23 shows the number of cattle, sheep and lambs, and pigs in Australia as at 30 June, from 2008 to 2010.


16.23 LIVESTOCK, Australia—At 30 June

2008
2009
2010

CATTLE ('000)

Milk cattle
Cows in milk and dry
1 640
1 676
1 596
All other milk cattle(a)
897
936
947
Total
2 537
2 612
2 542
Meat cattle
Cows and heifers one year and over
13 472
12 903
12 945
All other meat cattle(b)
11 312
12 392
11 062
Total
24 784
25 294
24 008
Total cattle and calves(c)
27 321
27 907
26 550

SHEEP ('000)

Breeding ewes one year and over(d)
45 411
40 867
42 265
All other sheep(e)
31 526
31 873
25 820
Total
76 938
72 740
68 085

PIGS ('000)

Breeding sows
263
242
232
All other pigs(f)
2 149
2 060
2 058
Total
2 412
2 302
2 289

(a) Includes heifers 1 to 2 years, heifers over 2 years, and other dairy cattle (calves, bulls and bull calves).
(b) Includes bulls, steers and calves.
(c) Includes dairy and meat cattle for all purposes.
(d) Includes maiden ewes intended for breeding.
(e) Includes rams, marked lambs, wethers, hoggets and non-breeding ewes.
(f) Including boars, gilts, suckers, weaners, growers and finishers.

Source: Agricultural Commodities, Australia (7121.0).

16.24 LIVESTOCK, By state and territory—At 30 June 2010

NSW
Vic.
Qld
SA
WA
Tas.
NT
ACT

CATTLE ('000)

Milk cattle
Cows in milk and dry
203
1 028
88
87
^65
124
*–
All other milk cattle(a)
145
561
74
51
48
67
^–
*–
Total
348
1 589
162
139
^113
192
^–
*–
Meat cattle
Cows and heifers one year and over
2 796
1 016
5 953
489
1 214
217
1 256
5
All other meat cattle(b)
2 311
1 064
5 240
415
992
229
810
^2
Total
5 107
2 080
11 193
904
2 206
446
2 066
6
Total cattle and calves(c)
5 455
3 668
11 356
1 042
2 319
637
2 066
6
Proportion of total herd
Milk cattle (%)
6.4
43.3
1.4
13.3
^4.9
30.1
^–
*0.1
Meat cattle (%)
93.6
56.7
98.6
86.7
95.1
69.9
100.0
99.9

SHEEP ('000)

Breeding ewes one year and over(d)
15 349
8 808
^1 888
5 793
9 200
1 203
*–
^25
All other sheep(e)
9 018
5 569
^1 734
3 197
5 491
789
*–
^22
Total
24 366
14 378
^3 622
8 989
14 692
1 991
*–
^47

PIGS ('000)

Breeding sows
59
^54
52
42
23
1
^–
All other pigs(f)
^526
456
531
339
196
^10
^–
Total
^585
510
583
381
219
^11
^–

– nil or rounded to zero (including null cells)
^ estimate has a relative standard error of 10% to less than 25% and should be used with caution
* estimate has a relative standard error of 25% to 50% and should be used with caution
(a) Includes heifers 1 to 2 years, heifers over 2 years, and other dairy cattle (calves, bulls and bull calves).
(b) Includes bulls, steers and calves.
(c) Includes dairy and meat cattle for all purposes.
(d) Includes maiden ewes intended for breeding.
(e) Includes rams, marked lambs, wethers, hoggets and non-breeding ewes.
(f) Including boars, gilts, suckers, weaners, growers and finishers.

Source: Agricultural Commodities, Australia (7121.0).


Cattle

Cattle farming occurs in all states and territories. While dairy cattle are mainly found in southern and coastal districts, beef cattle are concentrated in Queensland and New South Wales.

Beef cattle production is often combined with cropping, dairying and sheep production. In the northern half of Australia, cattle properties and herd sizes are very large, pastures are generally unimproved, fodder crops are rare and beef is usually the only product. The industry is more intensive in the south, with higher stocking rates per hectare, improved pastures and use of fodder crops, rotational grazing practices and increased inputs such as fertiliser and animal health products. The beef cattle farming industry remained the largest sector in 2009–10, comprising nearly a third of businesses classified to the agriculture industry.

