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1301.0 - Year Book Australia, 2008  
Previous ISSUE Released at 11:30 AM (CANBERRA TIME) 07/02/2008   
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Contents >> Mining >> Production and trade of minerals

PRODUCTION AND TRADE OF MINERALS

Mineral production

Tables 18.15 and 18.16 show the quantity and value of selected minerals (including oil and gas) produced in Australia.

In the period 2000-01 to 2004-05 the most significant increases in production were for manganese ore (81%), leucoxene (77%) and iron ore and concentrates (42%). The steady increase in iron ore and concentrate production over this period was driven by increased production in Western Australia, which accounts for 98% of Australian production. There was also a steady increase in saleable black coal, liquefied natural gas and salt.

Production of gold, ilmenite, rutile, zinc, crude oil, lead, natural gas and diamond decreased between 2000-01 and 2004-05 with the largest falls recorded for crude oil (37%), ilmenite (27%) and rutile (23%). Diamond production changed significantly during the period with an increase of 51% in 2002-03 followed by decreases in 2003-04 and 2004-05 of 17% and 30% respectively.

18.15 Mineral commodities produced, Quantity

2000-01
2001-02
2002-03
2003-04
2004-05
Percentage change from 2000-01 to 2004-05

Metallic minerals

Bauxite Mt
54.5
54.5
54.4
55.7
57.4
5.5
Copper (metal content) ’000 t
871.5
861.4
821.7
774.7
896.1
2.8
Gold (metal content) t
286.4
262.7
273.1
267.4
254.8
-11.0
Iron ore and concentrate Mt
166.7
167.4
193.6
205.1
236.2
41.7
Lead (metal content) ’000 t
688.9
684.3
653.7
663.8
642.8
-6.7
Nickel (metal content) ’000 t
167.5
179.0
192.0
182.0
180.0
7.5
Silver (metal content) t
1 999.8
1 999.2
1 912.9
2 018.6
2 225.5
11.3
Uranium oxide t
9 629.6
7 717.0
9 148.0
9 532.0
10 963.0
13.8
Zinc (metal content) ’000 t
1 282.7
1 295.6
1 326.9
1 214.6
1 184.4
-7.7

Fuel minerals

Black coal (saleable) Mt
258.3
272.2
274.8
283.8
305.0
18.1
Brown coal Mt
65.0
66.7
66.8
66.3
67.2
3.4
Crude oil ML
33 124
31 097
27 061
23 670
20 897
-36.9
Condensate ML
6 442
6 974
7 526
6 825
7 757
20.4
Natural gas Mm3
23 609
23 823
24 176
24 748
23 328
-1.2
LNG t
8 260 389
7 424 658
7 765 874
7 787 261
11 037 572
33.6

Industrial minerals

Diamonds '000 ct
25 516.8
25 785.1
38 996.1
32 499.1
22 791.8
-10.7
Salt '000 t
9 597.3
9 403.5
10 438.0
10 634.7
12 260.3
27.7
Ilmenite t
1 174 415
927 593
1 133 556
905 367
859 188
-26.8
Synthetic rutile t
643 274
590 804
597 274
592 178
648 796
0.9
Leucoxene t
39 814
39 768
38 060
51 734
70 372
76.8
Rutile t
205 336
204 703
192 629
189 229
158 665
-22.7
Zircon ’000 t
391.9
369.9
468.4
472.6
469.2
19.7
Manganese ore t
1 985 427.0
1 914 068.0
2 471 981.0
3 066 754.0
3 584 893.0
80.6

Source: Mining Operations, Australia (8415.0).

The largest increases in percentage terms in the value of minerals production in the period 2000-01 to 2004-05 were for manganese ore (127%) and iron ore and concentrate (67%). The increase in iron ore and concentrate was also the second largest in dollar terms ($3,329m) behind saleable black coal ($6,139m). The most significant decrease in percentage terms was for zinc (27%).

