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1301.0 - Year Book Australia, 2005  
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Contents >> Science and innovation >> Resources devoted to R&D

Business sector

Business expenditure on R&D (BERD) in 2002-03 was $5,979m, 3.6% higher than recorded in 2001-02 (table 25.1). This represented the highest level recorded to date and is the third successive year of increase following the declines from 1995-96 to 1998-99 and the levelling off between 1998-99 and 1999-2000. In volume terms, with the effect of changes in prices and wages and salaries removed, BERD increased by 1.5% in 2002-03 compared with 2001-02.

Human resources (in person years) devoted to R&D in 2002-03 was 5.9% higher than in 2001-02 (table 25.2).

In 2002-03 BERD was 0.79% of GDP compared with 0.81% in 2001-02.

The net increase in BERD between 2001-02 and 2002-03 was attributable to a 11.9% increase by the manufacturing industry, a 3.0% decrease by the mining industry and a 2.8% decrease by other industries in total. It should be noted that mineral exploration is excluded from the definition of R&D (table 25.6).


25.6 BUSINESS R&D RESOURCES, By industry

Businesses
Expenditure on R&D
Effort on R&D



2001-02
2002-03
2001-02
2002-03
2001-02
2002-03
no.
no.
$m
$m
’000 person years
’000 person years

Mining (incl. services to mining)
119
137
553
536
0.8
0.6
Manufacturing
Food, beverage and tobacco
140
157
231
234
1.4
1.4
Textile, clothing, footwear and leather
43
45
22
28
0.2
0.2
Wood and paper product
34
45
84
98
0.3
0.4
Printing, publishing and recorded media
40
43
16
15
0.1
0.2
Petroleum, coal, chemical and associated product
352
377
430
492
2.4
2.8
Non-metallic mineral product
52
70
74
86
0.2
0.4
Metal product
176
174
257
343
1.0
1.4
Motor vehicle and part and other transport equipment
129
147
555
731
3.5
4.5
Photographic and scientific equipment
138
140
279
304
1.6
1.7
Electronic and electrical equipment and appliance
364
378
423
329
3.1
2.5
Industrial machinery and equipment
232
266
134
150
1.1
1.2
Other manufacturing
78
76
22
20
0.2
0.2
Total
1,778
1,918
2,528
2,829
15.2
16.9
Other industries
Wholesale and retail trade
339
370
447
429
2.9
2.9
Finance and insurance
53
54
225
239
0.8
0.8
Property and business services
1,050
1,254
1,068
1,044
7.7
8.0
Scientific research
220
240
315
344
1.7
1.7
Other n.e.c.
252
287
634
557
2.1
2.2
Total
1,914
2,205
2,689
2,613
15.2
15.5
Total all industries
3,811
4,260
5,770
5,979
31.1
33.0

Source: Research and Experimental Development, Businesses, Australia (8104.0).


Major research fields in which BERD took place were: computer software (13%); automotive engineering (11%); manufacturing engineering (8%); communications technologies (7%); medical and health sciences (7%); other information, computing and communication sciences (6%); and resources engineering (6%) (table 25.7).

A slightly different pattern applied to human resources devoted to R&D, with 18% in computer software; 11% in automotive engineering; 8% in manufacturing engineering; 6% in communications technologies; 6% in other engineering and technology; 6% in electrical and electronic engineering; and 6% in medical and health sciences (table 25.7).


25.7 BUSINESS R&D RESOURCES, By field of research(a) - 2002-03

Type of expenditure

Capital
expenditure
Labour
costs
Other current expenditure
Total
Human resources
$m
$m
$m
$m
’000 person years

