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1301.0 - Year Book Australia, 2002  
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Contents >> Agriculture >> Crops

Table 16.14 shows the area of crops in the States and Territories of Australia since 1870-71, and table 16.15 is a summary of the area, production and gross value of the principal crops in Australia over recent years.


16.14 AREA OF CROPS



Year
NSW

’000 ha.
Vic.

’000 ha.
Qld

’000 ha.
SA

’000 ha.
WA

’000 ha.
Tas.

’000 ha.
NT

’000 ha.
ACT

’000 ha.
Aust.

’000 ha.

1870-71
156
280
21
235
22
64
-
-
868
1880-81
245
627
46
846
26
57
-
-
1,846
1890-91
345
822
91
847
28
64
-
-
2,197
1900-01
990
1,260
185
959
81
91
-
-
3,567
1910-11
1,370
1,599
270
1,112
346
116
-
-
4,813
1920-21
1,807
1,817
316
1,308
730
120
-
1
6,099
1930-31
2,756
2,718
463
2,196
1,939
108
1
2
10,184
1940-41
2,580
1,808
702
1,722
1,630
103
-
2
8,546
1949-50
2,295
1,881
832
1,518
1,780
114
-
4
8,424
1959-60
2,888
1,949
1,184
1,780
2,628
130
1
3
10,564
1969-70
4,999
2,212
2,208
2,290
3,912
98
6
2
15,728
1979-80
5,243
2,243
2,334
2,771
5,281
79
2
1
17,954
1990-91
4,073
2,063
2,872
2,933
5,359
75
6
-
17,382
1991-92
3,846
2,039
2,302
2,920
5,216
76
5
-
16,404
1992-93
3,906
2,258
2,316
3,073
5,668
73
4
1
17,297
1993-94
4,209
2,317
2,394
2,940
6,100
78
5
-
18,043
1994-95
3,432
2,296
2,056
2,991
6,182
77
4
-
17,040
1995-96
4,757
2,439
2,495
3,219
6,419
75
4
-
19,409
1996-97
5,589
2,552
2,685
3,279
6,950
73
5
-
21,133
1997-98
5,648
2,565
2,682
3,290
7,328
78
4
-
21,595
1998-99
6,173
2,749
3,014
3,648
7,597
76
7
-
23,264
1999-00
6,114
3,081
3,130
3,670
7,691
77
6
-
23,769

Source: Agriculture, Australia (7113.0).


16.15 SELECTED CROPS, Area, Production and Gross Value

Area(a)

Production

Gross value

Crop
1997-98

’000 ha.
1998-99

’000 ha.
1999-2000

’000 ha.
1997-98

’000 t
1998-99

’000 t
1999-2000

’000 t
1997-98

$m
1998-99

$m
1999-2000

$m

Cereals for grain
- Barley
3,521
3,167
2,596
6,482
5,987
5,032
1032
835
865
- Grain sorghum
507
587
622
1,081
1,891
2,116
183
282
260
- Maize
57
64
82
272
338
406
55
60
62
- Oats
937
909
584
1,634
1,798
1,118
223
157
118
- Rice
147
148
131
1,324
1,362
1,084
341
360
289
- Wheat
10,441
11,543
12,168
19,227
21,465
24,757
3,802
4,011
4,831
Lupins for grain
1,425
1,406
1,347
1,561
1,696
1,968
306
242
286
Crops cut for hay
- Cereal crops for hay
401
425
357
1,567
1,827
1,429
194
196
146
- Non-cereal crops for hay
59
45
47
170
126
159
20
14
25
Other Crops
- Sugar cane cut for crushing
415
402
428
39,531
38,534
38,165
1,248
1,044
882
- Tobacco
3
3
3
8
7
8
46
40
49
- Cotton lint(b)
381
446
435
564
634
698
1,228
1,353
1,416
- Peanuts (in shell)
19
21
20
32
47
40
22
31
27
- Soybean
32
55
56
54
107
104
22
44
36
- Canola
698
1,247
1,911
855
1,690
2,460
330
643
760
- Sunflower
90
195
162
84
220
170
34
81
64
Orchard fruit
- Oranges
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.
500
446
510
258
296
276
- Apples
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.
309
334
320
273
321
274
- Pears (excluding Nashi)
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.
153
157
156
108
112
72
- Peaches
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.
65
66
86
53
65
74
Other fruit
- Bananas
10
11
12
223
225
257
230
266
284
- Pineapples
3
3
3
123
131
139
37
39
44
Grapes
78
95
111
1,112
1,266
1,311
998
1200
1,118
Vegetables
- Carrots
7
7
7
267
257
283
151
167
154
- Potatoes
43
41
37
1,372
1,327
1,200
493
438
382
- Tomatoes
8
9
8
380
394
414
167
192
190
Total all crops (excluding pastures and grasses)
21,595
23,264
23,769
. .
. .
. .
14,695
15,520
16,316

