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6359.0 - Forms of Employment, Australia, November 2013 Quality Declaration 
Latest ISSUE Released at 11:30 AM (CANBERRA TIME) 07/05/2014  Final
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SUMMARY OF FINDINGS


OVERVIEW

In November 2013, the Forms of Employment Survey found there were nearly 11.6 million employed persons aged 15 years and over1. Of these, 7.3 million (63%) were employees with paid leave entitlements in their main job, that is, they were entitled to paid sick and/or paid holiday leave. Of the remaining employed persons:

  • over 2.2 million were employees without paid leave entitlements (19%);
  • just under 1.0 million were independent contractors (9%); and
  • just over 1.0 million were other business operators (9%) (Table 1).


ALL EMPLOYED PERSONS

Employed males were more likely than females to be independent contractors (12% compared to 5%) or other business operators (10% compared to 8%). As a result, employed women were more likely to be employees (88% compared to 78% for males).

Form of employment, By age group (years) - Males, 2013
Graph: Form of employment, By age group (years)—Males, 2013


Form of employment, By age group (years) - Females, 2013
Graph: Form of employment, By age group (years)—Females,  2013


Younger persons were most likely to be employees rather than independent contractors or other business operators. As age increases, generally the proportion of employees decreases, while the proportion of independent contractors and other business operators increase. However, being an employee was the most common form of employment for employed persons for all age ranges. For example:
  • 96% of employed persons aged 15-24 years were employees, 3% were independent contractors and 1% were other business operators;
  • 80% of employed persons aged 35-54 years were employees, 10% were independent contractors and other business operators respectively;
  • 57% of employed persons aged 65 years and over were employees, 18% were independent contractors and 25% were other business operators; and
  • more than half of employed males (52%) aged 65 years and over were either independent contractors or other business operators (Table 3).


EMPLOYEES

Of the 9.6 million persons who were employees, 51% were male. Of the 7.3 million employees with paid leave entitlements, 53% were male (Table 1). Nearly four out of five (79%) male employees had paid leave entitlements, compared to almost three out of four female employees (74%) (Table 7).


Industry
Distribution of Employees, By industry of main job (a), 2013
Graph: Distribution of Employees, By industry of main job (a), 2013


The largest proportion of employees worked in the Health care and social assistance industry (13%). This industry also employed the highest proportion of female employees (22%), compared with only 5% of male employees working in this industry. Other industries employing a higher proportion of female employees include Retail trade (14%) and Education and training (13%).

Of all male employees, the highest proportion worked in Manufacturing industry (12%) followed by Construction industry (11%). In contrast, of all female employees 5% and 2% worked in these industries respectively.

The industry with the highest proportion of male and female employees without paid leave entitlements was Accommodation and food services (60% and 68% respectively). Female employees made up 57% of employees working in this industry.


Occupation
Distribution of Employees, By occupation of main job (a), 2013
Graph: Distribution of Employees, By occupation of main job (a), 2013


Male employees were most likely to be in the occupation of Technicians and trades workers (22%), and Professionals (19%). In contrast half of all female employees were concentrated in two occupations - Professionals (26%) and Clerical and administrative workers (24%).

For both male and female employees, the occupation with the highest proportion of paid leave entitlements was Managers (93%). This was followed by Professionals for both males and females (91% and 89% respectively).

The occupation with the highest proportion of employees without leave entitlements was Labourers (48%). This was also the occupation with the highest proportion of male employees working without leave entitlements (46%). By comparison, for female employees it was the occupation of Sales workers (53%) followed by Labourers (52%).


Full-time/Part-time Status

An estimated 6.6 million (69%) employees worked full-time in their main job. Most employees who worked full-time in their main job had paid leave entitlements (90%). By comparison, of the 2.9 million part-time employees, less than half (47%) had paid leave entitlements.


Other employment characteristics

Other characteristics of employees in November 2013 included:
  • 20% had been with their current employer for less than one year, while 22% had been with their current employer for 10 years or more;
  • 13% of females worked less than 15 hours a week compared to 6% of males in their main job in the week before they were interviewed;
  • almost half (49%) of males worked 40 hours or more compared to 24% of females in their main job in the week before they were interviewed;
  • 18% were aged 15-24 years, and 15% were aged 55 years and over;
  • 2% were aged 65 years and over;
  • 41% had some say in their start and finish times;
  • 68% worked weekdays only in their job/s2, while a further 30% worked both weekdays and weekends (Table 5); and
  • only 4% worked on a fixed-term contract, of whom 52% were in the occupation of Professionals, and 33% worked in the Education and training industry.


