Australian Bureau of Statistics

Rate the ABS website
ABS Home > Statistics > By Release Date
ABS @ Facebook ABS @ Twitter ABS RSS ABS Email notification service
3412.0 - Migration, Australia, 2010-11 Quality Declaration 
Previous ISSUE Released at 11:30 AM (CANBERRA TIME) 15/08/2012   
   Page tools: Print Print Page Print all pages in this productPrint All RSS Feed RSS Bookmark and Share Search this Product

GLOSSARY

12/12 month rule

A method for measuring an overseas traveller's duration of stay or absence in which the 12 month usual residence criterion in population estimates is measured across a 12 month period. Under a '12/12 month rule', overseas travellers must be resident in Australia for a continuous 12 month period or more to be included in the estimated resident population. Similarly, Australian residents travelling overseas must be absent from Australia for a continuous 12 month period or more to be removed from the estimated resident population.

12/16 month rule

A method for measuring an overseas traveller's duration of stay or absence which takes an approach to measure usual residence that does not have to be continuous, as opposed to the continuous approach used under a '12/12 month rule'. Under a '12/16 month rule', incoming overseas travellers (who are not currently counted in the population) must be resident in Australia for a total period of 12 months or more, during the 16 month follow-up period to then be included in the estimated resident population. Similarly, those travellers departing Australia (who are currently counted in the population) must be absent from Australia for a total of 12 months or more during the 16 month follow-up period to then be subtracted from the estimated resident population.

The 12/16 month rule therefore takes account of those persons who may have left Australia briefly and returned, while still being resident for 12 months out of 16. Similarly, it takes account of Australians who live most of the time overseas but periodically return to Australia for short periods.

Australian resident

For estimated resident population statistics, the Census year population estimates classify a person as an Australian resident if the person has (in the most recent Census) reported a usual address in Australia where the person has lived or intends to live for six months or more in the Census year. The post-censal estimates, while based on the Census data, are updated with international migration data that have a criterion of one year or more of intended stay in or departure from Australia.

Average annual growth rate

The average annual growth rate, r, is calculated as a percentage using the formula:

Diagram: eqG_1

where:

Equation: eqG_1ais the population at the end of the period

Equation: eqG_1bis the population at the start of the period

n is the length of the period between Equation: eqG_1aand Equation: eqG_1bin years.

Category jumping

Category jumping was the term used to describe changes between intended and actual duration of stay of travellers to/from Australia, such that their classification as short-term or as long-term/permanent movers is different at arrival/departure from that after 12 months. For more information see Migration, Australia, 2002-03, (cat. no. 3412.0), Chapter 6, 'Special article: Adjustments to overseas migration estimates'.

The Australian resident component of category jumping for a reference quarter was estimated by comparing the number of residents departing short-term in that quarter with all residents who left in that quarter and return in the following 12 months, to obtain the net number of Australian residents who 'jumped category'.

Similarly, the number of overseas visitors arriving short-term in a quarter was compared with all overseas visitors who arrived in that quarter and depart in the following 12 months, to obtain the net number of overseas visitors 'who jumped category'.

Estimates of category jumping were derived by subtracting the Australian resident component from the overseas visitor component.

Category jumping is no longer used following the implementation of the '12/16 month rule' methodology for estimating net overseas migration.

Category of movement

Category of movement is of particular relevance to the overseas arrivals and departures (OAD) collection. OAD are classified according to length of stay (in Australia or overseas), as recorded by travellers on passenger cards or derived with reference to previous border crossings. There are three main categories of movement and 10 sub-categories:
  • permanent movement:
      • permanent arrival (PA);
      • permanent departure (PD);
  • long-term movement - has a duration of stay (or absence) of one year or more:
      • long-term resident returning (LTRR);
      • long-term visitor arrival (LTVA);
      • long-term resident departure (LTRD);
      • long-term visitor departure (LTVD);
  • short-term movement - has a duration of stay (or absence) of less than one year:
      • short-term resident returning (STRR);
      • short-term visitor arrival (STVA);
      • short-term resident departure (STRD); and
      • short-term visitor departure (STVD).

A significant number of travellers (i.e. overseas visitors to Australia on arrival and Australian residents going abroad) state exactly 12 months or one year as their intended period of stay. Many stay for less than that period and on their departure from, or return to, Australia are therefore classified as short-term. Accordingly, in an attempt to maintain consistency between arrivals and departures, movements of travellers who report their actual or intended period of stay as being one year exactly are randomly allocated to long-term or short-term in proportion to the number of movements of travellers who report their actual length of stay as up to one month more, or one month less, than one year.