Mathematical sciences
0.5
13.5
16.4
30.4
0.2
Physical sciences
2.3
22.8
20.3
45.4
0.3
Chemical sciences
13.8
89.2
100.9
203.9
1.3
Earth sciences
4.7
16.7
92.8
114.2
0.2
Biological sciences
20.8
94.0
95.5
210.3
1.0
Information systems
12.6
149.1
125.7
287.4
1.8
Computer software
30.5
515.3
230.1
775.9
6.1
Other information, computing and communication sciences
9.7
156.1
210.8
376.5
1.8
Industrial biotechnology and food sciences
10.7
80.2
56.7
147.7
0.9
Chemical engineering
7.5
30.9
55.4
93.9
0.4
Manufacturing engineering
53.3
192.2
237.7
483.3
2.7
Automotive engineering
52.9
284.9
295.8
633.6
3.6
Mechanical and industrial engineering
13.3
79.4
81.9
174.7
1.2
Resources engineering
38.0
61.6
270.3
369.8
0.6
Electrical and electronic engineering
35.0
145.5
120.2
300.7
1.9
Metallurgy
16.1
43.4
124.6
184.1
0.5
Materials engineering
13.2
53.4
58.3
124.9
0.7
Communications technologies
45.9
171.2
180.9
398.0
2.1
Other engineering and technology
36.1
143.2
161.7
340.9
2.1
Agricultural, veterinary and environmental sciences
17.7
76.3
106.0
199.9
1.1
Medical and health sciences
20.8
163.4
207.8
392.0
1.9
Other research fields
2.5
44.1
44.5
91.1
0.5
Total
457.8
2,626.5
2,894.3
5,978.6
33.0

(a) Data were subjectively allocated by data providers at the time of reporting, using OECD/ABS definitions. The ABS makes every effort to ensure correct and consistent interpretation and reporting of these data and applies consistent processing methodologies. Readers using these data should bear in mind the original subjectivity of the information.

Source: Research and Experimental Development, Businesses, Australia, 2002-03 (8104.0).


In terms of socioeconomic objectives, most BERD ($5,382m or 90%) was directed towards economic development (table 25.8). About 7% was directed towards society, 2% towards defence and 1% towards environment. Of the amount directed towards economic development, $2,541m (47%) was directed towards manufacturing.

The same pattern applied to human resources devoted to R&D, with 90% directed towards economic development, 7% directed towards society, 2% towards defence and 1% towards environment (table 25.8).


25.8 BUSINESS R&D RESOURCES, By socioeconomic objective(a) - 2002-03

Type of expenditure

Capital
expenditure
Labour
costs
Other current expenditure
Total
Human
resources
$m
$m
$m
$m
’000 person years

Defence
(b)n.p.
45.2
(b)n.p.
108.0
0.6
Economic development
Plant - production and primary products
10.4
31.5
34.0
75.9
0.5
Animal - production and primary products
5.5
23.4
32.9
61.8
0.3
Mineral resources (excl. energy)
22.8
79.8
333.5
436.1
0.9
Energy resources
31.8
31.7
114.2
177.7
0.3
Energy supply
34.6
50.5
69.4
154.6
0.7
Manufacturing
187.6
1,144.8
1,208.9
2,541.3
15.0
Construction
5.2
57.3
89.6
152.1
0.8
Transport
16.9
61.1
58.3
136.3
1.1
Information and communication services
74.8
687.1
529.1
1,291.0
8.3
Commercial services and tourism
22.2
182.4
137.1
341.8
1.7
Economic framework
0.6
8.3
4.4
13.4
0.1
Total
412.5
2,357.9
2,611.5
5,381.9
29.6
Society
Health
23.2
171.6
181.5
376.4
1.9
Education and training
0.6
9.4
3.4
13.3
0.2
Social development and community services
1.0
16.9
8.3
26.2
0.2
Total
24.8
197.9
193.2
415.9
2.3
Environment
Environmental policy frameworks and other aspects
1.0
5.2
4.1
10.3
0.1
Environmental management
5.9
17.3
33.5
56.7
0.3
Total
7.0
22.5
37.6
67.0
0.4
Non-oriented research
(b)n.p.
3.0
(b)n.p.
5.7
-
Total
457.8
2,626.5
2,894.3
5,978.6
33.0

(a) Data were subjectively allocated by data providers at the time of reporting, using OECD/ABS definitions. The ABS makes every effort to ensure correct and consistent interpretation and reporting of these data and applies consistent processing methodologies. Readers using these data should bear in mind the original subjectivity of the information.
(b) Not available for publication but included in totals where applicable, unless otherwise indicated.

