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6287.0 - Occasional Paper: Labour Force Characteristics of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians 2000, Dec 2000  
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  • Experimental Estimates: Labour force characteristics of Indigenous Australians (Feature Article)

Special Article - Experimental Estimates: Labour force characteristics of Indigenous Australians


INTRODUCTION

The monthly Labour Force Survey (LFS) is the main source of information about the labour force status of the Australian civilian population. In March 1994, a question was added to the LFS questionnaire which sought to identify the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (Indigenous) status of survey respondents. This initiative provided limited information about the labour force characteristics of Indigenous people. The same question was included in subsequent years, in each February survey, so that data became available for one month each year over eight successive years.

This article describes the labour force characteristics of people aged 15 years and over who identified as Indigenous, based on results from the February 2001 LFS. It extends the information for the period 1994 to 2000 previously published in December 2000 in the ABS Occasional Paper: Labour Force Characteristics of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians 2000 (Experimental Estimates from the Labour Force Survey) (Cat. no. 6287.0). The Occasional Paper is available on the ABS website (www.abs.gov.au). More detailed tables for the period 1994 to 2001 are also available on the ABS website.


DATA QUALITY

In common with most other comparable national agencies, the ABS uses international standards and definitions of employment and unemployment in its labour force survey. However, the survey is not designed to overcome some of the practical difficulties associated with measuring the labour force status of Indigenous people, particularly in remote regions. The LFS estimates for the Indigenous population are considered experimental because they are based on a very small sample of Indigenous persons (on average, about 1,100 persons), and because the quality of the data has some shortcomings. The estimates are available only at the national level by broad area type (Capital city, Sparsely settled, Balance of State).

The Occasional Paper (Cat. no. 6287.0) discusses in greater detail the statistical and data quality issues which should be considered when using LFS experimental estimates of the labour force characteristics of Indigenous people.

This is the last release of such experimental estimates. From 2002 onwards, use of an Indigenous identifier in each month of the LFS will enable annual estimates of the labour force characteristics of Indigenous Australians to be based on a larger sample of Indigenous persons. This will reduce the sampling errors associated with LFS estimates for Indigenous people, although the estimates will continue to be subject to many of the shortcomings identified in the Occasional Paper.


LABOUR FORCE PARTICIPATION

In February 2001 there were an estimated 153,700 Indigenous people aged 15 years and over participating in the labour force (i.e. either employed or unemployed). When compared with the rest of Australia’s population, the Indigenous population has a lower labour force participation rate. The labour force participation rate, which is the number in the labour force expressed as a percentage of the population aged 15 years and over, was 59.0% for Indigenous people and 63.9% for non-Indigenous people.


EMPLOYMENT

There were an estimated 118,400 Indigenous people aged 15 years and over in employment in February 2001. This represented 1.3% of the total number of Australians in employment, and 45% of the Indigenous population aged 15 years and over.

Image - graph - Indigenous employment(a)



There were 43,700 Indigenous persons employed in Capital cities, 21,900 employed in Sparsely settled areas and 52,800 in the Balance of State. The employment to population ratio was 54% in Capital cities, 46% in Sparsely settled areas and 40% in the Balance of State (see Cat. no. 6287.0 for an explanation of the geographic classification).

Nearly 20% of the Indigenous population aged 15 years and over live in sparsely settled areas, which in general are remote areas where employment opportunities are scarce. In contrast, less than 1% of the non-Indigenous population live in such areas. Indigenous people participating in the Commonwealth Government’s Community Development Employment Projects scheme, who are classified as employed by the ABS, are likely to form a significant proportion of Indigenous employment in sparsely settled areas.

For the non-Indigenous population, the 8.9 million employed persons represented 59% of the population aged 15 years and over in February 2001. The employment to population ratio was 60% for non-Indigenous persons in Capital cities, 76% in Sparsely settled areas and 57% in the Balance of State.

LABOUR FORCE STATUS OF PERSONS AGED 15 YEARS AND OVER, FEBRUARY 2001

Employed
Unemployed
Labour Force
Not in the labour force
Total population
Labour force participation rate
Unemployment rate
Area
‘000
‘000
'000
‘000
‘000
%
%

INDIGENOUS

Capital city
43.7
12.0
55.7
25.6
81.3
68.5
21.5
Sparsely settled
21.9
3.8
25.7
21.7
47.4
54.2
14.6
Balance of State
52.8
19.6
72.4
59.6
132.0
54.8
27.0
Total
118.4
35.3
153.7
107.0
260.7
59.0
23.0


NON-INDIGENOUS

Capital city
5,933.4
448.8
6,382.2
3,499.0
9,881.2
64.6
7.0
Sparsely settled
63.9
**0.6
64.5
19.4
83.9
76.9
**0.9
Balance of State
2,946.9
263.4
3,210.3
1,942.1
5,152.4
62.3
8.2
Total
8,944.2
712.9
9,657.1
5,460.4
15,117.5
63.9
7.4

** Estimate has a relative standard error greater than 50% and is considered too unreliable for general use.

UNEMPLOYMENT

There were an estimated 35,300 Indigenous persons who were unemployed in February 2001. The unemployment rate in February 2001 was 23.0% for Indigenous people, compared with 7.4% for non-Indigenous people. The unemployment rate was 21.5% for Indigenous people living in Capital cities and 27.0% for the Balance of State. For Indigenous people living in Sparsely settled areas, the unemployment rate was 14.6%. However, estimates of unemployment for this geographic area should be used with great care because they have fluctuated considerably over the years and are subject to high sampling and other errors. Sparsely settled areas are regions which generally have limited employment opportunities and this is reflected in the low number of Indigenous people actively looking for work in these areas.

