Australian Bureau of Statistics
2901.0 - Census Dictionary, 2001
Previous ISSUE Released at 11:30 AM (CANBERRA TIME) 24/04/2001
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See Caravans, houseboats etc.
Capital City Statistical Divisions (Capital City SDs) are predominantly urban in character and represent the State/Territory capital cities in the wider sense. A Capital City SD is defined to contain the anticipated urban development of a capital city (and its associated urban centres) for a period of at least twenty years. It delimits an area which is stable for general statistical purposes.
See also Australian Standard Geographical Classification, Statistical Division (SD), Major Statistical Region (MSR).
Enumeration of people in caravans, houseboats, cabins etc. varies depending on their situation. Occupied caravans are usually treated as private dwellings with the exception of some caravans on residential allotments (see below).
Managers' residences in caravan parks or marinas are enumerated and classified as separate private dwellings.
Unoccupied caravans and boats/craft, regardless of location, are not counted in the Census.
See also Dwelling, Dwelling Location (DLOD), Dwelling Structure (STRD), Dwelling Type (DWTD), Household.
See Collection District (CD).
CDATA2001 on CD-ROM contains a large volume of tabulated census data, digital boundaries and base map data, with software to produce tables, maps and graphs of the data. The product is available at National and State/Territory levels.
There are two CDATA2001 products available, offering different levels of functionality.
CDATA2001 — Full GIS : This will allow you to export the data for use in other applications, and to import other data from a variety of formats into the system while providing full functionality of GIS software.
CDATA2001 — Quickbuild : This version contains reduced GIS software functionality when compared to that available in CDATA2001 — Full GIS, but with complete access to all statistical and boundary data. However the more complex GIS facilities such as SQL, importing of external data, geocoding and point creation are not available. CDATA2001 — Quickbuild users will also have the facility to upgrade to CDATA2001 — Full GIS when so desired.
More detailed information is available on our web site — www.abs.gov.au under the Census or CDATA Users Group entries.
See also Digital boundaries, Digital base map data, Community Profile Series.
See Postal Area.
See Community Development Employment Program.
See Collection District Mapping System (CDMS).
The 2001 Census is the first census that data for Usual Residence on Census Night will be available at Collections District (CD) level.
Imputation for non-response will not be done for CDUCP, but will continue for SLA of Usual Residence on Census Night (SLAUCP) and State of Usual Residence on Census Night (STEUCP). Therefore, aggregated CDUCP data will not correspond to SLAUCP and STEUCP.
See Collection District Record Database (CDRD) 2001.
See Electoral division.
The Australian Census of Population and Housing is an official count of population and dwellings, and collects details of age, sex, and other characteristics of that population. The 2001 Census is the 14th national census for Australia.
From 1933 through until 1986 Australian censuses had been held on the 30th of June. Since 1991 censuses have been conducted during August, as a result of changing school holiday dates in the majority of States and Territories. Traditionally, school holiday times are periods of high mobility for the population and the data collected would not be representative of the usual situation.
Census statistics are used as the basis for estimating the population at the national, State and local government levels, for electoral purposes and the distribution of government funds. They are used by individuals and organisations, in the public and private sectors, for planning, administration, research, and decision making.
One of the important features of the Census is that it allows different characteristics of an individual, family or household to be related. While information on some characteristics is available from other sources, only a census can provide information on a standard basis for the country as a whole, as well as for small geographic areas and small population groups.
Population counts in Australia were initially just head counts called ‘musters’. These were important as a means of determining requirements for food and other supplies. The first muster was taken in 1788. The first regular census was taken in New South Wales in 1828. With Federation, census taking became the responsibility of the Commonwealth Government.
For more information see How Australia Takes a Census (Cat. no. 2903.0) and the information paper 2001 Census of Population and Housing, Nature and Content (Cat. no. 2008.0). These papers are also available on the ABS web site.
See Collection District (CD).
See Information Consultancy.
The Census enumerates people where they were located on Census Night. Most standard output products from the Census provide characteristics of people on this place of enumeration basis.
Census counts by place of enumeration:
Census data are also available on place of usual residence (see Place of usual residence entry). Census counts by place of usual residence exclude overseas visitors and Australian residents temporarily overseas.
In previous censuses, data based on place of usual residence was available for SLAs and above. However, for the 2001 Census the addresses provided at Question 7 on the census form are coded to Collection District (CD). This means that usual residence counts can be produced on request, at CD level and for CD-derived areas such as Postal Areas and suburbs.
