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1301.0 - Year Book Australia, 2002  
Previous ISSUE Released at 11:30 AM (CANBERRA TIME) 25/01/2002   
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Contents >> Energy >> Australian energy consumption allocated to final use

While the previous section showed the direct use of energy by industries and households, this section looks at the amount of energy used, both directly and indirectly, by the final users of the goods and services. These final users may not necessarily use energy directly, but they are considered to be using energy indirectly through the consumption of products (goods and services) the production of which entailed the direct use of energy.

Over half of Australian energy consumption (53%) was by households, either directly or indirectly through the consumption of products (graph 15.16). Goods and services produced for export made up a further 29%; gross capital formation was responsible for 11% (e.g. energy embodied in buildings, road, rail, and pipeline infrastructure); and the remaining 7% was attributed to government final consumption (mainly government administration and the provision of services such as education, health and community services).




Households as direct and indirect consumers of energy

The use of petroleum products - mainly motor vehicle fuels - was the biggest contributor to household consumption of energy (25% of total household consumption of energy), followed by household electricity use (21%), and various other sources of direct energy consumption by households (11%). Approximately two-thirds of household electricity use is attributed to conversion losses in the production of this electricity (mainly from coal). Indirect consumption of energy through the consumption of (non-energy) goods and services made up about 43% of total household energy use. The largest of these indirect sources was household consumption of wholesale and retail goods and services and of repairs (9%). Main products contributing to final household consumption of energy are shown in graph 15.17.




Relative to its GDP Australia has a very high level of motorisation, and a high level of total personal travel. Other than the North Americans, only Italians are more motorised than Australians (OECD/IEA 2001). Per capita road transport use in Australia has increased 10% since 1990-91 (see table 15.21). Table 15.18 shows that the number of persons driving to work or study in Australia increased by 9% between 1996 and 2000. Some 76% of adults aged 18 years and above drove to work or study in 2000.


15.18 TYPE OF TRANSPORT TAKEN TO WORK/STUDY, Number of persons travelling

1996
2000
Change
Mode of transport
'000
'000
%

Train
654.5
623.6
-4.7
Bus
545.7
359.7
-34.1
Tram/light rail
(a)
50.1
. .
Ferry/boat
(a)
15.7
. .
Taxi
(a)
9.1
. .
Car/truck/van as driver
5,991.9
6,539.8
9.1
Car/truck/van as passenger
552.8
457.9
-17.2
Motorbike or motor scooter
99.4
66.0
-33.6
Bicycle
215.2
98.4
-54.3
Walk
487.4
378.7
-22.3
Other
153.1
24.2
. .
Total
7,723.1
8,623.1
11.7

(a) Included in Other.

Source: Environmental Issues: People's Views and Practices (4602.0).


Household electricity use was the other major contributor to energy consumption attributed to households. The 1970s and 1980s saw significant increase in the level of indoor comfort and amenities in Australian homes for space comfort, water heating and electric appliances. Natural gas and electricity are the key sources of space heating (table 15.19). In 1999 natural gas was the main heating source for 41% of residences that had space heating (up from 38% in 1994); electricity provided 35% and wood most of the remainder. Over the period, electricity lost share to gas. As comfort standards have increased, whole house heating rather than 'spot' heating increased and pipeline gas became more widely available (OECD/IEA 2001). Electricity is the major source of energy for both water (about 60% in 1999) and cooking (about 59%).


15.19 PRINCIPAL FUEL TYPES USED IN DWELLINGS, Number of Dwellings by Purpose

Room heating
Water heating
Cooking(a)



1994
1999
Change
1994
1999
Change
1999
Fuel type
'000
'000
%
'000
'000
%
'000

Electricity
1,906.4
1,997.3
4.8
3,999.3
4,253.8
6.4
4,181.1
Gas
2,044.3
2,349.6
14.9
2,153.8
2,526.7
17.3
2,887.0
Wood
1,130.4
1,118.3
-1.1
(b)
73.9
. .
51.4
Solar
3.8
*0.8
-78.9
317.1
344.7
8.7
-
Oil
200.0
156.3
-21.9
(b)
2.2
. .
0.9
Coal/coke
(b)
*2.7
. .
(b)
-
. .
-
Other
90.6
44.5
. .
141.9
12.4
. .
14.8
Don't know
(b)
*7.5
. .
(b)
36.9
. .
-
None
1,039.1
1,458.1
40.3
-
-
. .
-
Total
6,414.5
7,135.2
11.2
6,414.5
7,135.2
11.2
7,135.2

(a) Not collected in 1994.
(b) Included in Other.

Source: Environmental Issues: People's Views and Practices (4602.0).

Energy consumed in exports

Of the 29% of total energy consumed in the production of goods and services for export, a third is attributed to basic non-ferrous metals and metal products. Basic non-ferrous metals and products include products from alumina production, aluminium smelting and aluminium product manufacturing. These activities consume large amounts of electricity in their production. Energy consumed in the production of export products is shown in graph 15.20.





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