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SELECTED SERVICE INDUSTRIES
The Wholesale trade industry covers those businesses involved in the sale of new or used goods to businesses or to institutional (including government) users. Graph 22.4 shows annual volume measures of total wholesale trade sales.
22.4 wholesale sales(a)
At the end of June 2008, There were 1184 museums/galleries organisations, operating from 1,456 locations across Australia, comprising: 768 social history museums; 425 historic properties/sites; 180 art museums/galleries; and 83 other types of museums (table 22.5).
These museums contained more than 52 million artefacts, artworks and museum objects at 30 June 2008, and were visited by almost 31 million visitors during 2007-08. The majority of admissions were free of charge (68%). A total of $113 million (m) was spent on acquiring museum objects and artworks, and 3,970 special exhibitions and displays were held.
At 30 June 2008, there were 7,856 people employed in museums, while during the month of June 2008 there were a large number of volunteers (23,426) assisting with museum operations.
During 2007-08, museums generated a total of $998 million(m) in income. Most of this income was sourced from government funding ($658m or 66%). Fundraising operations provided $106m (11%) and admissions $76m (8%).
Of the $860m incurred in expenses by museums during 2007-08, labour costs were the most significant specific expense at $381m (44% of total expenses).
In 2007-08, Victoria had the highest proportion of total admissions to museums for Australia (30%), followed by New South Wales (27%) and the Australian Capital Territory (13%) (graph 22.6).
22.6 admissions to museums(a) - 2007-08
At 30 June 2008 there were 15,326 businesses and organisations mainly engaged in the provision of legal services or legal support services in Australia. These organisations comprised 11,244 'other legal services' (businesses providing legal services including solicitor, patent attorney, notary, conveyancing and title searching businesses, plus businesses providing support services), 3,869 barristers, 179 community legal centres, 9 Aboriginal legal services, 9 government solicitors, 9 public prosecutors, and 8 legal aid commissions organisations (table 22.7).
Legal services had a total employment at 30 June 2008 of 99,696 persons, comprising 84,921 'other legal services' (85% of total legal services employment), 5,154 barristers (5%) and 9,622 other staff (10%).
During 2007-08, legal services generated $18,011m in income. The main source of income was fee income from the provision of legal and legal support services ($16,363m or 91% of total income). Government funding accounted for $1,073m (6% of total income). Income per person employed averaged $180,700 per person, comprising $271,300 for barristers; $212,700 for legal aid commissions; $179,100 for 'other legal services' people; $159,300 for government solicitors; $139,200 for public prosecutors; $96,800 for Aboriginal legal services; and $61,100 for community legal services.
Legal services incurred total expenses of $12,395m during 2007-08, with wages and salaries ($4,567m) being the most significant specific expense, accounting for 37% of total expenses. Payments for legal and legal support services accounted for $2,784m (22% of total expenses).
The operating profit before tax during 2007-08 was $4,581m for 'other legal services' and $1,010m for barristers. Industry value added totalled $10,944m, with 'other legal services' contributing $9,565m (87% of the total), and barristers' services $1,084m (10%).
Cafes, restaurants and catering services
An important component of hospitality services is cafes, restaurants and catering services. This includes businesses mainly engaged in operating cafes and restaurants for consumption of meals on the premises, and businesses mainly engaged in catering services. Businesses mainly engaged in takeaway food services are excluded. The estimates are based on the Australian and New Zealand Standard Industrial Classification (ANZSIC) 2006 edition (ANZSIC06).
At 30 June 2007 there were 15,423 businesses in cafes, restaurants and catering services (table 22.8), comprising 5,213 licensed cafes and restaurants; 2,736 licensed and Bring Your Own (BYO) cafes and restaurants; 2,005 BYO cafes and restaurants; 3,983 unlicensed cafes and restaurants, and 50 chefs. In addition, there were 1,437 catering businesses.