The variables Family Type (FMTF) and Household Type (HHTD) are coded on a place of usual residence basis rather than a place of enumeration basis. All visitors to dwellings are excluded when coding these variables. Usual residents who are reported as ‘temporarily absent’ are included in the coding of Family Type (FMTF).
Estimates of the resident population for 30 June 2001, based on the 2001 Census counts by place of usual residence:
Estimated Resident Population estimates are available for SLAs and above and provide only a limited range of characteristics. The estimates are updated annually.
While every effort is made to achieve a complete census count, some undercounting inevitably occurs for various reasons, for example, the inadvertent omission of very young children, treatment of some dwellings as unoccupied when in fact they are occupied, and failure to find all dwellings. Refusal by householders to complete the census form is not a significant cause of under-counting.
See also Place of enumeration, Place of usual residence, Estimated Resident Population (ERP), Family, Household, Postal Area, Undercounting and/or underenumeration.
The date of the 2001 Census is Tuesday 7th August 2001.
See Appendix A, Household form.
The Census Geographic Areas include Australian Standard Geographical Classification (ASGC) areas and the following census-specific (non ASGC) geographical areas:
Census statistical data and digital boundary data are readily available for all of these areas. Census data for these areas are aggregated from Collection District level.
For more details refer to, Statistical Geography Volume 2: Census Geographic Areas, Australia (Cat. no. 2905.0).
Census Regulations were amended for the 2001 Census and notified in the Gazette on 29 March 2000.
See also Census and Statistics Act.
The Census Snapshots comprise extracts from the Community Profile Series presented in narrative form for Australia, States and Territories, Capital Cities and other geographic areas.
The Census Snapshots are presented in a user friendly format and although primarily developed for use by the media, they enable easy access and use by a much wider audience.
See also Web site, Community Profile Series.
This is the Act of Federal Parliament which requires the Australian Statistician to conduct a census on a regular basis and also enables the Statistician to conduct a range of other surveys and statistical functions.
In 1905, the Census and Statistics Act was passed in Federal Parliament, which gave authority to the Governor-General to appoint a Commonwealth Statistician whose duties included the taking of the Census.
The Act originally stipulated that a census was to be taken in 1911 and every tenth year thereafter. The Act also stipulated a number of topics which were to be asked in each census. The stipulated topics included: name, age, sex, relationship, marital status, duration of marriage, birthplace, nationality, period of residence, religion, occupation, material of outer walls and number of rooms in the dwellings. It also allowed for other topics to be included as prescribed.
In 1930 the Act was amended to allow the Census to be held at any such time as prescribed. Censuses have since been conducted in 1933, 1947, 1954, 1961, 1966, 1971, 1976, 1981, 1986, 1991 and 1996.
Since 1961 a census has been held every five years because of the increasing awareness of the value of obtaining statistical benchmarks of the Australian population at regular intervals. In 1977 an amendment was made to the Act to require that censuses are carried out on a five-yearly basis from 1981, and at other times as prescribed.
The Census and Statistics Amendment Act (No 2), 1981, proclaimed on 1 March 1983, removed the provision of the original Act requiring that certain topics be included in the Census. Since that amendment census topics have been determined specifically for each census and these are prescribed in the census regulations.
The Census and Statistics Act was amended in 2000 to allow for optional form retention in the 2001 Census.
For more information see How Australia Takes a Census (Cat. no. 2903.0) and the Information Paper, 2001 Census of Population and Housing, Nature and Content (Cat. no. 2008.0).
See also Census Regulations.
For the first time, a service enabling users to specify and order customised tables will be made available via the ABS web site. The user can view different table layouts (often called table shells since no data are presented) on line by specifying the table structure and variables of interest. The tables ordered are only available off line.
See also Web site, Customised tables, Information Consultancy.
Census Update is a free newsletter distributed to interested census users. Census Update can also be accessed through the Census home page at the ABS web site www.abs.gov.au. It is generally published several times a year and includes information about product releases, case studies of census data usage and details of the features of some of the popular electronic data products. Users interested in receiving Census Update should contact Census Marketing on 1800 813 939.
The centroid is the centre of a digital bounded area, for example a Collection District (CD). This point is assigned a set of latitude and longitude coordinates.
In some cases, such as a crescent-shaped area, the centroid may lie outside the limits of the area.
The centroid enables census data to be reproduced for any aggregation of CDs falling within any radius of a defined point. For example, a client may require data for a television viewing area. This may require the identification of all CDs with a centroid within a twenty kilometre radius of a particular CD. Some thematic maps containing census data attach symbols to centroids for display purposes.
See Collection District (CD), CDATA2001, Digital spatial data.