Image - graph - Indigenous unemployment(a)




INQUIRIES

For further information about the statistics in this article, contact Harry Kroon, Director, Labour Market Section, ABS Canberra 02 6252 6753, or email harry.kroon@abs.gov.au.


RELIABILITY OF ESTIMATES

Estimates presented in this article are subject to two sources of error: sampling error and non-sampling error. Additional data are presented in Appendix Tables A.1 and A.2.


NON-SAMPLING ERROR

The main sources of non-sampling error are response errors and non-response bias. These may occur in any enumeration whether it is a full count or a sample.

Response errors include errors on the part of both respondents and interviewers. These reporting errors may arise through inappropriate wording of questions, misunderstanding of what data are required, inability or unwillingness to provide accurate information and mistakes in answers to questions.

Non-response bias arises because the persons for whom no response is available may have different characteristics in relation to labour market behaviour than persons who were included the survey.

Non-sampling errors are difficult to quantify in any collection. However every effort is made to minimise these errors in the LFS by careful design of questionnaires, intensive training and supervision of interviewers and efficient operating procedures. Non-response bias is minimised by call-backs to those households which do not respond, and is compensated for in the estimation process.

There are a number of other issues associated with collecting information from Indigenous persons in communities in sparsely settled areas. One example is the appropriateness of labour force concepts in areas without a formal labour market. Although special procedures are used in some Indigenous communities, there are still cultural and practical difficulties in collecting quality information from Indigenous people in communities in sparsely settled areas. Operational issues include the high turnover of trained interviewers in sparsely settled areas, the seasonal fluctuations in population numbers as well as in employment opportunities, and the high population mobility.

Responses in the LFS may be given by any responsible adult in each selected household. Reporting errors may arise when the respondent provides information for another member of the household without being fully aware of their labour force details. Although this is a minor issue for the survey in general, the higher mobility of Indigenous household members may affect the reporting on details such as actively looking or availability for work.


SAMPLING ERROR

The LFS estimates are based on information obtained from a sample of the population, and are subject to sampling variability. That is, they may differ from those estimates that would have been produced if all dwellings had been included in the survey. One measure of the likely difference is given by the standard error, which indicates the extent to which an estimate might have varied by chance because only a sample of dwellings was included.

There are about two chances in three (67%) that a sample estimate will differ by less than one standard error from the number that would have been obtained if all dwellings had been included, and about 19 chances in 20 (95%) that the difference will be less than two standard errors. The magnitude of the sampling error depends on the sample design, the sample size and the population variability. The main contribution to sampling error for the Indigenous estimates from the LFS is the sample size. The larger the sample on which the estimates are based, the smaller the sampling error.

Another measure of the likely difference is the relative standard error, which is obtained by expressing the standard error as a percentage of the estimate. The smaller the sample estimate, the higher the relative standard error. The small sample size of Indigenous persons results in estimates of labour force characteristics which are considerably less precise and less stable than comparable aggregate estimates for non-Indigenous persons. This is reflected in the relatively high standard errors for the survey estimates derived for Indigenous persons.

In general, the size of the standard error increases as the size of the estimate increases. Conversely, the relative standard error decreases as the size of the estimate increases. Very small estimates are subject to such high relative standard errors that their reliability for most practical purposes is reduced. In the tables in this publication, only estimates with relative standard errors of 25% or less are considered sufficiently reliable for most purposes. Estimates with relative standard errors greater than 25% but less than or equal to 50% are preceded by an asterisk (e.g. *3.4) to indicate they are subject to high standard errors and should be used with caution. Estimates with RSEs of greater than 50%, preceded by a double asterisk (e.g. **0.3), are considered too unreliable for general use and should only be used to aggregate with other estimates to provide derived estimates with relative standard errors of 25% or less. Appendix Tables A.4 and A.6 show the levels at which estimates have relative standard errors of, for example, 25% and 50%.

Due to space limitations, it is impractical to print the standard error of each estimate in the tables. Instead, tables of standard errors for estimates of Indigenous and non-Indigenous persons are provided in the Appendix (Tables A.3 and A.5 respectively) to enable readers to determine the standard error for an estimate from the size of that estimate. Each standard error table is derived from a mathematical model that is created using data from a number of past Labour Force Surveys. The model only gives an approximate value for the standard error for any particular estimate, since there is some minor variation between standard errors for different estimates of the same size. The standard error for particular population groups may differ to that shown in the tables. For example, for unemployed persons in sparsely settled areas, the standard error is estimated to be 4% higher for Indigenous estimates, and 14% higher for non-Indigenous estimates, than the standard errors shown in Appendix Tables A.3 and A.5 respectively. Table A.7 shows the appropriate factors for selected population sub-groups.