Source: Research and Experimental Development, Businesses, Australia, 2002-03 (8104.0).


General government sector

Expenditure on R&D carried out by Commonwealth, and state and territory government organisations in 2002-03 was $2,482m, a 5% increase on expenditure in 2000-01 (table 25.1).

The research fields in which most government R&D expenditure took place were: agricultural, veterinary and environmental sciences ($761m, or 31%); engineering and technology ($424m, or 17%); biological sciences ($263m, or 11%); earth sciences ($242m, or 10%); and medical and health sciences ($198m, or 8%) (table 25.9).

A slightly different pattern applied to human resources devoted to R&D, with agricultural, veterinary and environmental sciences accounting for 32%; engineering and technology 17%; medical and health sciences 12%; biological sciences 11%; and earth sciences 7% (table 25.9).


25.9 GOVERNMENT R&D RESOURCES, By field of research(a) - 2002-03

Type of expenditure

Land and buildings
Other capital expenditure
Labour
costs
Other current expenditure
Total
Human
resources
$m
$m
$m
$m
$m
’000 person years

Mathematical sciences
1.4
1.2
22.0
11.5
36.1
0.3
Physical sciences
5.5
9.5
66.5
38.2
119.6
0.8
Chemical sciences
5.4
10.9
64.1
41.3
121.8
0.8
Earth sciences
13.7
16.5
102.1
110.2
242.5
1.3
Biological sciences
19.6
14.9
132.1
96.8
263.4
2.0
Information, computing and communication sciences
3.9
6.0
88.2
83.6
181.7
1.1
Engineering and technology
18.8
24.3
235.2
146.1
424.4
3.1
Agricultural, veterinary and environmental sciences
26.3
21.3
371.4
342.3
761.3
5.9
Medical and health sciences
3.2
9.1
125.9
60.2
198.4
2.2
Economics
0.4
1.0
33.7
22.7
57.7
0.5
Law, justice and law enforcement
0.3
0.3
9.6
5.9
16.1
0.1
Other research fields
1.7
2.6
36.5
18.3
59.1
0.5
Total
100.1
117.5
1,287.3
977.2
2,482.2
18.5
Commonwealth
88.2
92.5
785.5
565.1
1,531.3
10.2
State/territory
11.9
25.0
501.8
412.1
950.9
8.4

(a) Data were subjectively allocated by data providers at the time of reporting, using OECD/ABS definitions. The ABS makes every effort to ensure correct and consistent interpretation and reporting of these data and applies consistent processing methodologies. Readers using these data should bear in mind the original subjectivity of the information.

Source: Research and Experimental Development, Government and Private Non-Profit Organisations, Australia, 2002-03 (8109.0).


In terms of socioeconomic objectives, most government sector R&D expenditure ($1,341m or 54%) was directed towards economic development (table 25.10). About 20% was directed towards environment, 12% towards society, 11% towards defence, and 2% to non-oriented research. Of the amount directed towards economic development, $377m (28%) was directed towards plant production and primary products, $278m (21%) towards animal production and primary products, and $233m (17%) towards manufacturing (table 25.10).

A slightly different pattern applied to human resources devoted to R&D, with 51% directed towards economic development, 18% towards environment, 17% towards society, 13% towards defence, and 2% to non-oriented research (table 25.10).