18.16 Mineral commodities produced, Value

2000-01
2001-02
2002-03
2003-04
2004-05
Percentage change from 2000-01 to 2004-05
$m
$m
$m
$m
$m
$m

Metallic minerals

Bauxite
891
986
782
817
862
-3.3
Copper (metal content)
2 928
2 509
2 260
2 542
3 777
29.0
Gold (metal content)
4 318
4 679
5 046
4 731
4 635
7.3
Iron ore and concentrate
5 001
5 235
5 298
5 359
8 330
66.6
Lead (metal content)
617
623
502
654
830
34.5
Nickel (metal content)
2 278
2 034
2 528
3 139
3 613
58.6
Silver (metal content)
562
544
490
530
666
18.5
Uranium oxide
493
378
308
382
463
-6.1
Zinc (metal content)
2 544
1 969
1 778
1 649
1 852
-27.2

Fuel minerals

Black coal (saleable)(a)
11 579
14 525
12 724
11 566
17 718
53.0
Brown coal
520
533
534
531
843
62.1
Crude oil
10 314
8 415
7 888
6 721
8 518
-17.4
Condensate
2 189
1 868
2 207
1 925
3 008
37.4
Natural gas
2 210
2 245
2 250
2 380
2 445
10.6
LNG
2 696
2 971
3 131
2 776
3 782
40.3

Industrial minerals

Diamonds
633
506
788
520
467
-26.2
Salt
264
273
260
211
239
-9.5
Ilmenite
np
np
np
np
np
np
Synthetic rutile
409
385
354
307
334
-18.3
Leucoxene
18
19
16
20
22
22.2
Rutile
np
np
np
np
np
np
Zircon
np
np
np
np
np
np
Manganese ore
211
267
275
282
478
126.5

np not available for publication but included in totals where applicable, unless otherwise indicated
(a) Excludes production from Tasmania.
Source: Mining Operations, Australia (8415.0).

As few minerals can be directly used in the form in which they are mined, most of these undergo processing and treatment before use.

Table 18.17 shows the production of the main manufactured products of mineral origin.

18.17 PRODUCTION OF PRINCIPAL MANUFACTURED PRODUCTS, By mineral origin

2001-02
2002-03
2003-04
2004-05
2005-06

METALS

Non-ferrous
Alumina ’000 t
16 417
16 413
16 690
17 161
17 826
Refined aluminium ’000 t
1 809
1 855
1 877
1 890
1 890
Refined copper ’000 t
561
537
459
479
461
Lead bullion ’000 t
201
181
143
153
141
Refined lead ’000 t
275
267
247
234
234
Refined zinc ’000 t
572
570
502
464
446
Refined tin t
829
708
553
445
736
Ferrous
Raw steel ’000 t
8 611
9 399
9 430
7 395
7 884
Precious
Refined gold t
346
386
397
345
380
Refined silver t
616
672
619
722
655

PETROLEUM

Petroleum products
Diesel automotive oil ML
13 064
13 335
12 544
12 822
10 154
Industrial and marine diesel fuel ML
105
117
84
22
31
Fuel oil ML
1 684
1 441
1 105
1 092
1 048
Automotive gasoline ML
18 000
17 984
17 375
17 913
16 528

BUILDING MATERIALS

Clay bricks (standard brick equivalent) mill.
1 602
1 733
1 789
1 705
1 606
Portland cement ’000 t
7 235
7 731
8 460
8 925
8 910

CHEMICALS

Single superphosphates ’000 t
2 052
1 423
1 446
1 594
1 309

Source: Manufacturing Production, Australia (8301.0.55.001); Australian Bureau of Agricultural and Resource Economics (ABARE), 'Australian Mineral Statistics', various issues and 'Australian Commodity Statistics 2006' .

Exports of minerals

Export earnings of minerals, (including oil and gas) from the Australian resources sector rose to $91 billion (b) in 2005-06, an increase of $22b on the previous year. The resources sector covering minerals and energy production includes some commodities which are processed outside the Mining industry (as defined by ANZSIC).

Tables 18.18 and 18.19 shows the quantity and value of the main mineral commodities exported from Australia. In 2005-06, black coal (including coking and steaming) was the largest export earner ($24b), followed by iron ore and pellets ($13b), refined gold ($7b), crude oil and other refinery feedstock ($7b), copper ($6b), alumina ($5b) and aluminium ($5b).

