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1301.0 - Year Book Australia, 2002  
Previous ISSUE Released at 11:30 AM (CANBERRA TIME) 25/01/2002   
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Contents >> Culture and Recreation >> Employment and participation in cultural activities

This section contains a selection of ABS statistics ranging over the spectrum of cultural industries and activities. More comprehensive data can be found in the publications listed in the Bibliography.


Employment in cultural occupations

According to the 1996 Census of Population and Housing, there were 156,739 people working in a cultural occupation as their main job at the time of the Census. Females accounted for 48.4% of these people - this is higher than their proportion (44.1%) in the employed labour force. Table 12.24 shows that the most common cultural occupations were graphic designers, architects, librarians, library assistants and music teachers.


12.24 NUMBER OF PERSONS IN SELECTED CULTURAL OCCUPATIONS - 1996

Occupation group
Males
Females
Total

Graphic designers
7,066
6,020
13,086
Architects
8,290
1,671
9,961
Librarians
1,723
7,843
9,566
Library assistants
1,236
7,379
8,615
Music teachers
2,121
4,992
7,113
Photographers
4,405
1,854
6,259
Print journalists
3,238
2,585
5,823
Instrumental musicians
4,208
1,325
5,533
Library technicians
561
4,940
5,501
Architectural associates
4,164
939
5,103
Media producers
2,863
1,889
4,752

Source: Employment in Selected Culture/leisure Occupations, 1996 Census of Population and Housing (6273.0).


Involvement in culture and leisure activities

Four ABS surveys were conducted from November 1998 to August 1999 which collected information about the involvement of persons aged 18 years and over in selected culture and leisure activities during the previous 12 months. Results from these four quarterly surveys have been combined to produce annual estimates. Involvement in selected culture and leisure activities was defined to include both paid and unpaid work, but excluded involvement solely for the respondent's own use or that of their family.

As table 12.25 shows, in a 12 month period in 1998-99, 3.5 million people (25.6% of the Australian population aged 18 and over) were involved in selected culture and leisure activities. Of these persons, 36.6% received some payment.


12.25 PERSONS(a) INVOLVED IN CULTURE AND LEISURE ACTIVITIES - 1998-99

Paid involvement
only

’000
Unpaid
involvement only

’000
Paid and unpaid involvement

’000
Total persons involved

’000
Persons with no involvement

’000
Total
persons

’000
Participation
rate

%

NSW
134.3
799.5
273.1
1,206.9
3,421.2
4,628.1
26.1
Vic.
124.0
532.5
212.7
869.2
2,584.3
3,453.5
25.2
Qld
77.8
393.9
159.8
631.5
1,809.6
2,441.1
25.9
SA
29.7
164.2
62.7
256.5
828.0
1,084.6
23.7
WA
55.0
211.1
72.5
338.5
968.6
1,307.2
25.9
Tas.
12.2
46.1
18.4
76.6
262.5
339.1
22.6
NT
3.9
18.2
7.1
29.2
71.6
100.8
29.0
ACT
10.4
39.7
20.2
70.3
144.1
214.4
32.8
Aust.
447.1
2,205.1
826.5
3,478.8
10,090.0
13,568.7
25.6

(a) Aged 18 years and over.

Source: Work In Selected Culture/Leisure Activities, Australia, 1998-99 (6281.0).

Many persons were involved in more than one type of activity. There were almost 6.7 million involvements, the most common activities being writing, organising festivals, design, organising fetes, teaching cultural activities and photography. Almost half (46.6%) of these involvements were of a short-term and part-time nature, being 13 weeks or less duration and less than ten hours a week.


How Australians spend their free time

Generally, Australians fit their leisure activities into their free time, i.e. the time left over after personal, family, educational and employment responsibilities. The 1997 Time Use Survey showed that Australians aged 15 years or more spent on average a little over 5 hours (316 minutes) or 22% of their time per day on free time activity as their main activity (table 12.26). People frequently undertake more than one activity at the same time (e.g. housework and listening to the radio). If simultaneous activities are included, Australians spent just over nine hours (552 minutes) on free time activities. Time spent using audio/visual media (e.g. watching television and listening to the radio) showed the largest increase when comparing all activities (including simultaneous activities) with main activities. As a main activity, an average of just over two hours (131 minutes) was spent on audio/visual media. However, when simultaneous activities were included, time spent on this activity nearly doubled to over four hours (257 minutes).


12.26 AVERAGE TIME SPENT ON FREE TIME ACTIVITIES(a) - 1997

Free time activities
Main activity

minutes per day
All activities

minutes per day

Social and community interaction -
- Socialising
11
12
- Visiting entertainment and cultural venues
5
5
- Religious activities/ritual ceremonies
5
5
- Other
24
24
- Total
45
47
Recreation and leisure -
- Sport and outdoor activity
27
28
- Games/hobbies/arts/crafts
16
20
- Reading
25
37
- Audio/visual media
131
257
- Talking (including phone)
35
115
- Other
35
48
- Total
271
505
Total free time activities
316
552

(a) Free time is the amount of time left over after necessary time, committed time and contracted time have been taken out of a person's day. Necessary time includes time spent on activities such as sleeping, eating and personal care. Committed time includes time spent on activities such as housework, care of children and shopping. Contracted time includes time spent on paid work and regular education.

Source: Time Use on Cultural/Leisure Activities, 1997 (4173.0).


Public attitudes to the arts

The November 1997 Population Survey Monitor showed that Australians hold different views about what range of activities is included in the arts: 81% included plays, ballet and opera; 80% music (concerts, orchestra and singing); 77% painting, drawing and sculpture; 62% literature, books and poetry; 54% craft, pottery and weaving; 54% photography; 35% architecture and design; and 9% sport.

Libraries were considered to be either very important or important in the community by 95% of the population. The corresponding figure for museums was 77%, for performing arts venues 76% and for art galleries 72%. These levels of support were irrespective of whether or not the reporting individuals were users of the facilities.

A quarter of the population indicated that they were not adequately informed about the arts, whereas only 7% indicated that they were not adequately informed about sport. The most commonly used sources of information about the arts were newspapers, magazines or books (69%) and television (63%).


Art and craft purchases

Results from surveys conducted during 1997 show that, in the three months prior to interview, 21.4% of Australian people purchased a total of 0.9 million art items and 3.9 million craft items. Of these, 0.7 million art items and 3.0 million craft items were made in Australia (table 12.27). The value of Australian made art items purchased in the three months prior to interview was $138m with a mean price of $195; the value of craft items was $318m with a mean price of $107. Extrapolated to expenditure for a full year, this would be in the order of $550m on art items and $1,250m on craft items.


12.27 AUSTRALIAN MADE ART AND CRAFT PURCHASES - Purchases over 3 months, 1997(a)

Number(b)

’000
Value(c)

$m

Art items -
- Paintings
334.3
84.2
- Other
389.7
53.7
- Total
724.0
137.9
Craft items -
- Pottery/ceramics
885.5
44.4
- Garments/clothing
435.3
26.5
- Jewellery
383.9
58.6
- Wood crafts
352.9
21.7
- Other
982.2
166.4
- Total
3,039.8
317.5
Total art and craft items
3,763.8
455.4

(a) Purchases of Australian made art and craft in a 3 month period.
(b) Includes items where the price was not known.
(c) Excludes items where the price was not known.

Source: Art and craft purchases, 1997, Department of Communications and the Arts.


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