At 30 June 2007 total employment in cafes, restaurants and catering services was 195,814 people, of whom 74,328 (38%) were waiting staff, 35,586 (18%) were kitchen hands, 23,963 (12%) were managers/supervisors, and 22,012 (11%) were qualified chefs/cooks.
During 2006-07 cafes and restaurants generated $9,703m in income. Almost two thirds of this income (65%) was generated from sales of meals consumed on the premises. Catering services generated $3,971m (29% of total cafes, restaurants and catering services income of $13,673m), while sales of liquor and other beverages accounted for $2,725m (20%) of total income.
Total expenses of businesses during 2006-07 were $13,108m. The two largest expense items were purchases ($4,839m) and labour costs ($4,778m), which represented 37% and 36% respectively of total expenses.
During 2006-07, cafes, restaurants and catering services recorded an operating profit before tax of $576m, representing an operating profit margin of 4%. Industry value added was $5,696m.
Digital game development services
At 30 June 2007, there were 45 businesses in Australia involved in the provision of digital game development services (table 22.9).
At 30 June 2007, there were 1,431 people employed by digital game development businesses. Artists and animators accounted for 34% (491 people) of total employment, while programmers accounted for 29% (417 people). Managerial/administrative/clerical workers contributed 15% (212 people) to total employment.
During 2006-07 these businesses generated a total income of $137m, which represented an average of $3m per business. Income from the provision of game development services accounted for 85% ($117m) of total income. Income received from non-resident businesses for the provision of game development services accounted for 79% ($108m) of total income. Government funding contributed 1% ($2m) to total income in 2006-07.
Games developed for console formats (e.g. Playstation, Xbox, Wii) accounted for 71% ($83m) of total income from the provision of game development services, while games developed for PC and Mac formats accounted for 15% ($17m).
Total expenses incurred during 2006-07 were $129m. Almost two-thirds of this amount was attributable to labour costs ($84m).
During 2006-07 digital game development services businesses recorded industry value added of $98m, an operating profit before tax of $9m, and an operating profit margin of 6%.
Businesses/organisations primarily involved in performing arts operation have two components - performing arts operation, and performing arts venue operation. These businesses/organisations are mainly engaged in providing live theatrical or musical presentations (including popular music production, theatre production, opera, ballet and drama).
Performing arts operation
At the end of June 2007, there were 726 performing arts operation businesses/organisations (table 22.10). Of these, 180 were primarily involved in popular music production, 102 in symphony and choral production, 143 in drama production, 36 in dance production and 264 in other productions such as musical theatre, circuses, etc. These 726 businesses/organisations comprised 381 for-profit businesses and 345 not-for-profit organisations.
At the end of June 2007, there were 6,569 people working in performing arts operation activities. More people were employed as performing artists (50% of total employment or 3,249 people) than managers, administrative or clerical staff (24% or 1,542 people). Performing artists consisted mainly of singers and musicians (1,980 people or 61% of total performing artists), actors (467 people or 14%) and dancers (290 people or 9%). In addition to paid employment, there were 6,582 volunteers during the month of June 2007.
During 2006-07, businesses/organisations predominantly involved in performing arts operation generated $733m in income. The main source of income for these businesses/organisations was box office income ($356m), which accounted for just under half (49%) of total income, while Government funding accounted for 24% ($174m) of total income.
Performing arts operation businesses/organisations incurred $683m in expenses during 2006-07. Labour costs were the most significant expense (37% of total expenses or $255m). Rent, leasing and hiring accounted for 11% (or $73m) and contract payments to performers/artists and artistic support 8% (or $57m) of total expenses.
During 2006-07, the 726 performing arts operation businesses/organisations reported 43,460 paid performances (of which 5% or 2,280 were performed overseas) and 12 million paid attendances (of which 7% or 899,200 were at productions performed overseas). Drama production accounted for the largest proportion of total paid performances (33% or 14,368) followed by popular music (16% or 6,813) and musical theatre (13% or 5,799). Drama production also accounted for the largest share of paid attendances (26% or 3 million), followed by symphony and choral production (18% or 2.2 million) and musical theatre (16% or 2 million).