CALCULATION EXAMPLES

Person estimates

As an example of the calculation and use of standard errors for estimates of persons, in February 2001 the survey estimated that there were 25,700 Indigenous persons in the labour force in sparsely settled areas. From Appendix Table A.3, the estimate lies between 20,000 and 30,000 with a standard error lying between 900 and 1,000. The estimated standard error can be found by interpolation and by applying the appropriate sub-population adjustment factor (from Appendix Table A.7, the factor for the Indigenous labour force in sparsely settled areas is 1.12).

The general formula for interpolating the standard error (SE) from the tables is given by:
SE(Estimate)=(lower SE+(((estimate-lower estimate)/(upper estimate-lower estimate))*(upper SE-lower SE))*factor


Had all dwellings been included in the survey, there are about two chances in three that the value would have fallen in the range 24,600 to 26,800 (25,7001,100) and about 19 chances in 20 that the value would have fallen in the range 23,500 to 27,900 (25,7002,200).

Proportions and rates

Proportions and percentages (for example, unemployment rates) formed from the ratio of two estimates are also subject to sampling error. The size of the error depends on the accuracy of both the numerator and denominator. A formula to approximate the relative standard error (RSE) of such a proportion is given below. The formula is only valid where x is a subset of y, such as unemployment vs labour force (i.e. the unemployment rate).
RSE(x/y)=SQRT((RSE(x))^2-(RSE(y))^2)


Considering the previous example, of the 25,700 Indigenous persons in the labour force in sparsely settled areas in February 2001, 3,800 were unemployed, with a published unemployment rate of 14.6%. For the unemployed estimate of 3,800, using interpolation and the sub-population factor (1.04 in this case) results in an estimated standard error of 580. Expressing the standard error as a percentage of the estimate, the relative standard error is (580/3,800)*100 or 15.3% for the unemployed estimate. For the labour force estimate of 25,700, the previously calculated standard error (unrounded) of 1,072 represents a relative standard error of (1,072/25,700)*100 or 4.2%. Using the above formula, the relative standard error of the unemployment rate is
RSE=SQRT(15.3^2-4.2^2)=14.7%


The standard error of the unemployment rate is then estimated as
SE=(14.6/100*14.7=2.1 percentage points


As before, had all dwellings been included in the survey, there are about two chances in three that the unemployment rate would have fallen in the range 12.5% to 16.7% (14.6% 2.1 percentage points) and about 19 chances in 20 that the value would have fallen in the range 10.4% to 18.8% (14.64.2 percentage points).

Annual movements

Movements in the level of an estimate over time are also subject to sampling variability. The standard error of the movement depends on the levels of the estimates from which the movement is obtained (rather than the size of the movement).

As shown in Appendix Table A.7, movements between corresponding months of consecutive years (annual movements) are subject to greater sampling variability (approximately 40% greater overall). The standard error for such movements can be estimated by finding the standard error of the larger of the two estimates from Table A.3 or Table A.5 as appropriate, and multiplying it by the corresponding factor from Table A.7.

Using the preceding example, the estimate for unemployed Indigenous persons in sparsely settled areas of Australia was 3,800 in February 2001 compared with 1,300 in February 2000, an upward annual movement of 2,500. The standard error on the larger, February 2001, estimate as derived above was 580. Applying the annual movement factor of 1.51 from Appendix Table A.7 gives an estimated movement standard error of 900 (after rounding to the nearest 100). There are about two chances in three that the true movement is within the range +2,500 900 (that is, a range of +1,600 to +3,400), and nineteen chances in twenty that the true movement is in the range +2,500 1,800 (that is, a range +700 to +4,300). As the estimated annual movement is greater than 1,800, the unemployment estimates for 2000 and 2001 are statistically different at this level of confidence.

As a further example, while the unemployment rate for Indigenous people in sparsely settled areas was 14.6% in Feb 2001 (with a standard error previously noted of 2.1 percentage points), the year before it was 9.4% (with a standard error of 2.6 percentage points), representing an estimated annual movement of +5.2 percentage points. In this case, using the standard error of the larger unemployment estimate and its unemployment rate, and the annual movement factor of 1.51 from Appendix Table A.7 gives an estimated unemployment rate movement standard error of 2.1 points*1.51, or 3.2 percentage points. There are about two chances in three that the true annual movement for the unemployment rate lies within the range +5.2 percentage points 3.2 points (that is, a range of +2.0 points to +8.4 points), and about nineteen chances in twenty that the true movement is in the range +5.2 percentage points 6.4 points (that is, a range of
–1.1 points to +11.5 points). As the estimated annual movement is less than 6.4 percentage points, the estimated unemployment rates for 2000 and 2001 are not statistically different at this level of confidence.


For movements of estimates over periods greater than one year, use the formula for differences, below.

Differences

Published estimates may also be used to calculate the difference between two survey estimates (of numbers or percentages). Such an estimate is subject to sampling error. The sampling error of the difference between two estimates depends on their standard errors and the relationship (correlation) between them. An approximate standard error (SE) of the difference between two estimates (x–y) may be calculated by the following formula:
SE(x-y)=SQRT(((SE(x))^2+(SE(y))^2)


While this formula will only be exact for differences between separate and un-correlated characteristics or sub-populations, it is expected to provide a good approximation for all differences likely to be of interest in this publication.