This is a person of any age who is a natural, adopted, step, or foster son or daughter of a couple or lone parent, usually resident in the same household. A child is also any individual under 15, usually resident in the household, who forms a parent-child relationship with another member in the household. This includes otherwise related children under 15 and unrelated children under 15.
In order to be classified as a child, the person can have no partner or child of his/her own usually resident in the household. A separate family in the household is formed in this instance. If a person is aged under 15 and has a partner and/or a spouse these relationships are not recorded.
There are three types of children included in the Relationship in Household classification:
The types of parent-child relationships which can be formed are via a natural, adoptive, step, foster or child dependency relationship. The child dependency relationships may be an otherwise related child under 15 (e.g. nephew or niece), or an unrelated child under 15.
The categories are designed to identify families with different structures and needs. Dependency, as used in these classifications, refers to economic dependency and is only applied to the part of the population that can be described as 'children'.
The dependency criterion is based on the barriers to full-time employment: age and student status.
Dependent child: A dependent child is a person who is either a child under 15, or a dependent student (see Dependent student below). To be regarded as a child the person can have no partner or child of his/her own usually resident in the household.
A dependent child must be attached to a nominal parent with whom he/she usually resides. This parent must be over 15 years of age.
Dependent student: This refers to a natural, adopted, step, or foster child who is 15–24 years of age and who attends a secondary or tertiary educational institution as a full-time student and who has no partner or child of his/her own usually resident in the same household.
Non-Dependent child: This refers to a natural, step, adopted or foster child of a couple or lone parent usually resident in the household, aged over 15 years and who is not a full-time student aged 15–24 years, and who has no partner or child of his/her own usually resident in the household.
Variables relevant to children are :
Characteristics of children or parents who were temporarily absent on Census Night are not available.
See also Family, Foster child, Step Child, One parent family, Couple family.
This classification identifies different parent-child relationships within families and is applicable to all children present in the household.
People who state themselves as a natural, adopted, step or foster child and who are not married or living with a partner or his/her child, are coded as a child, regardless of age. Any other child is coded to 'otherwise related child (under 15)' or 'unrelated child (under 15)'. Boarders and lodgers over the age of 15 are coded to 'Not applicable'. The categories 'step child' and 'foster child' are not necessarily pure counts as a parent may describe such a child as a child of Person 1/ Person 2. In this case the child would be classified as a 'natural child'.
A natural, adopted, foster or otherwise related child may be in a one or two parent family. Cross classification with Family Type (FMTF) allows analysis of different family types.
See also Adopted child, Child under 15, Family, Family Type (FMTF), Foster child.
This refers to a person under 15 years of age who indicates they have a parent-child relationship with a related or unrelated person over 15 years of age resident in the household.
A person who is classified as a child under 15 is considered a dependent child.
See also Child, Other related individual, Parent-Child relationship.
See Other Territories.
See Australian Citizenship (CITP).
Classification Counts, comprise census counts for each category of most output classifications in full, for every State/Territory or Capital City Statistical Division. These are cross-classified by sex for all person based classifications.
Classification Counts consist of a column for each State/Territory or Capital City Statistical Division, and rows for classificatory detail, providing comparisons of all States/Territories or all capital cities.
The counts are available for first and second release data and can be provided on either hard copy or in electronic formats.
There is a wide range of possible responses to Census questions, and to make these responses more manageable for output purposes, it is necessary to group together like or related responses. Each response is allocated an index number, which are then reformatted into classes or classification levels of similar response.
See also Section 1, 2001 Census Classifications.
See Section 1, 2001 Census Classifications.
CLIB2001 is a CD-ROM product containing Community Profile data and Classification Counts from the 2001 Census. It is designed specifically for libraries and allows users to intuitively select, view and print data for an area of interest.
This product is accessible in ABS Library Extension Program member libraries only, and is provided free of charge to these libraries as a community service. See also Classification Counts, Community Profile Series.
See Other Territories.
The census Collection District (CD) is the smallest geographic area defined in the Australian Standard Geographical Classification (ASGC). It has been designed for use in the Census of Population and Housing as the smallest unit for collection, processing and output of data (except for some Work Destination Zones). CDs also serve as the basic building block in the ASGC and are used for the aggregation of statistics to larger census geographic areas.
A CD is represented by a unique seven digit code. For the 2001 Census there is an average of about 225 dwellings in each CD. In rural areas the number of dwellings per CD declines as population densities decrease.
