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1301.0 - Year Book Australia, 2002  
Previous ISSUE Released at 11:30 AM (CANBERRA TIME) 25/01/2002   
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Contents >> Service Industries >> Selected business services

Cleaning services

The ABS conducted its first survey of the cleaning services industry in respect of 1998-99. The industry includes businesses mainly engaged in the cleaning of windows and building interiors, and related cleaning services. Businesses mainly involved in the cleaning of building exteriors or cleaning of carpets and curtains are excluded.

At the end of June 1999 there were 5,938 businesses in the cleaning services industry, of which 2,864 were sole proprietorships or partnerships. As shown in table 21.25, the cleaning of commercial buildings and offices was the main cleaning activity for 2,899 businesses (49% of all businesses in the industry).

At June 30 1999, total employment in the cleaning services industry was 95,001 persons, of whom 90,267 persons (95%) worked as cleaners. Nearly half (48%) of the persons working in the industry were permanent part-time employees. Casual employees accounted for 26% and full-time employees accounted for 22% of total employment. The remaining 5% of employment comprised working proprietors and partners.

During 1998-99 the total income of the cleaning services industry was $2,137m, of which $2,044m was derived from general cleaning services. Some 42% of the latter came from the cleaning of commercial buildings and offices, 16% from the cleaning of education premises, 15% from retail premises and 8% from industrial premises.

Labour costs of $1,377m represented 70% of total expenses ($1,981m) of the cleaning services industry during 1998-99. The average labour costs per employee were $15,200, which reflected the high incidence of casual and part-time employees working in the industry. After expenses, the operating profit before tax for the cleaning services industry was $156m, representing an operating profit margin of 7.3%.


21.25 CLEANING SERVICES INDUSTRY - 1998-99

Units
Value

Businesses at 30 June -
- Sole proprietors or partnerships no.
2,864
- Incorporated companies no.
2,415
- Trusts no.
659
- Total no.
5,938
Businesses by main cleaning activity -
- Commercial buildings/office premises no.
2,899
- Industrial premises no.
345
- Retail premises no.
532
- Domestic premises no.
717
- Event venues no.
28
- Education premises no.
776
- Hospitality premises no.
449
- Health premises no.
85
- Transport facilities no.
38
- Other no.
69
- Total no.
5,938
Employment at 30 June -
- Cleaning persons
90,267
- Other persons
4,734
- Total persons
95,001
Income -
- Income from general cleaning services
- From the private sector $m
1,555.4
- From the public (government) sector $m
488.7
- Total $m
2,044.1
- Other income $m
92.9
- Total $m
2,137.0
Expenses -
- Labour costs $m
1,377.1
- Payments to sub-contractors for general cleaning services $m
166.0
- Purchases $m
100.2
- Other expenses $m
337.9
- Total $m
1,981.0
Operating profit before tax $m
155.5
Operating profit margin %
7.3

Source: Cleaning Services Industry, Australia, 1998-99 (8672.0).


Of the 5,938 businesses in the cleaning services industry, only 101 businesses (less than 2% of all businesses) employed more than 100 persons. These large businesses accounted for 52% of industry income, and 55% of industry employment.


Security services

The first ABS survey of the security services industry was conducted in respect of 1998-99. The industry is defined as all businesses mainly engaged in providing security, protection and private enquiry services. It excludes police services and businesses mainly providing locksmith services, alarm installing, or manufacturing and wholesaling of alarms.

At the end of June 1999 there were 1,714 businesses in the security services industry (table 21.26). The provision of static guard/crowd control services was the main activity of 811 businesses within the sector, and the provision of mobile patrol services was the main activity of 420 businesses. Of the remainder, 368 businesses were mainly involved in private investigative and enquiry services, 54 businesses in security monitoring services, and 26 businesses in cash-in-transit/armoured car services.

At 30 June 1999 there were 31,752 persons working in the security services industry. Casual employees accounted for 47% of total employment, while full-time employees and permanent part-time employees accounted for 37% and 14% respectively.

During 1998-99, the total income of the security services industry was $1,395m. Businesses in the industry carried out a diverse range of security work, with 38% of total income generated from static guard and crowd control services, 23% from mobile patrol services and 22% from other security services including cash-in-transit and armoured car services. Other major sources of income were security monitoring services (9% of total income) and private investigator and enquiry services (4% of total income).