APPENDIX


A.1 LABOUR FORCE STATUS, INDIGENOUS POPULATION AGED 15 YEARS AND OVER (a)

Employed
Unemployed
Not in the labour force
Population(a)
Unemployment rate
Labour force participation rate
Employment to population ratio
'000
'000
'000
'000
%
%
%

MALES

Capital city
1994
17.6
8.1
6.2
31.9
31.6
80.7
55.2
1995
19.1
4.7
8.9
32.7
19.8
72.7
58.3
1996
16.5
5.5
11.7
33.7
25.0
65.4
49.1
1997
16.8
6.7
11.2
34.7
28.5
67.7
48.5
1998
18.0
8.7
8.8
35.6
32.7
75.2
50.7
1999
19.7
4.5
11.9
36.2
18.7
67.0
54.5
2000
19.7
5.7
11.9
37.3
22.4
68.0
52.8
2001
23.0
8.1
7.4
38.4
26.1
80.8
59.7
Sparsely settled
1994
6.7
*0.6
12.8
20.2
*8.3
36.4
33.4
1995
11.3
**0.5
8.8
20.5
**4.0
57.3
55.0
1996
10.9
*0.6
9.4
20.9
*5.4
55.0
52.0
1997
10.9
2.0
8.4
21.3
15.7
60.7
51.2
1998
8.4
*1.1
12.4
21.9
*11.2
43.4
38.5
1999
9.6
**0.0
13.2
22.8
**0.0
42.0
42.0
2000
8.4
**0.0
14.9
23.3
**0.0
35.9
35.9
2001
12.9
*1.6
9.3
23.8
*11.3
60.8
54.0
Balance of State/Territory
1994
22.2
15.4
16.5
54.1
41.0
69.6
41.1
1995
31.2
10.3
13.7
55.2
24.9
75.3
56.6
1996
28.2
12.6
16.0
56.7
30.8
71.8
49.7
1997
26.8
9.2
22.2
58.1
25.5
61.8
46.1
1998
27.4
10.7
21.7
59.8
28.1
63.8
45.9
1999
27.4
10.9
22.8
61.2
28.5
62.7
44.8
2000
35.3
9.7
17.6
62.6
21.6
72.0
56.4
2001
28.9
12.0
23.0
63.9
29.3
64.0
45.2
Australia
1994
46.6
24.2
35.5
106.2
34.1
66.6
43.9
1995
61.6
15.5
31.4
108.5
20.1
71.1
56.8
1996
55.6
18.7
37.0
111.3
25.2
66.7
49.9
1997
54.5
17.9
41.8
114.2
24.7
63.4
47.7
1998
53.9
20.5
42.9
117.3
27.6
63.4
45.9
1999
56.7
15.5
48.0
120.2
21.4
60.1
47.2
2000
63.4
15.4
44.4
123.2
19.6
64.0
51.4
2001
64.7
21.7
39.7
126.2
25.1
68.5
51.3

-- nil or rounded to zero (including null cells)
* Estimate has a relative standard error of between 25% and 50% and should be used with caution
** Estimate has a relative standard error greater than 50% and is considered to unreliable for general use
(a) Reference period is March 1994, and February in subsequent years


A.1 LABOUR FORCE STATUS, INDIGENOUS POPULATION AGED 15 YEARS AND OVER (a)

Employed
Unemployed
Not in the labour force
Population(a)
Unemployment rate
Labour force participation rate
Employment to population ratio
'000
'000
'000
'000
%
%
%

FEMALES

Capital city
1994
15.0
*2.6
18.3
35.9
*14.7
49.0
41.8
1995
13.3
4.7
18.9
36.9
26.2
48.9
36.1
1996
14.1
*2.8
21.0
37.9
*16.5
44.6
37.3
1997
11.4
*2.8
24.6
38.8
*19.6
36.6
29.4
1998
15.8
3.4
20.6
39.8
17.6
48.2
39.8
1999
15.9
4.3
20.5
40.7
21.3
49.6
39.1
2000
18.4
*1.9
21.4
41.7
*9.6
48.7
44.0
2001
20.7
3.9
18.2
42.9
15.8
57.4
48.4
Sparsely settled
1994
5.0
**0.0
15.3
20.3
**0.0
24.6
24.6
1995
9.3
**0.6
10.7
20.6
**6.4
48.0
45.0
1996
8.9
**0.2
11.8
21.0
**2.7
43.6
42.4
1997
6.7
**0.2
14.6
21.5
**3.6
32.1
31.0
1998
3.9
**0.5
17.7
22.1
**10.9
19.6
17.5
1999
6.2
**0.0
16.4
22.6
**0.0
27.3
27.3
2000
3.9
*1.3
17.7
22.8
*24.7
22.4
16.9
2001
9.1
2.1
12.4
23.6
18.9
47.5
38.5
Balance of State/Territory
1994
17.8
5.8
34.2
57.7
24.5
40.9
30.8
1995
16.4
5.7
36.9
59.0
25.7
37.4
27.8
1996
19.5
7.4
33.6
60.6
27.6
44.5
32.2
1997
19.5
7.0
35.6
62.1
26.3
42.7
31.4
1998
21.5
7.3
34.9
63.7
25.5
45.2
33.7
1999
20.1
8.0
37.1
65.1
28.4
43.1
30.8
2000
25.3
5.1
36.3
66.6
16.8
45.6
38.0
2001
23.9
7.6
36.6
68.1
24.1
46.3
35.1
Australia
1994
37.9
8.4
67.8
114.0
18.1
40.5
33.2
1995
39.0
11.0
66.5
116.6
22.0
43.0
33.5
1996
42.6
10.5
66.4
119.5
19.8
44.4
35.6
1997
37.6
10.0
74.7
122.3
21.0
38.9
30.7
1998
41.2
11.2
73.3
125.6
21.4
41.7
32.8
1999
42.1
12.3
74.0
128.4
22.6
42.4
32.8
2000
47.5
8.3
75.4
131.2
14.9
42.6
36.2
2001
53.7
13.6
67.2
134.6
20.2
50.0
39.9