Census

The complete enumeration of a population or groups at a point in time with respect to well-defined characteristics (e.g. Population, Manufacturing, etc.). When the word is capitalised, "Census" usually refers to the national Census of Population and Housing.

Census count

The Census of Population and Housing enumerates persons on the basis of where they were located on Census Night. The Census also compiles information on people according to their place of usual residence. This information is coded to Census collection districts (CDs). This means that Census counts of people can be produced according to their location on Census Night as well as their place of usual residence. Characteristics of households are based on persons usually resident in a dwelling.

Country of birth

The classification of countries is the Standard Australian Classification of Countries (SACC). For more detailed information refer to Standard Australian Classification of Countries (SACC) Second Edition (cat. no. 1269.0).

Country of residence

Country of residence refers to the country in which travellers regard themselves as living or as last having lived.

Emigration

The process of leaving one country to take up permanent or semi-permanent residence in another.

Estimated resident population (ERP)

The estimated resident population (ERP) is the official measure of the population of Australia. It is based on the concept of usual residence. For the purpose of ERP, a person is regarded as a usual resident if they have been (or are expected to be) residing in Australia for a period of 12 months or more. As such, it refers to all people, regardless of nationality, citizenship or legal status who usually live in Australia, with the exception of foreign diplomatic personnel and their families.

Initial category of travel

Predominantly used to assist in the estimation of preliminary net overseas migration (NOM). Like category of movement, all overseas arrivals and departures are classified according to length of stay (in Australia or overseas), as recorded by travellers on passenger cards or derived with reference to previous border crossings. However, unlike the category of movement, all travellers are assigned to one, and only one, initial category of travel during the reference quarter. This removes the potential for a traveller to be included more than once in different categories of travel if they have made multiple overseas movements during the reference quarter.

For the purposes of estimating NOM, the rule used to assign an initial category of travel to each traveller is as follows:
  • Travellers who have any permanent or long-term movement (one year or more) recorded during the reference quarter have their last permanent/ long-term movement assigned as their initial category of travel; and
  • Travellers who only have a history of short-term movements (less than one year) recorded during the reference quarter have their first movement assigned as their initial category of travel.

For the purposes of calculating NOM, there are three main initial categories of travel and 10 sub-categories:
  • permanent traveller:
      • permanent arrival (PA);
      • permanent departure (PD);
  • long-term traveller - has a duration of stay (or absence) of one year or more:
      • long-term resident returning (LTRR);
      • long-term visitor arrival (LTVA);
      • long-term resident departure (LTRD);
      • long-term visitor departure (LTVD);
  • short-term traveller - has a duration of stay (or absence) of less than one year:
      • short-term resident returning (STRR);
      • short-term visitor arrival (STVA);
      • short-term resident departure (STRD); and
      • short-term visitor departure (STVD).

Intended length of stay

On arrival in Australia, all overseas visitors are asked to state their 'Intended length of stay in Australia'. On departure from Australia, all Australian residents are asked to state their 'Intended length of stay overseas'.

Intercensal discrepancy

Intercensal discrepancy is the difference between two estimates at 30 June of a Census year population, the first based on the latest Census and the second arrived at by updating the 30 June estimate of the previous Census year with intercensal components of population change which take account of information available from the latest Census. It is caused by errors in the start and/or finish population estimates and/or in estimates of births, deaths or migration in the intervening period which cannot be attributed to a particular source.

Intercensal error

Intercensal error is the difference between two estimates at 30 June of a Census year population, the first based on the latest Census and the second arrived at by updating the 30 June estimate of the previous Census year with intercensal components of population change which do not take account of information available from the latest Census.

Immigration

The process of entering one country from another to take up permanent or semi-permanent residence.

Internal migration

The movement of people across a specified boundary within Australia for the purpose of changing their place of usual residence.

Interstate migration

See net interstate migration.

Long-term arrivals

Long-term arrivals comprise of long-term visitor arrivals (LTVA) and long-term resident returns (LTRR).

Long-term departures

Long-term departures comprise of long-term resident departures (LTRD) and long-term visitor departures (LTVD).

Long-term resident departures (LTRD)

Australian residents who state that they intend to stay abroad for 12 months or more (but not permanently).

Long-term resident returns (LTRR)

Australian residents returning after an absence of 12 months or more overseas.

Long-term visitor arrivals (LTVA)

Overseas visitors who state that they intend to stay in Australia for 12 months or more (but not permanently).

Long-term visitor departures (LTVD)

Overseas visitors departing who stayed 12 months or more in Australia.