Cattle numbers in Australia increased to a peak of 32.7 million in 1976, after which seasonal conditions and profitability saw numbers drop dramatically. For the five years from 1984, the size of the herd remained relatively stable. Between 1989 and 1998, cattle numbers increased gradually, despite unfavourable weather conditions continuing in many parts of Australia. After a slight decline in 1999, cattle numbers increased to 27.9 million in 2002. Dry conditions over much of the country in 2002–03 saw cattle numbers fall but improved conditions in some regions in the following three years resulted in the national herd reaching a 30-year high of 28.4 million head in 2005–06. A return to drier weather has since seen numbers decline.

By 30 June 2010, the Australian cattle herd numbered 26.6 million head, consisting of 2.5 million milk cattle and 24.0 million meat cattle (table 16.23). Victoria had the most milk cattle (1.6 million) while Queensland grazed the most meat cattle (11.2 million) (table 16.24).

Graph 16.25 shows total cattle (milk and meat) numbers in Australia from 1890–2010.

16.25   CATTLE(a)—1890–2010



Sheep

Sheep and lamb numbers reached a peak of 180 million in Australia in 1970. Poor market prospects for wool after 1990 had a marked impact on the flock size, with numbers generally falling until 2003, when there were 99 million head. Following a slight recovery in 2004 and 2005, sheep and lamb numbers had fallen to 68 million head by 2010 – their lowest level since 1905.

In 2010, New South Wales carried the most stock with 24.4 million head, followed by Western Australia (14.7 million) and Victoria (14.4 million) (table 16.24).

Graph 16.26 shows total sheep and lamb numbers in Australia from 1890 to 2010.

16.26   SHEEP AND LAMBS(a)—1890–2010



Pigs

Pig farming is a highly intensive industry. The majority of pigs are grown in specially designed sheds that provide a controlled environment conducive to the efficient production of large numbers of animals.

In 2010, pigs numbered 2.3 million head, with New South Wales and Queensland the dominant states (585,000 head and 583,000 head respectively), followed by Victoria (510,000 head) (table 16.24).

Poultry

Poultry farming is also a highly intensive industry, with the majority of poultry raised in large sheds that provide the birds with a stable environment protected from the elements. The poultry farming industry consists of two streams – meat production and egg production. Both are major users of feed grains. Egg production has begun to move towards layer hens being housed in non-caged systems. In June 2010, poultry farmers were holding 71.3 million chickens for meat production and 11.7 million for egg production (table 16.27).


16.27 CHICKENS, Australia—At 30 June

2008
2009
2010
'000
'000
'000

For meat production
73 869
82 805
71 290
For egg production
14 760
12 604
11 734

Source: Agricultural Commodities, Australia (7121.0).


At the end of 2009–10, New South Wales had the highest number of chickens for both meat production and egg production (table 16.28).


16.28 CHICKENS, By state and territory—At 30 June 2010

NSW
Vic.
Qld
SA
WA
Tas.
NT
ACT
'000
'000
'000
'000
'000
'000
'000
'000

For meat production
26 043
21 672
12 246
np
np
np
^–
For egg production
^3 532
3 199
3 250
^419
1 140
171
22


– nil or rounded to zero (including null cells)
np not available for publication but included in totals where applicable, unless otherwise indicated
^ estimate has a relative standard error of 10% to less than 25% and should be used with caution

Source: Agricultural Commodities, Australia (7121.0).


LIVESTOCK PRODUCTS

Milk

Dairying is a major Australian agricultural industry. The estimated gross value of dairy production at farm-gate prices in 2009–10 was $3.4 billion (table 16.29), which was a 15% decrease on the previous year.

Most dairy production occurs in high rainfall coastal fringe areas where climate and natural resources allow production to be based on year-round pasture grazing. This enables efficient, low-cost milk production. With the exception of several inland river schemes, pasture growth generally depends on natural rainfall. Feedlot-based dairying is expanding, although, as at 30 June 2010, it was still uncommon.

Australian milk production decreased by 365 million litres (ML), or 3.9%, to 9.0 billion litres in 2009–10. This reflected benign conditions and strong milk prices in the domestically focused northern states, but also low milk prices and financial challenges in the export-focused south-east. The irrigated regions of southern New South Wales and northern Victoria also faced another year of difficult conditions in 200910, with low water allocations and milk production suffering accordingly.


16.29 WHOLE MILK INTAKE BY FACTORIES, Production, use and value

Milk sales
Milk used for other dairy
Total milk produced
Gross value
ML
ML
ML
$m

2007–08
2 188
7 035
9 223
4 571.7
2008–09
2 229
7 159
9 388
3 987.6
2009–10
2 269
6 754
9 023
3 371.3

Source: Value of Agricultural Commodities Produced, Australia (7503.0) and Dairy Farmers Australia.