-- nil or rounded to zero (including null cells)
* Estimate has a relative standard error of between 25% and 50% and should be used with caution
** Estimate has a relative standard error greater than 50% and is considered to unreliable for general use
(a) Reference period is March 1994, and February in subsequent years


A.1 LABOUR FORCE STATUS, INDIGENOUS POPULATION AGED 15 YEARS AND OVER (a)

Employed
Unemployed
Not in the labour force
Population(a)
Unemployment rate
Labour force participation rate
Employment to population ratio
'000
'000
'000
'000
%
%
%

PERSONS

Capital city
1994
32.7
10.7
24.5
67.9
24.7
63.9
48.1
1995
32.4
9.4
27.8
69.7
22.6
60.1
46.5
1996
30.6
8.3
32.6
71.5
21.3
54.4
42.8
1997
28.2
9.5
35.8
73.5
25.1
51.3
38.4
1998
33.9
12.1
29.4
75.4
26.4
61.0
44.9
1999
35.6
8.8
32.4
76.8
19.9
57.8
46.3
2000
38.1
7.6
33.3
79.0
16.7
57.8
48.2
2001
43.7
12.0
25.6
81.3
21.5
68.5
53.7
Sparsely settled
1994
11.8
*0.6
28.2
40.5
*4.9
30.5
29.0
1995
20.6
*1.1
19.5
41.1
*5.1
52.6
50.0
1996
19.8
*0.9
21.3
41.9
*4.2
49.3
47.2
1997
17.5
2.3
23.0
42.8
11.5
46.4
41.0
1998
12.3
*1.5
30.1
44.0
*11.1
31.5
28.0
1999
15.8
**0.0
29.7
45.4
**0.0
34.7
34.7
2000
12.2
*1.3
32.6
46.1
*9.4
29.3
26.5
2001
21.9
3.8
21.7
47.4
14.6
54.2
46.3
Balance of State/Territory
1994
40.0
21.2
50.6
111.8
34.6
54.7
35.8
1995
47.7
16.0
50.6
114.3
25.2
55.7
41.7
1996
47.7
20.0
49.6
117.3
29.5
57.7
40.7
1997
46.3
16.1
57.8
120.2
25.8
51.9
38.5
1998
48.9
18.0
56.6
123.6
27.0
54.2
39.6
1999
47.5
18.9
59.9
126.3
28.5
52.6
37.6
2000
60.6
14.8
53.8
129.3
19.7
58.4
46.9
2001
52.8
19.6
59.6
132.0
27.0
54.8
40.0
Australia
1994
84.4
32.5
103.3
220.2
27.8
53.1
38.3
1995
100.6
26.6
97.9
225.1
20.9
56.5
44.7
1996
98.1
29.2
103.4
230.7
22.9
55.2
42.5
1997
92.1
27.9
116.5
236.5
23.3
50.7
38.9
1998
95.1
31.7
116.2
242.9
25.0
52.2
39.1
1999
98.9
27.7
122.0
248.6
21.9
50.9
39.8
2000
110.9
23.7
119.8
254.4
17.6
52.9
43.6
2001
118.4
35.3
107.0
260.7
23.0
59.0
45.4

-- nil or rounded to zero (including null cells)
* Estimate has a relative standard error of between 25% and 50% and should be used with caution
** Estimate has a relative standard error greater than 50% and is considered to unreliable for general use
(a) Reference period is March 1994, and February in subsequent years


A.2 LABOUR FORCE STATUS, NON-INDIGENOUS POPULATION AGED 15 YEARS AND OVER (a)

Employed
Unemployed
Not in the labour force
Population(a)
Unemployment rate
Labour force participation rate
Employment to population ratio
'000
'000
'000
'000
%
%
%