Main reason for journey

Overseas visitors/temporary entrants arriving in Australia and Australian residents departing temporarily from Australia are asked to state their main reason for journey. All statistics relating to main reason for journey use the following categories:
  • convention/conference;
  • business;
  • visiting friends/relatives;
  • holiday;
  • employment;
  • education; and
  • other.

Main state or territory of stay

Overseas visitors are asked on departure for the name of the state or territory in which they spent the most time.

Median age

For any distribution the median age is that age which divides the relevant population into two equal parts, half falling below the value, and half exceeding it. Where the age for a particular record has not been stated, that record is excluded from the calculation.

Migration

The movement of people across a specified boundary for the purpose of establishing a new or semi-permanent residence. Migration can be international (migration between countries) and internal (migration within a country).

Migration adjustment

The ABS applies a number of adjustments to overseas arrivals and departures data in order to produce estimates of net overseas migration (NOM). These mainly comprise adjustments designed to reflect differences between stated travel intentions and actual travel behaviour, but also include adjustments to transform numbers of overseas movements into numbers of travellers. Migration adjustments replaced the 'category jumping' adjustments previously applied to NOM estimates.

Natural increase

Excess of births over deaths.

Net internal migration:

The difference between the number of persons who changed their place of usual residence by moving in to, and out of, a defined area within Australia. This difference may be positive or negative.

Net interstate migration (NIM)

The difference between the number of persons who have changed their place of usual residence by moving into a given state or territory and the number who have changed their place of usual residence by moving out of that state or territory. This difference can be either positive or negative.

Net overseas migration (NOM)

Net overseas migration is the net gain or loss of population through immigration to Australia and emigration from Australia. It is:
  • based on an international travellers' duration of stay being in or out of Australia for 12 months or more; and
  • the difference between:
      • the number of incoming international travellers who stay in Australia for 12 months or more, who are not currently counted within the population, and are then added to the population (NOM arrivals); and
      • the number of outgoing international travellers (Australian residents and long-term visitors to Australia) who leave Australia for 12 months or more, who are currently counted within the population, and are then subtracted from the population (NOM departures).

Under the current method for estimating final net overseas migration this term is based on a traveller's
actual
duration of stay or absence using the '12/16 month rule'. Preliminary NOM estimates are modelled on patterns of traveller behaviours observed in final NOM estimates for the same period one year earlier.

Net overseas migration rate

The net overseas migration rate is the number of NOM travellers in a given period divided by the population sending or receiving the NOM travellers at a given period. It is calculated per 1,000 population.

NOM arrivals

NOM arrivals are all overseas arrivals that contribute to net overseas migration (NOM). It is the number of incoming international travellers who stay in Australia for 12 months or more, who are not currently counted within the population, and are then added to the population.

Under the current method for estimating final net overseas migration this term is based on a traveller's
actual
duration of stay or absence using the '12/16 month rule'.

NOM departures

NOM departures are all overseas departures that contribute to net overseas migration (NOM). It is the number of outgoing international travellers (Australian residents and long term visitors to Australia) who leave Australia for 12 months or more, who are currently counted within the population, and are then subtracted from the population.

Under the current method for estimating final net overseas migration this term is based on a traveller's
actual
duration of stay or absence using the '12/16 month rule'.

Other territories

Following amendments to the Acts Interpretation Act 1901 effective from July 1992, the two external territories of Christmas Island and Cocos (Keeling) Islands became part of geographical Australia. Since the 1996 Census, Christmas Island, Cocos (Keeling) Islands, and the Jervis Bay Territory (previously linked to the Australian Capital Territory for statistical purposes) comprise a pseudo 'ninth state/territory' of Australia. They are included in state nine 'Other Territories'.

Overseas arrivals and departures (OAD)

Overseas arrivals and departures (OAD) refer to the recorded arrival or departure of persons through Australian air or sea ports (excluding operational air and ships' crew). Statistics on OAD relate to the number of movements of travellers rather than the number of travellers (i.e. the multiple movements of individual persons during a given reference period are all counted).

Overseas migration

See net overseas migration (NOM).

Overseas migration adjustment

See Migration adjustment.

Passenger card

Passenger cards are completed by nearly all passengers arriving in, or departing from, Australia. Information including occupation, nationality, intended length of stay, main reason for journey, and state or territory of intended stay/residence is collected.

Percentage points

Units of difference between two percentages.

Permanent arrivals

Permanent arrivals (settlers) comprise:
  • travellers who hold migrant visas (regardless of stated intended period of stay);
  • New Zealand citizens who indicate an intention to migrate permanently; and
  • those who are otherwise eligible to settle (e.g. overseas-born children of Australian citizens).