Average annual per person milk consumption has stabilised at around 100 litres since the mid 1980s. According to data from Dairy Australia, during 2009–10, Australians consumed 102.4 litres of milk, 12.9 kilograms of cheese, 7.1 kilograms of yoghurt and 3.8 kilograms of butter/butter blends per person.

Meat production and slaughterings

Tables 16.30 and 16.31 show details of slaughterings and meat production from abattoirs, and from commercial poultry and other slaughtering establishments. The data relate only to slaughtering for human consumption and do not include animals condemned or those killed for boiling down.

Production of beef (excluding veal) in 2010–11 was virtually static at 2.1 million tonnes (table 16.31).

In 2010–11, lamb production decreased 21,000 tonnes (5%) to 391,000 tonnes while mutton production decreased 39,000 tonnes (24%) to 123,000 tonnes.

Significant changes have taken place in the pig meat producing industry in recent years. Capital investment and corporate takeovers have seen the emergence of a few large companies that produce a significant proportion of all pig meat sold in Australia. These moves, and the trend to more intensive and efficient production techniques, have seen pig meat production rise steadily since the mid 1970s, when production dipped to a low of 174,000 tonnes. There was an increase of 3% in pig meat production to 342,000 tonnes in 2010–11.


16.30 LIVESTOCK AND POULTRY SLAUGHTERED FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION

Cattle
Calves
Sheep
Lambs
Pigs
Chickens
'000
'000
'000
'000
'000
'000

2006–07
8 162
919
13 271
20 158
5 322
453 910
2007–08
7 833
846
11 158
20 529
5 171
458 064
2008–09
7 789
794
10 501
20 395
4 476
474 810
2009–10
7 461
903
7 333
19 478
4 561
465 677
2010–11
7 369
729
5 340
17 880
4 643
549 891

Source: Livestock Products, Australia (7215.0).

16.31 PRODUCTION OF MEAT

Beef
Veal
Mutton
Lamb
Pig
Total red meat
Chicken(a)
(t)
(t)
(t)
(t)
(t)
(t)
(t)

2006–07
2 195 714
30 578
270 988
412 584
381 866
3 291 730
811 591
2007–08
2 105 706
26 417
243 119
428 388
374 409
3 178 038
797 280
2008–09
2 098 615
26 489
219 820
415 867
321 005
3 081 798
832 456
2009–10
2 056 514
52 262
161 774
412 537
331 261
3 014 347
834 409
2010–11
2 089 233
44 133
123 245
391 340
342 101
2 990 052
1 014 978

(a) Excludes Northern Territory, Tasmania and the Australian Capital Territory.

Source: Livestock Products, Australia (7215.0).


Table 16.32 shows the gross value of livestock slaughterings over recent years. The 2009–10 value of total slaughterings and other disposals decreased by 1% to $12.7 billion. Poultry slaughterings decreased by 4% in 2009–10 to $1.8 billion, while cattle and calf slaughterings decreased by 2% to $7.3 billion.


16.32 GROSS VALUE OF LIVESTOCK SLAUGHTERINGS AND OTHER DISPOSALS

2007-08
2008-09
2009-10
$m
$m
$m

Cattle and calves
7 353.3
7 451.7
7 267.7
Sheep and lambs(a)
2 167.9
2 492.2
2 627.0
Pigs
901.7
894.7
902.8
Poultry
1 636.6
1 861.5
1 784.7
Other livestock
44.2
51.6
76.6
Total livestock slaughterings and other disposals
12 103.6
12 751.7
12 658.7

(a) Excludes value of wool on skins.

Source: Value of Agricultural Commodities Produced, Australia (7503.0).


Table 16.33 shows the volume of exports of fresh, chilled or frozen meat. In 2010–11, beef was again Australia's major meat export with shipments of bone-out beef being the major component at 921,400 tonnes, 4% more than the previous year. Exports of bone-in lamb increased by 3% in 2010–11 and exports of pork meat increased by 3%.