MALES

Capital city
1994
2,898.9
337.5
1,092.3
4,328.7
10.4
74.8
67.0
1995
2,992.0
314.0
1,080.1
4,386.1
9.5
75.4
68.2
1996
3,039.3
306.3
1,110.8
4,456.4
9.2
75.1
68.2
1997
3,059.1
308.6
1,160.5
4,528.2
9.2
74.4
67.6
1998
3,125.7
273.3
1,196.6
4,595.6
8.0
74.0
68.0
1999
3,179.5
264.8
1,232.1
4,676.4
7.7
73.7
68.0
2000
3,264.1
221.1
1,271.4
4,756.6
6.3
73.3
68.6
2001
3,309.7
249.0
1,284.0
4,842.7
7.0
73.5
68.3
Sparsely settled
1994
40.2
*2.8
5.6
48.6
*6.5
88.4
82.7
1995
42.1
*2.6
3.6
48.2
*5.8
92.6
87.3
1996
42.4
*1.8
4.1
48.3
*4.1
91.4
87.7
1997
39.8
*1.8
7.3
48.9
*4.2
85.0
81.4
1998
43.1
**0.8
5.9
49.8
**1.8
88.1
86.5
1999
39.9
*4.2
4.1
48.2
*9.6
91.6
82.8
2000
41.0
**0.4
6.9
48.3
**0.9
85.7
84.9
2001
39.9
**0.6
7.7
48.2
**1.5
84.1
82.8
Balance of State/Territory
1994
1,506.6
195.8
654.6
2,357.0
11.5
72.2
63.9
1995
1,564.5
167.8
651.4
2,383.7
9.7
72.7
65.6
1996
1,596.5
163.7
654.8
2,415.0
9.3
72.9
66.1
1997
1,590.8
182.8
673.3
2,446.9
10.3
72.5
65.0
1998
1,601.9
186.5
696.7
2,485.1
10.4
72.0
64.5
1999
1,650.7
160.3
702.7
2,513.7
8.9
72.0
65.7
2000
1,671.8
155.9
717.1
2,544.9
8.5
71.8
65.7
2001
1,662.3
157.4
743.7
2,563.4
8.6
71.0
64.8
Australia
1994
4,445.7
536.1
1,752.5
6,734.3
10.8
74.0
66.0
1995
4,598.6
484.3
1,735.0
6,817.9
9.5
74.6
67.4
1996
4,678.2
471.9
1,769.7
6,919.8
9.2
74.4
67.6
1997
4,689.7
493.1
1,841.2
7,024.0
9.5
73.8
66.8
1998
4,770.7
460.6
1,899.3
7,130.6
8.8
73.4
66.9
1999
4,870.1
429.3
1,938.9
7,238.3
8.1
73.2
67.3
2000
4,976.9
377.4
1,995.4
7,349.8
7.0
72.9
67.7
2001
5,011.9
407.0
2,035.3
7,454.3
7.5
72.7
67.2

-- nil or rounded to zero (including null cells)
* Estimate has a relative standard error of between 25% and 50% and should be used with caution
** Estimate has a relative standard error greater than 50% and is considered to unreliable for general use
(a) Reference period is March 1994, and February in subsequent years


A.2 LABOUR FORCE STATUS, NON-INDIGENOUS POPULATION AGED 15 YEARS AND OVER (a)

Employed
Unemployed
Not in the labour force
Population(a)
Unemployment rate
Labour force participation rate
Employment to population ratio
'000
'000
'000
'000
%
%
%

FEMALES

Capital city
1994
2,238.9
241.9
2,055.5
4,536.3
9.7
54.7
49.4
1995
2,272.4
244.9
2,079.1
4,596.4
9.7
54.8
49.4
1996
2,356.1
226.7
2,091.1
4,673.9
8.8
55.3
50.4
1997
2,418.4
247.0
2,082.4
4,747.8
9.3
56.1
50.9
1998
2,424.1
211.4
2,176.7
4,812.2
8.0
54.8
50.4
1999
2,481.8
205.8
2,201.5
4,889.1
7.7
55.0
50.8
2000
2,567.8
197.9
2,197.8
4,963.5
7.2
55.7
51.7
2001
2,623.7
199.8
2,215.0
5,038.5
7.1
56.0
52.1
Sparsely settled
1994
26.0
**0.6
9.2
35.8
**2.4
74.3
72.5
1995
24.0
**0.6
10.8
35.4
**2.4
69.4
67.7
1996
22.8
**0.0
12.6
35.4
**0.0
64.5
64.5
1997
26.1
**0.5
9.1
35.6
**1.7
74.6
73.3
1998
28.9
**0.0
7.3
36.2
**0.0
79.8
79.8
1999
22.0
**0.7
12.8
35.5
**3.1
63.9
61.9
2000
23.1
**0.0
12.5
35.6
**0.0
64.9
64.9
2001
24.0
**0.0
11.7
35.7
**0.0
67.2
67.2
Balance of State/Territory
1994
1,049.3
136.9
1,190.3
2,376.5
11.5
49.9
44.2
1995
1,106.3
128.5
1,169.0
2,403.8
10.4
51.4
46.0
1996
1,129.4
126.7
1,181.5
2,437.6
10.1
51.5
46.3
1997
1,138.5
134.4
1,198.9
2,471.8
10.6
51.5
46.1
1998
1,160.9
136.1
1,211.1
2,508.1
10.5
51.7
46.3
1999
1,192.0
118.2
1,225.5
2,535.7
9.0
51.7
47.0
2000
1,236.7
119.4
1,212.2
2,568.3
8.8
52.8
48.2
2001
1,284.6
106.0
1,198.4
2,589.0
7.6
53.7
49.6
Australia
1994
3,314.2
379.4
3,255.0
6,948.6
10.3
53.2
47.7
1995
3,402.7
373.9
3,258.9
7,035.6
9.9
53.7
48.4
1996
3,508.3
353.4
3,285.2
7,146.9
9.2
54.0
49.1
1997
3,583.0
381.8
3,290.4
7,255.1
9.6
54.6
49.4
1998
3,613.9
347.5
3,395.1
7,356.5
8.8
53.8
49.1
1999
3,695.8
324.7
3,439.8
7,460.2
8.1
53.9
49.5
2000
3,827.6
317.3
3,422.5
7,567.4
7.7
54.8
50.6
2001
3,932.4
305.8
3,425.1
7,663.3
7.2
55.3
51.3