This definition of settlers is used by DIAC. Prior to 1985 the definition of settlers used by the ABS was the stated intention of the traveller only. Numerically the effect of the change in definition is insignificant. The change was made to avoid the confusion caused by minor differences between data on settlers published separately by the ABS and DIAC.

Permanent departures

Permanent departures are Australian residents (including former settlers) who on departure state that they are departing permanently.

Permanent visa

Permission to travel to, enter and/or remain in Australia for a period of time or indefinitely.

Place of usual residence

See usual residence.

Population growth

For Australia, population growth is the sum of natural increase and net overseas migration. For states and territories, population growth also includes net interstate migration. After the Census, intercensal population growth also includes an allowance for intercensal discrepancy.

Population growth rate

Population change over a period as a proportion (percentage) of the population at the beginning of the period.

Sex ratio

The sex ratio relates to the number of males per 100 females. The sex ratio is defined for total population, at birth, at death and among age groups by selecting the appropriate numerator and denominator of the ratio.

Short-term arrivals

Short-term arrivals comprise of short-term visitor arrivals (STVA) and short-term resident returns (STRR).

Short-term departures

Short-term departures comprise of short-term resident departures (STRD) and short-term visitor departures (STVD).

Short-term resident departures (STRD)

Australian residents who intend to stay abroad for less than 12 months.

Short-term resident returns (STRR)

Australian residents returning after a stay of less than 12 months overseas.

Short-term visitor arrivals (STVA)

Overseas visitors who intend to stay in Australia for less than 12 months.

Short-term visitor departures (STVD)

Overseas visitors departing after a stay of less than 12 months in Australia.

Skill stream

Those categories of the Migration Program where the core eligibility criteria are based on the applicant's employability or capacity to invest and/or do business in Australia. The immediate accompanying families of principal applicants in the skill stream are also counted as part of the skill stream.

This definition of skill stream is used by DIAC who administer the Migration Program.

State or territory of intended address/where lived

Overseas visitors are asked on arrival in Australia for their state or territory of intended address. On departure from Australia, overseas visitors are asked the state or territory where they spent most time.

Australian residents are asked on departure for the state or territory in which they live/lived. Residents returning to Australia are asked for their state or territory of intended address.

State or territory of intended stay

See State or territory of intended address/where lived.

State or territory of usual residence

State or territory of usual residence refers to the state or territory and SLA of usual residence of the estimated resident population.

In the case of overseas movements, state or territory of usual residence refers to the state or territory regarded by the traveller as the one in which he/she lives or has lived. State or territory of intended residence is derived from the intended address given by settlers, and by Australian residents returning after a journey abroad. Particularly in the case of the former, this information does not necessarily relate to the state or territory in which the traveller will eventually establish a permanent residence.

State or territory where spent most time

See Main state or territory of stay.

Student net overseas migration (student NOM)

Student NOM is the net number of passengers travelling on student visas who contribute to net overseas migration. For further information see net overseas migration (NOM).

Student NOM arrivals

Student NOM arrivals are NOM arrivals for passengers travelling on student visas. For further information see NOM arrivals.

Student NOM departures

Student NOM departures are NOM departures for passengers travelling on student visas. For further information see NOM departures.

Temporary entrants

See temporary visas.

Temporary visas

Temporary entrant visas are visas permitting persons to come to Australia on a temporary basis for specific purposes which result in some benefit to Australia. Main contributors are international students, Temporary Resident visas (including temporary business entrants and working holiday makers) and visitors.

Temporary NOM arrivals

Temporary NOM arrivals are all temporary overseas arrivals that contribute to net overseas migration (NOM). It is the number of incoming international travellers who stay in Australia for 12 months or more and are added to the population but are not migrating permanently.

Under the current method for estimating final net overseas migration, this term is based on a traveller's
actual
duration of stay or absence using the 12/16 rule.

Usual residence

Usual residence within Australia refers to that address at which the person has lived or intends to live for a total of six months or more in a given reference year.

Visa

Permission or authority granted by the Australian government to foreign nationals to travel to, enter and/or remain in Australia for a period of time or indefinitely. Visas are managed by DIAC.



Bookmark and Share. Opens in a new window

Commonwealth of Australia 2014

Unless otherwise noted, content on this website is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 2.5 Australia Licence together with any terms, conditions and exclusions as set out in the website Copyright notice. For permission to do anything beyond the scope of this licence and copyright terms contact us.