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1301.0 - Year Book Australia, 2005  
Previous ISSUE Released at 11:30 AM (CANBERRA TIME) 21/01/2005   
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Contents >> Education and training >> Higher education

Institutions

There were 40 higher education institutions which received operating grants from the Australian Government Department of Education, Science and Training (DEST) in 2003, as well as the Australian Film, Television and Radio School, Avondale College, the National Institute of Dramatic Art and the Australian Defence Force Academy. The private Melbourne College of Divinity reported data for postgraduate students only, while Bond University in Queensland reported data for research students only.

Apart from the Australian National University and the Australian Maritime College, which are established under Commonwealth legislation, Australian universities operate under state or territory legislation. However, they are autonomous bodies responsible for their own governance and make their own decisions on allocation of funding, staffing and academic courses.

Most higher education institutions provide both full-time and part-time courses, and external or distance education courses. In addition, some institutions offer courses which associate full-time study with periods of employment.

Students and courses

Table 10.16 shows the numbers of higher education students and their mode of participation at higher education institutions. The number of such students enrolled during the 12-month period 1 September 2002 to 31 August 2003 was 929,952, an increase of more than 33,300 (or 3.7%) on that for the 12-month period ended 31 August 2002. The greatest increase in numbers of students occurred among those choosing internal mode (face-to-face) tuition (up by 22,507). Students choosing multi-modal tuition (a mixture of face-to-face and external tuition) increased by 10,024 (31%). Almost 65% of multi-modal higher education students in 2003 were female, compared with 54% of all higher education students.


10.16 HIGHER EDUCATION STUDENTS(a), By mode(b) and type of enrolment

2002
2003


Males
Females
Persons
Males
Females
Persons

Internal
Full-time
242,537
282,695
525,232
254,331
293,852
548,183
Part-time
92,685
106,997
199,682
93,243
105,995
199,238
Total
335,222
389,692
724,914
347,574
399,847
747,421
External
Full-time
10,833
13,608
24,441
10,819
14,442
25,261
Part-time
50,970
63,817
114,787
50,796
63,971
114,767
Total
61,803
77,425
139,228
61,615
78,413
140,028
Multi-modal
Full-time
8,938
15,969
24,907
11,205
20,581
31,786
Part-time
2,670
4,902
7,572
3,734
6,983
10,717
Total
11,608
20,871
32,479
14,939
27,564
42,503
Total
Full-time
262 308
312,272
574,580
276,355
328,875
605,230
Part-time
146,325
175,716
322,041
147,773
176,949
324,722
Total
408,633
487,988
896,621
424,128
505,824
929,952

(a) The scope of the data in this table is students enrolled at anytime within the 12-month period 1 September to 31 August.
(b) This relates to the delivery of education to the student. 'Internal' is where the delivery of education is done entirely within the institution, 'external' refers to delivery of course material to students off-campus, and 'multi-modal' is where at least one, but not all units, are provided at the institution.

Source: Department of Education, Science and Training, 'Students: Selected Higher Education Statistics'.


The basic undergraduate course at most institutions is a bachelor degree of three or four years duration. At some institutions, courses may also be offered at the diploma or advanced diploma level. Most institutions also offer postgraduate level study. One to two years of full-time postgraduate study are required for a master's degree and three to five years for a doctoral degree. Postgraduate diplomas and certificates are offered in some disciplines. In 2003, 68% of higher education students were enrolled in bachelor degree courses, with a further 27% enrolled in higher degree and other postgraduate courses (table 10.17).

Higher education institutions offer a wide variety of courses including: natural and physical sciences; information technology; engineering and related technologies; architecture and building; agriculture, environment and related studies; heath; education; management and commerce; society and culture; creative arts; and food, hospitality and personal services. The most commonly chosen fields of education for award course students in 2003 were management and commerce, society and culture, health, and education.


10.17 HIGHER EDUCATION STUDENTS, By level and field of education - 2003

Level of education of study

Post-graduate degree
Graduate diploma/Graduate certificate
Bachelor degree
Advanced diploma/Diploma
Other education
Total courses
Field of education
'000
'000
'000
'000
'000
'000

Natural and physical sciences
9.8
1.7
58.4
0.2
0.4
70.6
Information technology
15.4
4.7
56.6
0.1
0.2
77.0
Engineering and related technologies
11.5
2.3
49.4
0.3
1.2
64.7
Architecture and building
2.2
1.1
15.2
0.1
0.1
18.7
Agriculture, environment and related studies
3.5
1.1
11.9
1.4
0.5
18.5
Health
14.5
10.1
74.8
0.6
0.4
100.3
Education
15.8
13.0
60.3
0.6
0.7
90.3
Management and commerce
67.4
21.2
165.2
0.7
1.3
255.8
Society and culture
30.7
12.8
149.8
5.2
4.2
202.7
Creative arts
6.1
2.5
47.9
0.3
1.0
57.9
Food, hospitality and personal services
-
-
0.1
-
-
0.1
Mixed field programmes
-
-
-
-
2.0
2.0
Non-award
-
-
-
-
24.9
24.9
All students(a)
176.8
70.5
636.1
9.5
37.0
930.0

(a) Students undertaking combined courses are counted in each field they are studying. Because of this, the field of education component will not necessarily add to All students.