25.10 GOVERNMENT R&D RESOURCES, By socioeconomic objective(a) - 2002-03

Type of expenditure

Land and buildings
Other capital expenditure
Labour
costs
Other current expenditure
Total
Human
resources
$m
$m
$m
$m
$m
’000 person years

Defence
0.3
12.2
194.2
77.2
283.9
2.4
Economic development
Plant - production and primary products
11.1
9.4
185.2
171.7
377.4
2.9
Animal - production and primary products
9.1
7.3
133.1
128.0
277.6
2.2
Mineral resources (excl. energy)
5.4
5.5
44.9
41.9
97.7
0.5
Energy resources
2.9
1.9
27.6
26.5
59.0
0.3
Energy supply
2.1
1.0
13.9
9.4
26.4
0.2
Manufacturing
15.1
20.6
109.6
88.1
233.4
1.6
Construction
2.6
1.6
21.4
12.8
38.4
0.2
Transport
0.3
0.4
6.4
8.1
15.3
0.1
Information and communication services
4.9
2.5
31.0
14.4
52.9
0.4
Commercial services and tourism
0.7
2.1
17.1
7.1
27.1
0.2
Economic framework
1.4
1.7
57.9
74.7
135.7
0.7
Total
55.6
54.1
648.1
582.9
1,340.7
9.4
Society
Health
3.4
10.3
140.6
73.6
228.0
2.5
Education and training
0.2
0.1
8.4
3.0
11.7
0.1
Social development and community services
2.3
2.0
35.2
20.5
59.9
0.5
Total
5.9
12.5
184.3
97.0
299.6
3.1
Environment
Environmental policy frameworks and other aspects
1.3
1.2
19.2
13.9
35.7
0.3
Environmental management
34.4
32.5
217.7
188.5
473.1
3.0
Total
35.8
33.7
236.9
202.4
508.7
3.3
Non-oriented research
2.7
5.1
23.8
17.7
49.2
0.4
Total
100.1
117.5
1,287.3
977.2
2,482.2
18.5

(a) Data were subjectively allocated by data providers at the time of reporting, using OECD/ABS definitions. The ABS makes every effort to ensure correct and consistent interpretation and reporting of these data and applies consistent processing methodologies. Readers using these data should bear in mind the original subjectivity of the information.

Source: Research and Experimental Development, Government and Private Non-Profit Organisations, Australia, 2002-03 (8109.0).


Higher education sector

Estimated expenditure on R&D carried out by the higher education sector in 2002 was $3,430m, an increase of 23% over expenditure in 2000, and 34% over expenditure in 1998 (table 25.1).

The major fields of research in which higher education R&D expenditure took place in 2002 were: medical and health sciences ($864m, or 25% of total expenditure); biological sciences ($410m, or 12%); engineering and technology ($375m, or 11%); and agricultural, veterinary and environmental sciences ($235m, or 7%). Direct labour costs accounted for 42% of total R&D expenditure (table 25.11).

A slightly different pattern applied to human resources devoted to R&D, with 19% on medical and health sciences, 10% on engineering and technology, 10% on biological sciences and 6% on agricultural, veterinary and environmental sciences (table 25.11).


25.11 HIGHER EDUCATION R&D RESOURCES, By field of research(a) - 2002

Type of expenditure

Land and buildings
Other capital expenditure
Direct labour costs
Scholarships
Other current expenditure
Total
Human
resources
$m
$m
$m
$m
$m
$m
’000 person years

Mathematical sciences
0.9
2.5
30.4
4.1
26.1
64.0
0.8
Physical sciences
1.0
11.1
57.4
6.6
53.3
129.4
1.4
Chemical sciences
18.5
11.1
57.3
12.3
56.1
155.2
1.9
Earth sciences
1.1
11.2
47.4
7.7
46.7
114.1
1.5
Biological sciences
56.2
21.5
146.4
26.1
160.0
410.2
4.8
Information, computing and communication sciences
2.0
11.2
62.3
11.1
57.5
144.1
2.2
Engineering and technology
6.6
28.7
150.3
30.7
158.2
374.5
5.2
Agricultural, veterinary and environmental sciences
3.7
11.0
99.9
18.0
102.6
235.2
3.1
Medical and health sciences
16.0
44.0
353.1
41.2
409.6
863.8
9.4
Education
3.0
3.3
58.0
11.2
52.9
128.4
3.1
Economics
1.7
1.7
38.8
4.3
37.4
83.8
1.2
Commerce, management, tourism and services
3.3
4.0
65.4
7.3
57.2
137.2
2.5
Studies in human society
1.9
2.6
48.9
9.9
48.1
111.4
2.3
Behavioural and cognitive sciences
2.7
4.4
51.2
10.5
44.5
113.3
2.2
Other research fields
12.7
8.5
170.0
36.2
137.7
365.0
8.1
Total
131.2
176.7
1,436.8
237.3
1,447.6
3,429.6
49.6