(a) Area is productive area.
(b) Value of cotton includes value of cotton seed.

Source: Agriculture, Australia (7113.0); ABS data available on request, Agricultural Commodities Survey, Agricultural Census, Value of Agricultural Commodities Produced.


Cereal grains

In Australia, cereals are divided into autumn-winter-spring growing (winter cereals) and spring-summer-autumn growing (summer cereals). Winter cereals such as wheat, oats, barley and rye are usually grown in rotation with some form of pasture such as subterranean clover, medics or lucerne. In recent years, alternative winter crops such as canola, field peas and lupins have been introduced to crop rotation in areas where they had not previously been grown. Rice, maize and sorghum are summer cereals, the latter being grown in association with winter cereals in some areas. In northern Australia there are two rice growing seasons.


Wheat

Wheat is Australia's largest crop. It is produced in all States but primarily on the mainland in a narrow crescent known as the wheat belt. Inland of the Great Dividing Range, the wheat belt stretches in a curve from central Queensland through New South Wales, Victoria and southern South Australia. In Western Australia, the wheat belt continues around the south-west of the State and some way north, along the western side of the continent (see map 16.17).

Final estimates for the 1999-2000 season show that wheat production increased by 15% over the 1998-99 season to a record 24.8 million tonnes (table 16.16). New South Wales recorded the biggest increase in production, up by 31% to 8.6 million tonnes, followed by Victoria which was up by 81% to 2.6 million tonnes. Western Australia remained the biggest producer of wheat with a record State harvest of 9.0 million tonnes.


16.16 WHEAT FOR GRAIN, Area and Production

Year
NSW
Vic.
Qld
SA
WA
Tas.
Aust.

AREA (’000 ha.)

1994-95
1,424
822
401
1,395
3,848
1
7,891
1995-96
2,328
853
627
1,519
3,892
1
9,221
1996-97
3,192
963
980
1,535
4,264
2
10,936
1997-98
2,936
857
1,001
1,438
4,205
3
10,441
1998-99
3,174
949
1,139
1,762
4,515
4
11,543
1999-2000
3,425
1,235
1,096
1,850
4,556
6
12,168

PRODUCTION (’000 t)

1994-95
875
934
225
1,487
5,438
3
8,961
1995-96
4,508
1,921
519
2,724
6,827
4
16,504
1996-97
8,363
2,262
1,980
2,795
7,516
8
22,925
1997-98
5,906
1,503
1,392
2,689
7,725
12
19,227
1998-99
6,563
1,462
1,941
3,310
8,170
18
21,465
1999-2000
8,602
2,642
1,904
2,586
9,004
20
24,757

Source: Agricultural Commodities, Australia (7121.0).


16.17 WHEAT FOR GRAIN, Production - 1996-97(a)

Image


(a) This map has been generated using small area Agricultural Census data for 1996-97.
Source: Agstats (7117.0).


Oats

Oats are traditionally grown in moist, temperate regions. However, improved varieties and management practices have enabled oats to be grown over a wider range of soil and climatic conditions. They have a high feed value and produce a greater bulk of growth than other winter cereals; they need less cultivation and respond well to superphosphate and nitrogen. Oats have two main uses: as a grain crop, and as a fodder crop (following sowing, fallow or rough sowing into stubble or clover pastures). Fodder crops can either be grazed and then harvested for grain after removal of livestock, or else mown and baled or cut for chaff.