-- nil or rounded to zero (including null cells)
* Estimate has a relative standard error of between 25% and 50% and should be used with caution
** Estimate has a relative standard error greater than 50% and is considered to unreliable for general use
(a) Reference period is March 1994, and February in subsequent years


A.2 LABOUR FORCE STATUS, NON-INDIGENOUS POPULATION AGED 15 YEARS AND OVER (a)

Employed
Unemployed
Not in the labour force
Population(a)
Unemployment rate
Labour force participation rate
Employment to population ratio
'000
'000
'000
'000
%
%
%

PERSONS

Capital city
1994
5,137.9
579.4
3,147.8
8,865.1
10.1
64.5
58.0
1995
5,264.4
558.8
3,159.2
8,982.5
9.6
64.8
58.6
1996
5,395.4
533.0
3,201.9
9,130.3
9.0
64.9
59.1
1997
5,477.4
555.6
3,242.9
9,275.9
9.2
65.0
59.0
1998
5,549.8
484.7
3,373.2
9,407.7
8.0
64.1
59.0
1999
5,661.3
470.6
3,433.6
9,565.4
7.7
64.1
59.2
2000
5,831.9
419.0
3,469.2
9,720.1
6.7
64.3
60.0
2001
5,933.4
448.8
3,499.0
9,881.2
7.0
64.6
60.0
Sparsely settled
1994
66.2
*3.4
14.8
84.4
*4.9
82.4
78.4
1995
66.0
*3.2
14.4
83.6
*4.6
82.8
79.0
1996
65.2
*1.8
16.7
83.7
*2.7
80.0
77.9
1997
65.9
*2.2
16.4
84.5
*3.2
80.6
78.0
1998
71.9
**0.8
13.3
86.0
**1.1
84.6
83.7
1999
61.9
4.9
16.9
83.7
7.4
79.8
73.9
2000
64.1
**0.4
19.4
83.9
**0.6
76.9
76.4
2001
63.9
**0.6
19.4
83.9
**0.9
76.9
76.2
Balance of State/Territory
1994
2,556.0
332.7
1,844.9
4,733.5
11.5
61.0
54.0
1995
2,670.7
296.3
1,820.4
4,787.4
10.0
62.0
55.8
1996
2,726.0
290.4
1,836.3
4,852.7
9.6
62.2
56.2
1997
2,729.3
317.2
1,872.2
4,918.7
10.4
61.9
55.5
1998
2,762.8
322.6
1,907.8
4,993.2
10.5
61.8
55.3
1999
2,842.8
278.5
1,928.2
5,049.5
8.9
61.8
56.3
2000
2,908.5
275.4
1,929.4
5,113.2
8.6
62.3
56.9
2001
2,946.9
263.4
1,942.1
5,152.4
8.2
62.3
57.2
Australia
1994
7,760.1
915.5
5,007.5
13,683.0
10.6
63.4
56.7
1995
8,001.1
858.3
4,994.0
13,853.5
9.7
64.0
57.8
1996
8,186.6
825.2
5,054.9
14,066.7
9.2
64.1
58.2
1997
8,272.6
874.9
5,131.5
14,279.1
9.6
64.1
57.9
1998
8,384.5
808.1
5,294.3
14,486.9
8.8
63.5
57.9
1999
8,566.0
754.0
5,378.7
14,698.6
8.1
63.4
58.3
2000
8,804.5
694.7
5,418.0
14,917.2
7.3
63.7
59.0
2001
8,944.2
712.9
5,460.4
15,117.5
7.4
63.9
59.2

-- nil or rounded to zero (including null cells)
* Estimate has a relative standard error of between 25% and 50% and should be used with caution
** Estimate has a relative standard error greater than 50% and is considered to unreliable for general use
(a) Reference period is March 1994, and February in subsequent years


A.3 STANDARD ERRORS OF ESTIMATES, INDIGENOUS POPULATION

Capital city
Sparsely settled
Balance of State
Australia
Size of estimate
no.
%
no.
%
no.
%
no.
%