(a) Data were subjectively allocated by data providers at the time of reporting, using OECD/ABS definitions. The ABS makes every effort to ensure correct and consistent interpretation and reporting of these data and applies consistent processing methodologies. Readers using these data should bear in mind the original subjectivity of the information.

Source: Research and Experimental Development, Higher Education Organisations, Australia, 2002 (8111.0).


In terms of socioeconomic objectives (table 25.12), most higher education R&D expenditure ($1,474m or 43%) was directed towards society. About 29% was directed towards economic development, 21% towards non-oriented research and 6% towards environment. The major subdivision within society was health with 28% of total R&D expenditure.

A similar pattern applied to human resources devoted to R&D, with 44% directed towards society, 29% towards economic development, 20% towards non-oriented research and 7% to environment (table 25.12).


25.12 HIGHER EDUCATION R&D RESOURCES, By socioeconomic objective(a) - 2002

Type of expenditure

Land
and buildings
Other capital expenditure
Direct
labour costs
Scholarships
Other current expenditure
Total
Human resources
$m
$m
$m
$m
$m
$m
’000 person years

Defence
-
1.5
4.3
0.6
4.5
10.9
0.1
Economic development
Plant - production and primary products
1.1
5.5
47.9
8.2
53.0
115.8
1.5
Animal - production and primary products
1.5
4.2
32.7
6.0
32.3
76.6
1.0
Mineral resources (excl. energy)
0.4
3.7
24.0
3.5
27.3
58.8
0.7
Energy resources
0.8
3.6
14.0
2.2
14.4
35.0
0.5
Energy supply
0.7
3.5
15.8
3.5
17.0
40.6
0.5
Manufacturing
6.7
17.6
78.8
17.3
80.2
200.6
2.7
Construction
1.4
4.8
24.8
5.9
25.3
62.1
1.1
Transport
0.5
1.3
11.9
1.9
12.8
28.5
0.3
Information and communication services
2.1
11.1
70.9
11.9
65.8
161.8
2.4
Commercial services and tourism
1.0
1.5
21.3
2.3
16.5
42.6
0.7
Economic framework
3.2
4.4
79.3
9.2
73.2
169.3
2.8
Total
19.5
61.2
421.4
72.0
417.8
991.8
14.3
Society
Health
27.0
42.1
398.5
49.2
453.6
970.4
11.2
Education and training
3.4
4.5
71.1
15.4
66.5
160.8
3.5
Social development and community services
11.9
8.2
159.7
32.3
130.9
343.0
7.3
Total
42.3
54.8
629.2
96.9
651.0
1,474.2
22.0
Environment
Environmental policy frameworks and other aspects
0.6
1.4
15.1
3.2
13.9
34.3
0.5
Environmental management
4.2
10.7
77.1
15.5
79.2
186.7
2.9
Total
4.9
12.1
92.2
18.7
93.1
221.1
3.4
Non-oriented research
64.5
47.1
289.7
49.1
281.2
731.5
9.8
Total
131.2
176.7
1,436.8
237.3
1,447.6
3,429.6
49.6

(a) Data were subjectively allocated by data providers at the time of reporting, using OECD/ABS definitions. The ABS makes every effort to ensure correct and consistent interpretation and reporting of these data and applies consistent processing methodologies. Readers using these data should bear in mind the original subjectivity of the information.

Source: Research and Experimental Development, Higher Education Organisations, Australia, 2002 (8111.0).