16.33 EXPORTS OF FRESH, CHILLED OR FROZEN MEAT(a)(b)

Beef bone-in(c)
Beef bone-out(c)
Veal bone-in
Veal bone-out
Mutton bone-in
Mutton bone-out
Lamb bone-in
Lamb bone-out
Pork
Bacon and ham(d)
Canned meat(e)
t
t
t
t
t
t
t
t
t
t
t

2006–07
52 389
971 531
3 752
5 794
124 851
42 825
127 490
29 043
41 314
549
16 051
2007–08
57 199
917 494
3 704
5 049
119 495
43 827
134 101
32 500
39 139
771
12 493
2008–09
47 926
954 473
4 102
4 595
107 004
44 119
131 143
31 253
32 258
463
12 851
2009–10
48 699
882 957
4 673
3 550
85 061
31 503
125 199
34 819
29 961
167
13 480
2010–11
57 848
921 475
6 031
1 808
69 483
27 208
128 486
33 850
31 001
152
12 490

(a) International trade statistics are compiled by the ABS from information submitted to the Australian Customs Service by exporters and importers or their agents. Factors are applied to beef, veal, mutton and lamb bone-out figures to calculate a derived bone-in carcass weight. The derived bone-in carcass weights are then added to bone-in figures to calculate total exports in carcass weight. The factor for beef and veal is 1.5 and for mutton and lamb, 2.0. This information is sourced from the Australian Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry (DAFF).
(b) Export data may be subject to revision.
(c) Includes buffalo meat.
(d) Cured carcass weight, and stated net weight of packs of canned bacon and ham.
(e) Canned meat excludes bacon and ham.

Source: Livestock Products, Australia (7215.0).

Table 16.34 shows details of live sheep and cattle exported for slaughter. There were 2.9 million live sheep exported for slaughter in 2010–11 – marginally below the previous year – while the free on board (FOB) value of exported sheep increased by 17% to $347 million. The number of live cattle exported for slaughter in 2010–11 decreased by 16% to 758,000 head.


16.34 LIVE SHEEP AND CATTLE EXPORTS(a)

SHEEP

CATTLE

Number
Gross weight
Value (FOB)
Unit value(b)
Number
Gross weight
Value (FOB)
Unit value(b)
‘000
‘000t
$m
$
‘000
‘000t
$m
$

2006–07
4 137.9
198.8
288.7
69.8
638.1
216.1
437.4
685.5
2007–08
4 068.9
196.9
286.4
70.4
713.3
241.1
450.5
631.6
2008–09
4 064.0
199.1
339.1
83.4
856.0
284.9
558.7
652.7
2009–10
3 055.3
146.0
296.7
97.1
906.6
310.7
600.1
662.0
2010–11
2 912.3
135.0
346.9
119.1
758.1
242.7
559.7
738.3

(a) Export data may be subject to revision.
(b) Gross value divided by the number of animals exported.

Source: Livestock Products, Australia (7215.0).


Wool

Australia is the world's largest wool producer, accounting for about a quarter of total global production. In the last twenty years or so, wool production has more than halved, to around 353,000 tonnes in 2009–10. Almost all of Australia's wool is exported, the major markets being China (excludes SARs and Taiwan), Italy and India.

Graph 16.35 shows total wool production for the years 1911 to 1973 and then shorn wool production from 1974 onwards.

16.35   WOOL PRODUCTION(a)—1911–2010



Shorn greasy wool contains an appreciable quantity of grease, dirt, vegetable matter and other material. The exact quantities of these impurities in the fleece vary with climatic and pastoral conditions, seasonal fluctuations and the breed and condition of the sheep. However, it is the clean wool fibre that is ultimately consumed by the textile industry, and the term 'clean yield' is used to express the net wool fibre content present in greasy wool.

The gross value of wool produced in 2009–10 increased 7% on the previous year to $1.9 billion (table 16.36), approaching a third of the $5.9 billion recorded in 1988–89, the peak year in the wool boom of the 1980s.


16.36 WOOL VALUE (GROSS)
2007-08
2008-09
2009-10
$m
$m
$m

Wool – Shorn
2 174.8
1 693.4
1 756.0
Wool – Other(a)
134.2
112.3
171.5
Wool – Total
2 309.0
1 805.7
1 927.5

(a) Includes dead wool and wool on skin.

Source: Value of Agricultural Commodities Produced, Australia (7503.0); ABS data available on request.


The total quantities of taxable wool received by brokers and purchased by dealers in recent years are shown in table 16.37. They exclude wool received by brokers on which tax had already been paid by other dealers (private buyers) or brokers.


16.37 TAXABLE WOOL RECEIVALS(a)
Tonnes

2006–07
450 529
2007–08
407 881
2008–09
370 601
2009–10
352 737
2010–11
368 325

(a) Annual data are the sum of four quarters of original data.

Source: Livestock Products, Australia (7215.0).

 

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Statistics contained in the Year Book are the most recent available at the time of preparation. In many cases, the ABS website and the websites of other organisations provide access to more recent data. Each Year Book table or graph and the bibliography at the end of each chapter provides hyperlinks to the most up to date data release where available.


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