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6342.0 - Working Time Arrangements, Australia, November 2012 Quality Declaration 
Latest ISSUE Released at 11:30 AM (CANBERRA TIME) 03/05/2013   
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SUMMARY OF FINDINGS


OVERVIEW

The Working Time Arrangements survey found that in November 2012 there were 10.1 million persons aged 15 years and over who were employees in their main job (Table 10). When excluding owner managers of incorporated enterprises (OMIEs), there were 9.3 million employees in their main job. Of these:

  • 78% had paid leave entitlements (Table 1);
  • 75% could choose when their holidays were taken, with a further 12% who could sometimes choose;
  • 40% had some say in their start and finish times;
  • 36% were able to work extra hours in order to take time off;
  • 34% usually worked extra hours or overtime, of which 26% (823,400) were not compensated for the extra hours worked;
  • 16% usually worked shift work;
  • 7% usually worked the majority of their hours between 7pm and 7am in all of their jobs;
  • 25% had earnings/income that varied from one pay period to the next (Table 2); and
  • 37% had hours that varied weekly or they were usually required to be on call or standby.


EMPLOYEES IN MAIN JOB

Patterns of work of single and multiple jobholders

There were 9.5 million employees who were single jobholders in November 2012 (Table 9). Of these:
  • 66% usually worked five days a week (Table 9);
  • 4% usually worked seven days a week, and a further 7% usually worked six days a week;
  • 14% usually worked on Saturdays and 8% usually worked on Sundays;
  • 16% reported the days of the week they worked usually varied; and
  • 70% worked on weekdays only, while 29% worked on both weekdays and weekends.

In comparison, there were 563,800 persons who were employees in their main job and multiple jobholders in November 2012. Compared to single jobholders, they were more likely to work on weekends, and work six or seven days a week:
  • 39% usually worked five days a week (Table 9);
  • 19% usually worked seven days a week, and a further 19% usually worked six days a week;
  • 37% usually worked on Saturdays and 26% usually worked on Sundays;
  • 20% reported the days of the week they worked usually varied; and
  • 42% worked on weekdays only, while 57% worked on both weekdays and weekends.

Just over half (54%) of employees who were single jobholders were male. In contrast, a higher proportion of persons who were employees in their main job and multiple jobholders were female (56%) (Table 9).

Males who were single jobholder employees were more likely to work five days a week than female single jobholder employees (71% compared to 61%). Female single jobholder employees were more likely to only work on weekdays than male single jobholder employees (73% compared to 68%), and they were less likely to work on both weekdays and weekends (25% compared to 31% of males). Male single jobholder employees were more likely to work six or seven days a week - 10% compared to 4% for females worked six days a week, and 6% of males worked 7 days a week compared to 2% for females. In line with the higher proportion of females who work part-time, a third of female single jobholder employees (33%) worked one to four days a week, compared to only 13% for males (Table 9).

Males who were multiple jobholders and were an employee in their main job were more likely to work on all weekdays (Monday to Friday1) than female multiple jobholders (51% compared to 41%). A higher proportion of males who were multiple jobholders usually worked six or seven days a week - 23% working six days a week compared to 17% of females, and 26% working seven days a week compared to 14% of females. Female multiple jobholders were more likely to work on only weekdays than male multiple jobholders (46% compared to 37%). They were also less likely to work on both weekdays and weekends (53% compared to 62% of males) (Table 9).

Employees in main job who were single or multiple jobholders, Number of days of the week usually worked in all jobs
Graph: Employees in main job who were single or multiple jobholders, Number of days of the week usually worked in all jobs



EMPLOYEES (EXCLUDING OMIES)

Extra hours or overtime

There were 3.2 million employees (excluding OMIEs) who usually worked extra hours or overtime in their main job in November 2012. This was 34% of persons who were employees (excluding OMIEs) in their main job (Table 1).

Males were more likely to work extra hours or overtime (38% compared to 30% of females). However, of those who usually worked extra hours or overtime, more females were not compensated for the extra hours they worked (33% compared to 21% of males). Overall, over a quarter (26%) of employees (excluding OMIEs) were not compensated for the extra hours or overtime they worked (Table 1).

Of those persons who usually worked extra hours or overtime, 42% were paid for the extra hours or overtime worked; 17% were entitled to receive time off in lieu; 15% had compensation included in their salary package; and 3% were compensated in some other way. Nearly half of males were paid for their overtime (48%), compared to only 34% of females (Table 1).


Hours varied weekly or on call or standby

In November 2012, there were 3.4 million employees (excluding OMIEs) whose hours varied weekly or they were usually required to be on call or standby in their main job. Of these, 12% had less than one day's notice about their work schedule while 34% had four or more weeks' notice about their work schedule. Part-time employees were more likely to have their hours vary weekly or were usually required to be on call or standby (42% compared to 35% for full-time employees). Of those whose hours varied or they were usually required to be on call or standby, full-time employees were more likely to have four or more weeks’ notice (41%) than part-time employees (20%) (Table 2).