Private non-profit sector

Expenditure on R&D carried out by private non-profit organisations in 2002-03 was $360m, an increase an 24% on expenditure in 2000-01 (table 25.1).

Medical and health sciences comprised the major field of research for R&D expenditure in the private non-profit sector, accounting for $221m (61%) of the sector's total R&D expenditure in 2002-03. Labour costs continued to be the main component of R&D expenditure (50%) (table 25.13).

Medical and health sciences also comprised the leading field of research in terms of human resource use (table 25.13).


25.13 PRIVATE NON-PROFIT R&D RESOURCES, By field of research(a) - 2002-03

Type of expenditure

Land and
buildings
Other capital
expenditure
Labour
costs
Other current
expenditure
Total
Human
resources
$m
$m
$m
$m
$m
person years

Mathematical sciences
0.1
(b)n.p.
(b)n.p.
(b)n.p.
(b)n.p.
(b)n.p.
Physical sciences
(b)n.p.
0.1
(b)n.p.
0.1
(b)n.p.
(b)n.p.
Chemical sciences
0.2
0.7
0.9
2.3
4.0
15
Earth sciences
-
-
-
-
-
-
Biological sciences
3.5
8.1
55.4
37.5
104.6
966
Information, computing and communication sciences
0.1
0.7
1.9
2.1
4.8
32
Engineering and technology
(b)n.p.
(b)n.p.
0.7
0.6
1.5
12
Agricultural, veterinary and environmental sciences
(b)n.p.
(b)n.p.
1.0
0.9
2.1
18
Medical and health sciences
9.2
16.9
108.8
85.9
220.8
1,945
Other research fields
n.p.
0.5
9.1
(b)n.p.
19.4
116
Total
13.7
27.5
178.8
139.6
359.5
3,117

(a) Data were subjectively allocated by data providers at the time of reporting, using OECD/ABS definitions. The ABS makes every effort to ensure correct and consistent interpretation and reporting of these data and applies consistent processing methodologies. Readers using these data should bear in mind the original subjectivity of the information.
(b) Not available for publication but included in totals where applicable, unless otherwise indicated.

Source: Research and Experimental Development, Government and Private Non-Profit Organisations, Australia, 2002-03 (8109.0).


In the private non-profit sector, health was the main socioeconomic objective, accounting for 90% or $324m of total R&D expenditure. Education and training accounted for $20m (6%), while $11m (3%) was directed towards economic development (table 25.14).

A similar pattern applied to human resources devoted to R&D, with 92% directed towards health, 4% towards education and training, and 2% towards economic development (table 25.14).


25.14 PRIVATE NON-PROFIT R&D RESOURCES, By socioeconomic objective(a) - 2002-03

Type of expenditure

Land
and buildings
Other capital expenditure
Labour
costs
Other current expenditure
Total
Human
resources
$m
$m
$m
$m
$m
person years

Defence
-
-
-
-
-
-
Economic development
(b)n.p.
1.4
3.6
(b)n.p.
11.2
65
Society
Health
12.6
25.3
163.1
123.0
324.0
2,882
Education and training
(b)n.p.
0.6
9.4
(b)n.p.
20.1
119
Social development and community services
(b)n.p.
0.1
1.3
(b)n.p.
1.9
20
Total
13.0
26.0
173.7
133.2
345.9
3,021
Environment
-
(b)n.p.
1.0
(b)n.p.
1.7
21
Non-oriented research
(b)n.p.
(b)n.p.
0.5
0.2
0.8
10
Total
13.7
27.5
178.8
139.6
359.5
3,117

(a) Data were subjectively allocated by data providers at the time of reporting, using OECD/ABS definitions. The ABS makes every effort to ensure correct and consistent interpretation and reporting of these data and applies consistent processing methodologies. Readers using these data should bear in mind the original subjectivity of the information.
(b) Not available for publication but included in totals where applicable, unless otherwise indicated.

Source: Research and Experimental Development, Government and Private Non-Profit Organisations, Australia, 2002-03 (8109.0).


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