18.18 EXPORTS OF MINERAL COMMODITIES, Quantity

2002-03
2003-04
2004-05
2005-06

Alumina kt
13 168
13 572
14 073
14 499
Aluminium (ingot metal) kt
1 551
1 546
1 512
1 615
Coal, black
Coking Mt
108
112
125
120
Steaming Mt
100
107
106
111
Copper kt
687
652
701
791
Diamonds '000 ct
32 274
24 326
32 515
27 751
Gold, refined t
282
315
309
315
Iron and steel
Iron ore and pellets Mt
181
195
228
239
Iron and steel kt
3 589
3 818
2 338
2 428
Lead kt
735
688
782
756
Manganese ore and concentrate kt
2 014
2 603
3 128
3 215
Oil and gas
Crude oil and other refinery feedstock ML
20 950
17 526
15 731
13 078
LNG Mt
8
8
11
12
LPG ML
3 194
2 916
2 844
2 800
Salt kt
10 172
10 285
12 128
10 776
Tin t
5 963
143
1 529
1 556
Titanium minerals
Ilmenite concentrate kt
1 020
783
633
722
Rutile concentrate kt
195
146
158
169
Uranium oxide t
9 593
9 099
11 249
10 253
Zinc kt
1 548
1 369
1 427
1 337
Zircon concentrate kt
445
443
428
435

Source: Australian Bureau of Agricultural and Resource Economics (ABARE), 'Australian Commodity Statistics, 2006'.


18.19 EXPORTS OF MINERAL COMMODITIES, Value

2002-03
2003-04
2004-05
2005-06
$m
$m
$m
$m

Alumina
3 660
3 781
4 383
5 262
Aluminium (ingot metal)
3 696
3 441
3 726
4 781
Coal, black
Coking
7 448
6 510
10 758
17 003
Steaming
4 448
4 372
6 336
7 206
Copper
2 005
2 166
3 082
5 681
Diamonds
789
531
650
626
Gold, refined
5 133
5 510
5 523
7 117
Iron and steel
Iron ore and pellets
5 342
5 277
8 120
12 832
Iron and steel
1 855
2 004
2 031
1 674
Lead
657
728
1 041
1 295
Manganese ore and concentrate
312
371
473
424
Oil and gas
Crude oil and other refinery feedstock
6 402
5 055
6 330
6 667
LNG
2 607
2 174
3 199
4 416
LPG
855
647
804
1 002
Salt
233
186
226
229
Tin
38
1
8
12
Titanium minerals
Ilmenite concentrate
135
82
63
76
Rutile concentrate
149
94
114
138
Uranium oxide
427
364
475
546
Zinc
1 427
1 234
1 466
2 542
Zircon concentrate
282
260
319
395

Source: Australian Bureau of Agricultural and Resource Economics (ABARE), 'Australian Commodity Statistics, 2006'.


Graph 18.20 shows the value of Australia's four largest mineral exports during the period 1998-99 to 2005-06. Exports of black coal, iron ore and pellets, and crude oil and other refinery feedstock have been growing over this period with crude oil and other refinery feedstock recording the largest increase (254%) followed by iron ore and pellets (234%) and black coal (162%). Refined gold increased 13% for the same period. The increases for black coal exports in 2000-01, 2004-05 and 2005-06 were due to an increase in unit values of coking and steaming coal exports. A similar peak was observed for the export of crude oil occurring in 2000-01. Over the five years following this peak the export values of crude oil and other refinery feedstock fell by more than $1b.
18.20 Exports of selected minerals
Graph: 18.20 Exports of selected minerals


The major markets for Australian mineral and oil exports were Japan, China, the Republic of (South) Korea, India and Singapore in the period 1990-91 to 2005-06 (graph 18.21).