Whether able to choose to work extra hours in order to take time off

Of the 9.3 million employees (excluding OMIEs), 3.3 million were able to choose to work extra hours in order to take time off. While there was no difference in the proportions of males and females who could work extra hours in order to take time off (36%), full-time employees were more likely to have this flexibility (39%) than part-time employees (30%). Female part-time employees were more likely to be able to choose to work extra hours in order to take time off (32%) than male part-time employees (22%) (Table 2).

The industries with the highest proportion of employees (excluding OMIEs) who were able to choose to work extra hours in order to take time off were Public administration and safety (53%) and Professional, scientific and technical services (50%). The industry with the lowest proportion of employees who were able to choose to work extra hours in order to take time off was Accommodation and food services (22%) (Table 6).

Employees (excluding OMIEs) who worked in the public sector were more likely to be able to choose to work extra hours in order to take time off (39%) than those who worked in the private sector (35%) (Table 6).

Employees (excluding OMIEs) who were Managers in their main job were most likely to be able to choose to work extra hours in order to take time off (49%). Employees (excluding OMIEs) who were Labourers in their main job were least likely to have this flexibility (21%) (Table 6).


Shift work

In November 2012, 1.5 million employees (excluding OMIEs) usually worked shift work in their main job, with the most common type of shift being a rotating shift (45% of those who work shift work). Males were more likely to usually work shift work (18% compared to 14% for females) (Table 7).

For males, the industries with the highest proportion of employees (excluding OMIEs) who usually worked shift work were Mining (47%) and Accommodation and food services (44%), while for females it was Accommodation and food services (33%) and Health care and social assistance (30%) (Table 7).

Employees (excluding OMIEs) who were Community and personal service workers in their main job were most likely to usually work shift work (37%) followed by Machinery operators and drivers (31%) (Table 7).

Employees (excluding OMIEs), Occupation of main job - By selected working arrangements
Graph: Employees (excluding OMIEs), Occupation of main job—By selected working arrangements


A higher proportion of employees (excluding OMIEs) aged 15-24 years usually worked shift work (19%), than those in the older age groups. The 65 years and over age group had the lowest proportion of employees who usually worked shift work (10%).


With and without paid leave entitlements in main job

There were 7.3 million employees (excluding OMIEs) who had paid leave entitlements, in November 2012, comprising 3.9 million males and 3.4 million females. Around 39% (2.8 million) of these employees (excluding OMIEs) with paid leave entitlements usually worked extra hours or overtime, for which 27% were not compensated. A lower proportion of employees (excluding OMIEs) who did not have paid leave entitlements in their main job (casual employees) usually worked extra hours or overtime (17%), of which 21% were not compensated (Table 3).

Around 40% of employees (excluding OMIEs) with paid leave entitlements reported that they could choose to work extra hours in order to take time off, and more than three quarters (77%) were able to choose when their holidays were taken. In contrast, 22% of casual employees could choose to work extra hours in order to take time off, and 65% could choose when they could take their holidays (Table 3).

Casual employees were more likely to not have a guaranteed minimum number of hours of work (58%) compared to those with paid leave entitlements (8%). Similarly, their earnings/income were more likely to vary from one pay period to the next (55% compared to 17% for those with paid leave entitlements) (Table 4).

Overall 89% of those who were without paid leave entitlements thought of their job as a casual job. In addition, 2% of those who had paid leave entitlements thought of their job as a casual job (Table 4).


Full-time and part-time status in main job

In November 2012, there were 6.6 million employees (excluding OMIEs) who were full-time employees in their main job and a further 2.6 million part-time employees. Earnings did not vary from one pay period to the next for 81% of full-time employees, compared to 60% of employees who worked part-time. Of full-time employees in their main job, 88% had a guaranteed a minimum number of hours of work, compared to 64% of employees who worked part-time (Table 2).

Female employees who were part-time in their main job, were more likely to be required to be on call or standby (22%) than those who were full-time (17%). In comparison, males who were full-time employees in their main job were just as likely to be required to be on call or standby as those who were part-time employees (both 25%) (Table 2).

A higher proportion of full-time employees (excluding OMIEs) in their main job had some say in their start and finish times than part-time employees (41% compared to 36%). Most of these were able to choose their start and finish times on a day-to-day basis (67% for full-time employees who had some say and 56% for part-time employees). In addition, 24% of full-time employees who had some say negotiated their start and finish times in advance with their employer - it was 32% for part-time employees who had some say. Fewer full-time employees had an agreement with their employer to work flexible hours (29%) than part-time employees (34%) (Table 2).

Over three-quarters (76%) of full-time employees in their main job could choose when their holidays were taken, compared to 70% of part-time employees. Around 13% of employees could not choose at all when they took their leave, with part-time employees more likely to not have any choice (19% compared to 11%) (Table 2).


END NOTES

1. Some of these persons also worked on Saturday and/or Sunday in their job/s. See paragraph 19 of the Explanatory Notes for more information.

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Commonwealth of Australia 2014

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