Source: Department of Education, Science and Training, 'Students 2003: Selected Higher Education Statistics'.


Table 10.18 shows the number of higher education students by age group and sex. Between 2002 and 2003 the growth in higher education student numbers (3.7%) has been strongest among 20-24 year olds (8.0%).


10.18 HIGHER EDUCATION STUDENTS(a), By age group

2001
2002
2003
Age group (years)
'000
'000
'000

19 and under
Males
86.4
88.8
88.3
Females
120.0
123.3
122.2
Persons
206.4
212.1
210.5
20-24
Males
129.7
141.2
152.9
Females
150.3
164.3
176.9
Persons
280.0
305.5
329.8
25-29
Males
59.7
63.7
65.4
Females
63.1
67.3
70.0
Persons
122.8
131.0
135.4
30 and over
Males
108.3
115.0
117.5
Females
124.6
133.0
136.8
Persons
232.9
248.0
254.3
Total
Males
384.1
408.6
424.1
Females
458.1
488.0
505.9
Persons
842.2
896.6
930.0

(a) The scope of the data in this table is students enrolled at anytime within the 12-month period 1 September to 31 August. Includes students in enabling and non-award courses.

Source: Department of Education, Science and Training, 'Students: Selected Higher Education Student Statistics'.


Graduate starting salaries

The average annual starting salary of male bachelor degree graduates has risen by 34% between 1993 and 2003 to $43,325. For females the rise was 31% to $38,299 (table 10.19).

Graduate starting salaries as a percentage of average annual full-time adult ordinary time earnings have declined in the years 1993 to 2003. For males they fell from 97.6% to 85.3%. For females the respective percentages fell from 105.4% to 89.3%.

The male postgraduate average annual starting salary rose by 44% between 1993 and 2003 to $68,161. For females the rise was 41% to $53,758. Male postgraduate starting salaries as a percentage of average annual full-time adult ordinary time earnings show a decline between 1993 and 2003, decreasing from 143.5% to 134.2%. For females they declined from 137.3% to 125.3%.

Female starting salaries for bachelor degree graduates were 88.4% of the equivalent male starting salaries in 2003. The ratio for female to male postgraduate starting salaries was 78.9% in 2003.


10.19 STARTING SALARIES FOR EMPLOYED HIGHER EDUCATION GRADUATES

Bachelor graduates(a)
Postgraduates(a)
Average annual full-time adult ordinary time earnings(b)



Males
Females
Males
Females
Males
Females
$
$
$
$
$
$

1993
32,264
29,271
47,422
38,113
33,054
27,767
1998
37,228
32,727
55,676
44,311
40,505
33,844
2003
43,325
38,299
68,161
53,758
50,792
42,896

(a) Self-employed graduates are included in 1993 and 1998 but excluded in 2003.
(b) Of employees.

Source: Average Weekly Earnings, Australia (6302.0); Graduate Careers Council of Australia, Graduate Destinations Survey.


Staff

Higher education staff may be classified as academic or non-academic. In 2003, as in previous years, there were more non-academic than academic staff. The largest numbers of academics were at the lecturer and senior lecturer levels.

Table 10.20 shows the ratio of male to female staff has turned around over the past decade. In 1993, 55% of all staff were male. The proportions were about equal in 1998, but by 2003, 52% of higher education staff were female.

Growth in female representation occurred at all levels of academic staff, but was most notable at senior lecturer (from 20.4% in 1993 to 33.7% in 2003) and above senior lecturer (from 10.8% to 19.1%) levels. Despite this, men still outnumbered women at all levels of academic staff except at below lecturer level. In 2003, 61% of all academic staff were male, compared with 65% in 1998 and 69% in 1993.


10.20 HIGHER EDUCATION STAFF

1993
1998
2003



Males
Females
Persons
Males
Females
Persons
Males
Females
Persons
Staff classification
%
%
no.
%
%
no.
%
%
no.

Academic staff
Above senior lecturer
89.2
10.8
5,535
85.5
14.5
6,489
80.9
19.1
7,795
Senior lecturer
79.6
20.4
7,707
73.3
26.7
8,047
66.3
33.7
8,820
Lecturer
60.7
39.3
11,575
57.2
42.8
11,464
53.6
46.4
12,266
Below lecturer
48.5
51.5
5,347
47.9
52.1
6,663
46.8
53.2
6,986
Total
68.6
31.4
30,164
64.9
35.1
32,663
61.3
38.7
35,867
Non-academic staff
43.8
56.2
39,704
39.5
60.5
43,609
37.8
62.2
48,568
All staff
54.5
45.5
69,868
50.4
49.6
76,272
47.8
52.2
84,435

Source: Department of Education, Science and Training, 'Staff: Selected Higher Education Statistics'.


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