CDs are defined for each census and are current only at census time. For the 2001 Census, there are about 37,000 CDs throughout Australia (this includes the Other Territories of Christmas and Cocos (Keeling) Islands and Jervis Bay).
The criteria for the design of CDs for the 2001 Census are as follows:
Where necessary, CDs are created or boundaries adjusted to conform with changes to LGA boundaries.
The aim of these procedures is to maintain as much comparability between censuses as possible.
New CD boundaries are designed with reference to information obtained from:
See also Australian Standard Geographical Classification (ASGC).
The CDMS has, as its basis, a digital base map of topographical data supplied by the Public Sector Mapping Agencies (PSMA). This base map is overlaid by digital collection management area boundaries which can be manipulated to reflect any required changes. Various data are attributed to those boundaries through an Oracle database called the Collection District Record Database (CDRD).
The system was built and used to facilitate:
Collection District maps
See Reference maps.
The CDRD is an Oracle (relational) database containing a wide range of aspatial data which are associated with the boundary spatial data. The CDRD 2001 relates to the 2001 Census but data are also available for 1996. The information held in the CDRD includes:
Commonwealth Electoral Division (CED)
See Electoral Division.
The Community Development Employment Program (CDEP) scheme was developed in 1976 as a response to remote Aboriginal communities' requests for local employment to be created, with a particular focus on community development. The CDEP enables members of Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander communities to exchange unemployment benefits for opportunities to undertake work and training in activities which are managed by a local Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander community organisation.
In 1985 CDEP was expanded to include Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities living in rural and urban areas. CDEP is funded and supported by the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Commission (ATSIC). The ATSIC allocate grants to participating community organisations who employ members of the local community.
CDEP participants are included in the employed category of the Labour Force Status/Status in Employment (LFSP) classification, and as a separate category in the Industry Sector (GNGP) classification.
See also Indigenous Status (INGP), Industry Sector (GNGP), Labour Force Status/Status in Employment (LFSP).
See Local Government Area (LGA).
The Community Profile Series provides detailed census data for all geographic areas, ranging from Collection Districts (CDs) to the whole of Australia.
Community Profiles contain sets of tables based on key census characteristics of persons, families and dwellings. The profiles cover most topics on the census form. The Community Profiles are presented in the form of simple cross-classified tables and, in most cases, are geographically based on where people were counted on Census Night, i.e. place of enumeration. The exceptions are the Usual Residence Profile and the Working Population Profile.
Standard Community Profiles can be customised for user specified geography and for sub-populations, e.g. a particular age group.
Community Profiles are available as hard copy, or in electronic format. Manipulation software, operating in a Windows environment, is provided free of charge with all profiles output in electronic form.
The Basic and Time Series Community Profiles are also available in the standard CDATA2001 product. The other profiles can be purchased as Add-on Datapaks for use with CDATA2001.
See also CDATA2001, Place of enumeration, Place of usual residence, First release data, Census Geographic Areas, Information Consultancy, Journey to Work (JTW), Second release data, Table, Working population.
Around twenty five per cent of all CDs undergo some type of change between censuses. The types of changes which can occur include:
The extent of change is indicated in a variable on the Collection District Record Database. This can be used to approximate links between geographic areas over time.
The ABS has used this information to prepare a definition of 1996 SLAs which can be used with 2001 Census data. The Time Series Community Profile (available on CDATA2001, or separately), utilises this concordance.
The 2001 Census is the first census to seek information on the use of Personal Computers (PCs) at home. The variable provides information relating to people's use of PCs in the week prior to Census Night. The question on computer use allows for either a yes or no response.
This information will help identify how widespread the use of computers at home has become in Australia for particular regions and population groups.
PCs include: computers used at home for private and business purposes; portable computers; personal organisers; computers brought home from the workplace; and dedicated word processors. Game machines are not included.
See also Internet Use (NETP).
Under the Census and Statistics Act 1905, it is an offence to release any information collected under the Act that would enable identification of any particular individual or organisation.
For the Census, strict measures are taken in field collection, processing and output of data to guard against the release of confidential information.
Census collectors are responsible for ensuring the census forms for their Collection Districts are secure at all times. Strict building security is maintained at the Census Data Processing Centre (DPC). After processing of the forms has been completed they are pulped under the supervision of an officer of the ABS. All records used by collectors are destroyed.
The data from each census form are transferred on to computer files without names and addresses.
All name-identified information from past censuses has been destroyed, once the statistical processing was completed. However, for the 2001 Census, not all name-identified information will be destroyed:
Customised tables for some geographic areas can be produced with cells containing very small counts. In cases where this occurs small random adjustments are made to the data to avoid any risk of releasing identifiable information. These adjustments allow for a greater amount of detailed data to be released, and as they are small, do not affect the utility of the data.