Expenses of $1,304m were incurred by the security services industry during 1998-99. Labour costs of $756m accounted for 58% of total expenses. In 1998-99, the industry recorded an operating profit before tax of $90m, which represented an operating profit margin of 6.5%.


21.26 SECURITY SERVICES INDUSTRY - 1998-99

Units
Value

Businesses by main security activity at 30 June -
- Cash-in-transit/armoured car service no.
26
- Mobile patrol service no.
420
- Static guard/crowd control service no.
811
- Security monitoring service no.
54
- Private investigator/enquiry service no.
368
- Other security services no.
35
- Total no.
1,714
Employment at 30 June persons
31,752
Income -
Income from security services
- Mobile patrol service $m
320.9
- Static guard/crowd control service $m
532.2
- Security monitoring service $m
121.2
- Private investigator/enquiry service $m
53.3
- Other security services $m
311.6
- Total $m
1,339.2
- Other income $m
55.6
- Total $m
1,394.8
Expenses -
- Labour costs $m
756.2
- Payments to sub-contractors for security services $m
205.9
- Other expenses $m
341.5
- Total expenses $m
1,303.6
Operating profit before tax $m
89.7
Operating profit margin %
6.5
Source: Security Services, Australia, 1998-99 (8557.0).


At 30 June 1999 there were 19 businesses in the security services industry employing 100 persons or more. These businesses accounted for 54% of industry employment and 63% of industry income in 1998-99; the operating profit before tax of these large businesses was $68m, accounting for 76% of the industry's operating profit before tax.


Employment services

The first ABS survey of the employment services industry was conducted in respect of 1998-99. The industry includes all businesses mainly involved in the provision of employment services such as personnel recruitment, search, selection, referral and job placement on a permanent, temporary and contract employment basis.

At the end of June 1999 there were 2,127 businesses involved in the provision of employment services (table 21.27). Of these, 1,719 (82%) were for profit, with the remainder being not-for-profit organisations. During 1998-99 there were 2,736,333 job placements made by these businesses, of which 88% were temporary and contract placements.

At 30 June 1999 there were 28,912 persons working directly for businesses in the employment services industry, with 50% of these persons working as employment consultants. A further 278,937 persons were employed by businesses in the employment services industry and were on-hired to other businesses.

During 1998-99, the total income generated by the employment services industry was $7,818m. The main components of this income were derived from employers for persons on-hired ($5,784m or 74%) and income derived from job network placement activity of $595m. Income generated from employer payments for permanent placement and personnel recruitment services was $548m.

Total expenditure of businesses in the employment services industry during 1998-99 was $7,404m. Labour costs were the highest single expense ($5,758m), representing 78% of total expenses. The average labour costs per person working directly for businesses in the employment services industry were $39,500. Other significant expenses incurred by the industry were Rent, leasing and hiring expenses ($130m) and Advertising expenses ($83m).

In 1998-99 the industry recorded an operating profit/surplus before tax of $426m, representing an operating profit margin of 5.6%.


21.27 EMPLOYMENT SERVICES INDUSTRY - 1998-99

Units
Value

Businesses at 30 June -no.
2,127
Placements during the year ended 30 June 1999 -
- By for profit businessesno.
2,561,676
- By not-for-profit businessesno.
174,657
- Total no.
2,736,333
Employment at 30 June -
- Persons working directly for employment placement businessespersons
28,912
- Persons on-hired to other businesses/organisationspersons
278,937
- Total persons
307,849
Income -
- Income from employers for
- Permanent placement/personnel recruitment$m
547.5
- Persons on-hired$m
5,783.7
- Other$m
501.0
- Total -$m
6,832.1
- Income from job network placement activity$m
594.6
- Government funding$m
164.7
- Other$m
226.3
- Total $m
7,817.7
Expenses -
- Labour costs $m
5,757.7
- Rent, leasing and hiring expenses$m
130.1
- Advertising expenses$m
82.9
- Other expenses $m
1,433.4
- Total $m
7,404.1
Operating profit/surplus before tax $m
426.1
Operating profit margin %
5.6

Source: Employment Services, Australia, 1998-99 (8558.0).


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