During 2006-07 total value added by performing arts operation businesses/organisations was $282m, while operating profit before tax was $50m and the operating profit margin was 10%.
At the end of June 2007, there were 145 performing arts venue operators in Australia (table 22.11). These businesses/organisations operated 189 separate venues. The majority of these venues were in capital cities and suburbs (58%).
The 189 performing arts venues in Australia had 271 spaces and a combined seating capacity of 226,700, with an average seating capacity per performing arts space of 837.
There were 20,819 performances with paid admissions held in performing arts venues during 2006-07. Drama performances (30% or 6,153) accounted for the largest share of total performances, followed by musical theatre performances (15% or 3,037), popular music (14% or 2,950) and dance (12% or 2,408).
There were 5,876 people employed by performing arts venue operators at the end of June 2007. In addition to paid employees, there were 1,935 volunteers during the month of June 2007.
During 2006-07, performing arts venue operators generated a total income of $494m. The two main sources of income were government funding ($166m) and rent, leasing and hiring ($118m) which represented 34% and 24% of total income respectively. Box office income accounted for $81m (16% of total income).
Performing arts venue operators incurred $482m in expenses during 2006-07. Labour costs accounted for $180m (37%) of total expenses and repair and maintenance 7% ($36m).
Total industry value added by these businesses/organisations was $207m. Performing arts venue operators recorded an operating profit/surplus before tax of $13m, and an operating profit/surplus margin of 4%.
Accommodation services include businesses providing visitor accommodation services, such as hotels, motels, holiday houses and flats, serviced apartments, resorts, ski lodges, student residences (other than boarding schools), youth hostels, holiday parks, caravan parks and camping grounds.
At the end of June 2007, there were 5,891 businesses in Australia mainly involved in the provision of accommodation services (table 22.12). These accommodation businesses operated 6,668 accommodation establishments around Australia. Motels accounted for more than one-third (35% or 2,345 establishments) of all establishments and holiday parks, caravan parks and camping grounds one-fifth (21% or 1,374 establishments). Serviced apartments and visitor hostels accounted for 9% (583 establishments) and 8% (550 establishments), respectively.
There were 95,931 people employed by accommodation businesses in Australia at the end of June 2007.
During 2006-07 accommodation services businesses generated a total income of $9,876m, which represented an average of $2m per business. The main source of income for these businesses was takings from accommodation which accounted for two-thirds (66% or $6,520m) of total income, followed by takings from meals (14% or $1,388m).
Total expenses incurred during 2006-07 were $8,844m. Labour costs accounted for just over a third (36% or $3,161m) of total expenses, followed by purchases (12% or $1,072m) and rent, leasing and hiring (9% or $831m).
During 2006-07 total industry value added by these businesses was $4,775m, while operating profit before tax was $1,061m and their operating profit margin was 11%.
Television, film and video production and post-production services
Television, film and video production and post-production services include businesses mainly engaged in television broadcasting services, and film and video production and post-production services.
Television broadcasters included Australian businesses mainly engaged in public, commercial free-to-air or subscription television broadcasting, or mainly engaged in the provision of subscription television channel content. These services include the production of television programs, whether live or on tape or other recording medium, for own use. Community television broadcasters were excluded.
Film and video production and post-production services included businesses in Australia that were mainly engaged in film, television program, television commercial and video production. Post-production services included businesses mainly engaged in providing post, digital and visual effects services, including specialised film or video post-production services such as editing, film/tape transfers, titling, subtitling, credits, closed captioning and computer-processed graphics, animation and special effects, as well as developing and processing motion picture film.
Television, film and video production
During 2006-07, these businesses incurred $1,882m in production costs, which included all costs relating to the development, pre-production, on-set production and post-production for films, television programs and other film and video productions (table 22.13). Productions made primarily for television accounted for most of these costs (73% or $1,366m). Production of commercials, station promotions and program promotions accounted for 13% ($243m) and productions made other than for television 15% ($273m).