Map 16.18 shows the production of oats for grain in Australia in 1996-97.

16.18 OATS FOR GRAIN, Production - 1996-97(a)

Image


(a) This map has been generated using small area Agricultural Census data for 1996-97.
Source: AgStats (7117.0).


Production of oats fell by 38% to 1.1 million tonnes in 1999-2000, with falls recorded in all States. The largest falls in production were recorded in New South Wales (down by 58% to 284,000 tonnes) and Victoria (down by 35% to 296,000 tonnes), leaving Western Australia as the main producing State with a harvest of 439,000 tonnes (table 16.19).

16.19 OATS FOR GRAIN, Area and Production

Year
NSW
Vic.
Qld
SA
WA
Tas.
Aust.

AREA (’000 ha.)

1994-95
375
148
14
95
256
8
897
1995-96
505
187
14
120
300
10
1,136
1996-97
393
175
39
121
316
8
1,052
1997-98
325
172
16
111
305
8
937
1998-99
354
188
18
112
228
8
909
1999-2000
160
138
10
70
199
6
584

PRODUCTION (’000 t)

1994-95
197
201
3
87
425
11
924
1995-96
711
392
7
162
585
18
1,875
1996-97
607
304
26
156
546
14
1,653
1997-98
488
369
13
153
596
15
1,634
1998-99
669
458
15
178
463
14
1,798
1999-2000
284
296
12
78
439
10
1,118

Source: Agricultural Commodities, Australia (7121.0).


Barley

This cereal contains two main groups of varieties, 2-row and 6-row. The former is generally, but not exclusively, preferred for malting purposes. Barley is grown principally as a grain crop, although in some areas it is used as a fodder crop for grazing, with grain being subsequently harvested if conditions are suitable. It is often grown as a rotation crop with wheat, oats and pasture. When sown for fodder, sowing may take place either early or late in the season, as barley has a short growing period. It may therefore provide grazing or fodder supplies when other sources are not available. Barley grain may be crushed to meal for stock or sold for malting. Map 16.20 shows the production of barley for grain in Australia in 1996-97.


16.20 BARLEY FOR GRAIN, Production - 1996-97(a)
Image


(a) This map has been generated using small area Agricultural Census data for 1996-97.
Source: AgStats (7117.0).


Barley production fell by 16% to 5.0 million tonnes in 1999-2000 (table 16.21). Falls in barley production were recorded in all States except Victoria, where production increased by 37% to 1.2 million tonnes after a poor season in 1998-99.


16.21 BARLEY FOR GRAIN, Area and Production

Year
NSW
Vic.
Qld
SA
WA
Tas.
Aust.

AREA (’000 ha.)

1994-95
410
492
93
882
579
14
2,470
1995-96
593
628
168
964
745
14
3,111
1996-97
668
585
180
1,009
909
15
3,366
1997-98
701
618
135
1,017
1,036
13
3,521
1998-99
638
568
163
975
811
11
3,167
1999-2000
476
585
130
845
550
9
2,596

PRODUCTION (’000 t)

1994-95
291
448
73
1,159
915
27
2,913
1995-96
1,074
1,342
195
1,851
1,323
38
5,823
1996-97
1,483
1,189
429
1,923
1,635
35
6,696
1997-98
1,365
928
205
2,027
1,926
31
6,482
1998-99
1,247
870
320
2,051
1,469
30
5,987
1999-2000
1,040
1,189
254
1,409
1,117
22
5,032

Source: Agricultural Commodities, Australia (7121.0).


Grain sorghum

The sorghums are summer growing crops which are used in a number of ways: grain sorghum for grain; sweet or fodder sorghum, Sudan grass and, more recently, Columbus grass for silage, green feed and grazing; and broom millet for brooms and brushware. However, the grain is used primarily as stockfeed and is an important source for supplementing other coarse grains for this purpose.

Grain sorghum has been grown extensively only in the last two decades, with Queensland producing around 62% of the harvest (table 16.22). Grain sorghum is the third biggest cereal crop (in terms of production) in Australia despite it only being grown in significant quantities in Queensland and New South Wales.