INDEPENDENT CONTRACTORS

There were 986,000 persons who were independent contractors in their main job in November 2013. Independent contractors made up 9% of all employed people, and three quarters (75%) of all independent contractors were males. More than half (53%) of the independent contractors were aged 45 years and over compared to 35% of employees in this age group.


Hours Worked

Almost half (47%) of all independent contractors worked 40 hours or more in their main job in the week before they were interviewed, with almost a quarter of them (24%) working 49 hours or more. In comparison 37% of all employees reported working 40 hours or more (12% reporting 49 hours or more) in their main job in the week before they were interviewed.

Male independent contractors were more likely to have worked longer hours than female independent contractors. For example, 28% of male independent contractors worked 49 hours or more in their main job in the week before interview, compared with 10% of female independent contractors. This was higher than for employees (17% of males and 6% of females).


Industry
Distribution of Independent Contractors, By selected industry of main job (a), 2013
Graph: Distribution of Independent Contractors, By selected industry of main job (a), 2013


Of all independent contractors, the highest proportion worked in the Construction industry (31%) followed by the Professional, scientific and technical services industry (15%). These industries were also employing the highest proportion of male independent contractors (39% and 13% respectively). Of all female independent contractors, the highest proportion worked in the Professional, scientific and technical services industry (20%) followed by Health care and social assistance industry (16%).


Occupation
Distribution of Independent Contractors, By occupation of main job (a), 2013
Graph: Distribution of Independent Contractors, By occupation of main job (a), 2013


The highest proportion of independent contractors worked as Technicians and trades workers (30%) and Professionals (23%). These occupations also employed the highest proportions of male independent contractors (37% and 20% respectively). In contrast, of all female independent contractors, the highest proportion were Professionals (34%), followed by Clerical and administrative workers (20%).


Other employment characteristics

Three-quarters (75%) of independent contractors were usually able to work on more than one active contract at a time, however, under half (47%) of all independent contractors had more than one active contract in the week before interview (Table 10).

Other characteristics of independent contractors in November 2013 included:
  • 62% had authority over their own work (63% of males and 61% of females) (Table 10);
  • 64% were able to (sub)contract their own work (68% of males and 53% of females);
  • 80% had no employees (78% of males and 86% of females) (Table 10);
  • 13% had been with their current business for less than one year, while 39% had been with their current business for 10 years or more (Table 2);
  • 85% had some say in their start or finish times (Table 5);
  • 56% usually only worked weekdays in all of their jobs3, while a further 44% usually worked on both weekdays and weekends (Table 5); and
  • 73% reported their relationship in the household as Husband, wife or partner, compared to 60% of employees (Table 3).


OTHER BUSINESS OPERATORS

There were just over 1 million other business operators in November 2013 or 9% of employed persons, of whom 60% were male. There has been a steady decline in the number of other business operators from November 2010 (Table1).


Industry
Distribution of Other business operators, By selected industry of main job (a), 2013
Graph: Distribution of Other business operators, By selected industry of main job (a), 2013


Almost half (46%) of those employed in Agriculture, forestry and fishing industry were other business operators. This industry employed 15% of all other business operators. For male other business operators, the industry that employed the highest proportion was Agriculture, forestry and fishing industry (16%) and for female other business operators, the industry that employed the highest proportion was Retail trade (14%).


Occupation
Distribution of Other business operators, By occupation of main job (a), 2013
Graph: Distribution of Other business operators, By occupation of main job (a), 2013


Of all other business operators, the highest proportion worked in the occupation of Managers (46% and 36% of males and females respectively) (Table 4). This is in line with the definition of other business operators - that they operate their own business and generally generate their income from managing their staff or selling goods or services to the public.

Over a quarter of all managers were other business operators (29% of males and 28% of females) (Table 4).


Other employment characteristics

Other characteristics of other business operators in November 2013 included:
  • 56% actually worked 40 hours or more in their main job in the week before they were interviewed (70% of males and 35% of females), while almost two-thirds (65%) of these actually worked 49 or more hours (Table 2);
  • 8% had been in their current business for less than one year, while half (50%) had been with their current business for 10 years or more (Table 2);
  • 90% had some say in their start or finish times (Table 5);
  • 52% were aged between 35 and 54 years;
  • 84% reported their relationship in the household as Husband, wife or partner; and
  • 45% usually only worked weekdays in all of their job/s4 (Table 5).

1 Excluding contributing family workers. Back to 1
2 See paragraph 19 of the Explanatory Notes for more information. Back to 2
3 See paragraph 19 of the Explanatory Notes for more information. Back to 3
4 See paragraph 19 of the Explanatory Notes for more information. Back to 4

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