News and current affairs programs incurred the highest production costs ($412m), followed by light entertainment and variety ($306m), sport ($268m) and drama ($153m). Television broadcasters accounted for 65% ($889m) of total production costs for productions made primarily for television.
Table 22.14 shows that at the end of June 2007 there were 2,492 film and video production and post-production services businesses operating in Australia.
Collectively, these businesses employed 13,844 people. On-set production staff accounted for the greatest number of people employed (41% or 5,727 people). Animation, computer generated imagery and visual effects technicians accounted for 5% (673 people) of total employment for film and video production and post-production services businesses.
These businesses generated $2,028m in income, with the majority earned from film, video and television production (56% or $1,132m of total income), followed by post-production services (21% or $428m), and production services (17% or $344m).
Film and video production services incurred $1,857m in expenses in 2006-07. Labour costs accounted for 33% of specified total expenses ($620m), followed by payments to other businesses/contractors for production services (19% or $356m) and payments to other businesses/contractors for post-production services (6% or $104m).
The operating profit before tax of these businesses was $174m and their operating profit margin was 9%. Total industry value added by film and video production and post-production services businesses was $886m.
Commercial television broadcasting
The operations of commercial television broadcasters comprised commercial free-to-air and subscription television broadcasters.
Commercial free-to-air television broadcasters employed 6,980 people at the end of June 2007 (table 22.15). These businesses generated $4,530m in income during 2006-07. Their main source of income was the sale of airtime ($3,611m).
During 2006-07, commercial free-to-air television broadcasters had expenses of $3,704m. The main expenses for these businesses were program rights expensed ($725m or 20% of total expenses) and labour costs ($682m or 18%).
The operating profit before tax of commercial free-to-air television broadcasting businesses was $834m and their operating profit margin was 19%. Industry value added by these businesses was $1,817m.
There were 13 subscription television broadcaster businesses, employing 3,052 people, at the end of June 2007 (table 22.16). These businesses generated $2,283m in income during 2006-07. Subscription fees were the main income source for these broadcasters ($1,975m or 87%).
During 2006-07, the main expenses incurred by subscription television broadcasters were payments to subscription television channel providers ($844m or 34% of total expenses), depreciation and amortisation costs ($337m or 14%) and other contract, subcontract and commission expenses ($253m or 10%). Total expenses were $2,450m.
For subscription television broadcasting businesses, operating loss before tax was $163m and their operating profit margin was -8%. Industry value added by these businesses was $334m.
At 30 June 2007 there were 41,008 not-for-profit organisations in Australia (table 22.17). Religious organisations accounted for 21% (8,786) of all not-for-profit organisations, followed by Culture and recreation organisations which accounted for 20% (8,258).
Not-for-profit organisations employed 889,919 people at 30 June 2007. Social services organisations accounted for 25% (221,549 people) of total employees, followed by Education and research organisations (25% or 218,388 people). In addition to paid employees, there were 2,182,476 volunteers during 2006-07.
During the 2006-07 financial year, not-for-profit organisations received $76 billion (b) in income. The main source of income for these organisations was funding from federal, state and local government, which accounted for just over a third (34% or $26b) of total income. This funding was primarily received by Education and research (32% or $8b) and Social services (25% or $6b) organisations. Over two-thirds (69% or $18b) of total government funding to not-for-profit organisations was volume based funding (for example, granted on a per student or a per client basis).
Income from services accounted for 30% ($23b) of total income. The majority of this income was earned by Culture and recreation organisations (28% or $6b) and Education and research (24% or $5b). Donations, sponsorship and fund raising accounted for 10% ($7b) of total income and sales of goods 9% ($7b).
During the 2006-07 financial year, not-for-profit organisations incurred $70b in expenses. The main expense incurred by these organisations was labour costs, which accounted for nearly half of total expenses (47% or $33b). Education and research organisations accounted for 29% ($10b) of total labour costs and Social services organisations 20% ($6b).
Operating surplus before tax by these organisations for the 2006-07 financial year was $6b and industry value added was $36b.