16.22 GRAIN SORGHUM, Area and Production

Year
NSW
Vic.
Qld
SA
WA
Tas.
Aust.(a)

AREA (’000 ha.)

1994-95
161
6
519
(b)
-
(b)
687
1995-96
171
2
597
(b)
-
(b)
770
1996-97
117
1
424
-
1
(b)
544
1997-98
123
3
379
-
1
(b)
507
1998-99
216
**
367
-
*2
(b)
587
1999-2000
200
*1
419
(b)
*2
(b)
622

PRODUCTION (’000 t)

1994-95
347
8
916
(b)
2
(b)
1,273
1995-96
472
4
1,116
(b)
0
(b)
1,592
1996-97
417
3
1,003
-
2
(b)
1,425
1997-98
382
6
691
-
2
(b)
1,081
1998-99
822
**
1,059
-
*6
(b)
1,891
1999-2000
804
**
1,308
(b)
*2
(b)
2,116

(a) Includes the Northern Territory.
(b) Not collected.

Source: Agricultural Commodities, Australia (7121.0).


Maize

Maize is a summer cereal demanding specific soil and climatic conditions. Maize for grain is almost entirely confined to the south-east regions and the Atherton Tablelands of Queensland, and the north coast, northern slopes and tablelands and the Murrumbidgee Irrigation Area in New South Wales. Small amounts are grown for green feed and silage in association with the dairy industry.

In 1999-2000, maize for grain production increased by 20% to 406,000 tonnes (table 16.23).


16.23 MAIZE FOR GRAIN, Area and Production

Year
NSW
Vic.
Qld
SA
WA
Tas.
Aust.(a)

AREA (’000 ha.)

1994-95
21
1
27
(b)
2
(b)
50
1995-96
24
1
31
(b)
-
(b)
56
1996-97
31
1
34
-
1
-
67
1997-98
22
1
34
-
-
-
57
1998-99
27
1
37
**
*-
-
64
1999-2000
22
1
59
(b)
*-
(b)
82

PRODUCTION (’000 t)

1994-95
145
5
80
(b)
11
(b)
242
1995-96
190
7
114
(b)
1
(b)
311
1996-97
256
7
130
-
5
-
398
1997-98
161
10
97
-
3
-
272
1998-99
186
3
145
**
*4
-
338
1999-2000
178
4
224
(b)
*-
(b)
406

(a) Includes the Northern Territory.
(b) Not collected.

Source: Agricultural Commodities, Australia (7121.0).


Rice

Nearly all of Australia's rice is grown in New South Wales, with production centered in the Murrumbidgee and Murray Irrigation areas. It was first grown commercially in 1924-25 in the Murrumbidgee Irrigation Area, which remains the largest individual producing region to this day.

Rice production fell in 1999-2000 by 20% to 1.1 million tonnes (table 16.24).


16.24 RICE FOR GRAIN, Area and Production

Year
NSW
Vic.
Qld
SA
WA
Tas.
Aust.(a)

AREA (’000 ha.)

1994-95
119
(b)
(b)
(b)
(b)
(b)
119
1995-96
136
(b)
(b)
(b)
(b)
(b)
137
1996-97
151
1
(b)
(b)
(b)
(b)
152
1997-98
146
1
(b)
(b)
(b)
(b)
147
1998-99
148
1
(b)
(b)
(b)
(b)
148
1999-2000
131
(b)
(b)
(b)
**
(b)
131

PRODUCTION (’000 t)

1994-95
1,016
(b)
(b)
(b)
(b)
(b)
1,016
1995-96
965
(b)
(b)
(b)
(b)
(b)
966
1996-97
1,248
6
(b)
(b)
(b)
(b)
1,255
1997-98
1,320
4
(b)
(b)
(b)
(b)
1,324
1998-99
1,357
5
(b)
(b)
(b)
(b)
1,362
1999-2000
1,084
(b)
(b)
(b)
**
(b)
1,084

(a) Includes the Northern Territory.
(b) Not collected.

Source: Agricultural Commodities, Australia (7121.0).


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