Japan was consistently the main destination for Australian minerals receiving 28% ($24b) of total mineral exports in 2005-06. The main minerals exported to Japan were aluminium, coal, copper ores and concentrate, iron ore and pellets, crude oil and other refinery feedstock, LNG and LPG. Of this, coal was the most significant. In 2005-06, 59 megatonnes (Mt) of steaming coal and 44 Mt of coking coal were exported to Japan (54% and 37% respectively of total Australian exports for these commodities). In the same year, 2,201 megalitres (ML) of crude oil and other refinery feedstock, 2,142 ML of LPG and 72,313 kilotonne (kt) of iron ore and pellets were also exported to this country. These exports respectively accounted for 17%, 77% and 30% of Australia's total exports of crude oil and other refinery feedstock, LPG and iron ore and pellets. Aluminium and copper concentrate exports to Japan contributed 34% and 24% respectively of total exports for each commodity.Other major export destinations in 2005-06 were China, the Republic of (South) Korea, India and Singapore. After Japan, the Republic of (South) Korea was the main market for Australia's black coal with steaming coal amounting to 20Mt (18% of total steaming coal exported). Other major exports to the Republic of (South) Korea included iron ore and pellets, lead concentrate, lead refined, crude oil and other refinery feed stock and zinc ore which accounted for 10%, 26%, 10%, 21% and 28% respectively of export totals. Singapore was a major market for Australian crude oil and other refinery feedstock, importing 3,110 ML in 2005-06, 24% of the total volume exported.

China has become a major export destination for iron ore and pellets, lead concentrate and LPG accounting for 52%, 50% and 14% respectively of total exports for these commodities.

Exports to India have been increasing since 1990-91 with a sharp increase between 2002-03 and 2003-04 (107%). Gold exports to India accounted for 40% (127 tonnes) of Australian exports of gold in 2005-06.

18.21 Exports of mineral commodities, by country of destination
Graph: 18.21 Exports of mineral commodities, by country of destination


Imports of minerals and petroleum

Many imported mineral and petroleum commodities have had a certain amount of manufacturing applied to their raw forms. Table 18.22 provides details of the major commodities imported in the period 2002-03 to 2005-06. In terms of value, the largest imports for 2005-06 were for crude oil and other refinery feedstock ($13b), followed by other refinery products ($9b). The major sources of Australian imports of crude oil and other refinery feedstock were Indonesia, Malaysia and Vietnam with a combined value of $7.8b (61% of the total import value for this commodity).

18.22 IMPORTS OF MINERALS AND PETROLEUM

2002-03
2003-04
2004-05
2005-06

Quantity

Diamonds '000 ct
3 218
2 229
2 168
4 098
Gold
na
na
na
na
Iron and steel
Iron ore and pellets kt
4 667
5 417
4 648
5 026
Iron and steel kt
1 306
1 583
2 116
2 191
Petroleum
Crude oil and other refinery feedstock ML
27 958
23 498
26 054
24 429
LPG ML
299
785
540
598
Automotive gasoline ML
1 673
3 242
3 131
3 697
Diesel fuel ML
1 627
3 374
3 944
6 122
Other refinery products ML
5 194
9 762
10 648
14 534
Phosphate rock kt
711
723
797
655
Platinum and platinum group metals kg
2 319
2 984
2 391
2 097

Value

Diamonds $m
302
309
347
403
Gold $m
2 957
2 559
2 462
4 800
Iron and steel
Iron ore and pellets $m
114
140
145
222
Iron and steel $m
1 226
1 353
2 041
2 075
Petroleum
Crude oil and other refinery feedstock $m
8 610
6 594
9 995
12 839
LPG $m
76
166
143
194
Automotive gasoline $m
569
1 168
1 463
2 348
Diesel fuel $m
561
1 134
1 933
4 076
Other refinery products $m
1 971
3 428
4 979
8 575
Phosphate rock $m
50
41
49
42
Platinum and platinum group metals $m
64
86
59
70

na not available
Source: Australian Bureau of Agricultural and Resource Economics (ABARE), 'Australian Commodity Statistics, 2006' and 'Australian Mineral Statistics', various issues.

Graph 18.23 shows imports of selected major minerals and petroleum during the period 1999-2000 to 2005-06. The imports of crude oil and other refinery feedstock were significantly larger than the imports of other minerals particularly in 2004-05 and 2005-06. While the volumes of imports of crude oil and other refinery feedstock fluctuated over the period 1999-2000 to 2005-06, the large changes in the value of imports were mainly due to significant unit value rises in 2000-01, 2004-05 and 2005-06.

18.23 Imports of selected mineral commodities
Graph: 18.23 Imports of selected mineral commodities





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