A comprehensive list of the precautions taken to ensure confidentiality of census data is listed in the information paper 2001 Census of Population and Housing: Nature and Content (Cat. no. 2008.0).
See also Introduced random error, Table.
See Information Consultancy.
A contributing family worker is a person who works without pay in an economic enterprise operated by a relative.
See also Labour Force Status/Status in Employment (LFSP).
Copyright and intellectual property rights for the 2001 Census data and digital boundaries are retained solely by the Commonwealth of Australia and are administered by the ABS. Any use of the boundaries is subject to a standard licence agreement to be signed by parties purchasing the boundaries.
The Public Sector Mapping Agencies (PSMA) have ownership of the copyright of the digital base maps used by the Census.
Persons Temporarily Absent from Household (CPAD)
Dependent Children Under 15 Temporarily Absent (CDCAF)
Dependent Students (15-24) Temporarily absent (CDSAF)
Non-Dependent Children Temporarily Absent (CNDAF)
A couple family is based on two persons who are in a registered or de facto marriage and who are usually resident in the same household. The family may or may not include any number of dependents, non-dependents and other related individuals, thus a couple family can consist of a couple without children present in the household. See also Marital status, Same-sex couples.
See Caravans, houseboats, etc.
The 2001 Census customised geographic data reports provide clients with tabular geographic data which relate specifically to the Census Geographic Areas. The data available in these reports are taken from the Collection District Record Database (CDRD).
Three types of common geographic data reports can be provided using the following standardised reports:
Clients who have data requirements that cannot be met by these three standard reports, or a combination thereof, can have their requests serviced though a special data query facility which is also available.
To place an order for a customised geographic data report, contact ABS Information Consultancy. Contact details for Information Consultancy are provided on the back cover of this publication.
See also Collection District Record Database (CDRD), Census Geographic Areas.
ABS Information Consultancy offer two types of customised mapping services:
The digital geographic data used in these two services are generally 2001 Census Reduced Boundaries and 2001 PSMA Reduced Base Map, although other data are used where appropriate or required by the client.
Thematic maps are maps which show various geographic regions which are shaded or patterned, or use some other graphic tool (for example, different sized dots), to convey differences in a particular characteristic. Census data are a particularly popular source of data used for these types of maps as a wide range of characteristics are available for small areas. These areas and the associated statistics can then be aggregated to cover a wide range of differently shaped regions to suit various needs.
Customised thematic maps are available for all the Census Geographic Areas and most client-specified areas. These maps can incorporate statistical data from the Census and a wide range of other sources. Topographic data, such as roads, railway lines or features such as hospitals, schools and towns, are also available for inclusion in these thematic maps.
Reference maps are maps which show the boundaries and other non-statistical geographic information of particular geographic regions, usually in the context of the topographic features which define them. These types of maps are particularly important when using census data as they help to define the extent of the Census Geographic Areas.
Customised reference maps are available to suit most client needs. These maps contain base map (topographic) data, Census Geographic Areas and/or client-specified boundaries. They do not contain any statistical data and they are not available without ABS boundaries of some description.
To place a mapping consultancy request, contact ABS Information Consultancy. Contact details for Information Consultancy are provided on the back cover of this publication.
Community Profile data can be made available according to client specified areas and/or component tables of the profile either in hard copy or electronic formats. Purchasers of Community Profile data on electronic media are offered a format compatible with a wide range of spreadsheet and database software.
To discuss your data requirements contact ABS Information Consultancy. Contact details for ABS Information Consultancy are provided on the back cover of this publication.
See also Community Profile Series, Information Consultancy.
See Customised geographic reports, Customised mapping service, Customised profiles, Information Consultancy.
If standard 2001 Census products and services cannot meet a particular user's needs, a customised table may be ordered. Tables can be tailored to meet client-specific requirements, allowing maximum flexibility in the selection of any number of census variables for any geographic area.
Tables are available in hard copy or electronic format suitable for use in a range of spreadsheets and databases. Manipulation software is provided (where needed) free of charge with tables disseminated in electronic form. This software enables clients to view, select, print and export selections from the table.
Either contact ABS Information Consultancy to discuss your requirements, or use the Census Table Specification Service on the ABS web site to specify your tables. Contact details for ABS Information Consultancy are provided in the back of this publication.
See also Census Table Specification Service, Customised geographic reports, Customised mapping service, Information Consultancy, Internet.
This page last updated 12 October 2006
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