100
90
90.0
90
90.0
90
90.0
110
110.0
200
160
80.0
140
70.0
170
85.0
180
90.0
300
210
70.0
170
56.7
230
76.7
230
76.7
500
300
60.0
230
46.0
330
66.0
330
66.0
700
360
51.4
280
40.0
410
58.6
400
57.1
1,000
450
45.0
330
33.0
500
50.0
490
49.0
1,500
550
36.7
400
26.7
630
42.0
610
40.7
2,000
630
31.5
450
22.5
720
36.0
710
35.5
2,500
700
28.0
500
20.0
800
32.0
800
32.0
3,000
750
25.0
550
18.3
850
28.3
850
28.3
3,500
800
22.9
550
15.7
900
25.7
900
25.7
4,000
850
21.3
600
15.0
950
23.8
1,000
25.0
5,000
900
18.0
650
13.0
1,050
21.0
1,050
21.0
7,000
1,000
14.3
700
10.0
1,200
17.1
1,200
17.1
10,000
1,100
11.0
800
8.0
1,300
13.0
1,400
14.0
15,000
1,150
7.7
850
5.7
1,400
9.3
1,600
10.7
20,000
1,200
6.0
900
4.5
1,500
7.5
1,750
8.8
30,000
1,250
4.2
1,000
3.3
1,550
5.2
1,950
6.5
40,000
1,300
3.3
1,050
2.6
1,600
4.0
2,050
5.1
50,000
1,300
2.6
1,050
2.1
1,600
3.2
2,150
4.3
65,000
1,300
2.0
1,600
2.5
2,250
3.5
80,000
1,250
1.9
1,600
2.0
2,350
2.9
100,000
1,600
1.6
2,400
2.4
130,000
1,550
1.2
2,500
1.9
150,000
2,550
1.7
175,000
2,550
1.5
200,000
2,600
1.3
250,000
2,650
1.1



A.4 INDIGENOUS ESTIMATES WITH RELATIVE STANDARD ERROR OF 25% OR MORE

Relative standard error
Capital city
Sparsely settled
Balance of State
Australia
%
no.
no.
no.
no.

25
3,000
1,700
3,800
3,800
30
2,200
1,200
2,800
2,800
35
1,600
900
2,100
2,000
40
1,300
700
1,600
1,600
45
1,000
500
1,300
1,200
50
800
400
1,000
1,000



A.5 STANDARD ERRORS OF ESTIMATES, NON-INDIGENOUS POPULATION

Capital city
Sparsely settled
Balance of State
Australia
Size of estimate
no.
%
no.
%
no.
%
no.
%

100
50
50.0
70
70.0
50
50.0
40
40.0
200
90
45.0
140
70.0
100
50.0
70
35.0
300
130
43.3
200
66.7
150
50.0
100
33.3
500
200
40.0
310
62.0
220
44.0
160
32.0
700
260
37.1
390
55.7
290
41.4
220
31.4
1,000
340
34.0
500
50.0
380
38.0
290
29.0
1,500
470
31.3
630
42.0
510
34.0
400
26.7
2,000
570
28.5
730
36.5
620
31.0
500
25.0
2,500
650
26.0
800
32.0
700
28.0
600
24.0
3,000
750
25.0
850
28.3
800
26.7
700
23.3
3,500
850
24.3
950
27.1
900
25.7
750
21.4
4,000
900
22.5
950
23.8
950
23.8
850
21.3
5,000
1,050
21.0
1,050
21.0
1,100
22.0
950
19.0
7,000
1,300
18.6
1,150
16.4
1,350
19.3
1,200
17.1
10,000
1,600
16.0
1,250
12.5
1,650
16.5
1,550
15.5
15,000
2,000
13.3
1,300
8.7
2,050
13.7
1,950
13.0
20,000
2,350
11.8
1,350
6.8
2,350
11.8
2,300
11.5
30,000
2,850
9.5
1,350
4.5
2,850
9.5
2,900
9.7
40,000
3,300
8.3
1,300
3.3
3,250
8.1
3,350
8.4
50,000
3,650
7.3
1,250
2.5
3,550
7.1
3,750
7.5
65,000
4,100
6.3
1,200
1.8
3,950
6.1
4,250
6.5
80,000
4,450
5.6
1,150
1.4
4,250
5.3
4,650
5.8
100,000
4,900
4.9
4,600
4.6
5,150
5.2
130,000
5,400
4.2
5,000
3.8
5,750
4.4
150,000
5,700
3.8
5,250
3.5
6,100
4.1
175,000
6,050
3.5
5,500
3.1
6,500
3.7
200,000
6,300
3.2
5,700
2.9
6,800
3.4
250,000
6,800
2.7
6,100
2.4
7,400
3.0
300,000
7,200
2.4
6,400
2.1
7,850
2.6
500,000
8,350
1.7
7,150
1.4
9,250
1.9
1,000,000
9,850
1.0
8,100
0.8
11,150
1.1
2,000,000
11,200
0.6
8,800
0.4
12,900
0.6
5,000,000
12,550
0.3
9,200
0.2
14,650
0.3
10,000,000
13,100
0.1
15,450
0.2
15,000,000
15,650
0.1



A.6 NON-INDIGENOUS ESTIMATES WITH RELATIVE STANDARD ERROR OF 25% OR MORE

Relative standard error
Capital city
Sparsely settled
Balance of State
Australia
%
no.
no.
no.
no.

25
3,100
3,800
3,700
2,100
30
1,700
2,800
2,200
900
35
900
2,200
1,300
200
40
500
1,700
800
100
45
200
1,300
500
..
50
100
1,000
200
..



A.7 STANDARD ERROR FACTORS

Indigenous
Non-Indigenous
Capital city
Sparsely settled
Balance of State
Australia
Capital city
Sparsely settled
Balance of State
Australia
Total

Annual movement (a)
1.38
1.51
1.37
1.38
1.40
1.42
1.40
1.40
1.39
Employed
1.00
1.12
1.01
1.02
0.99
0.99
0.99
1.00
0.98
Unemployed
1.07
1.04
1.03
1.05
0.97
1.14
0.98
0.97
1.13
Labour Force
1.03
1.12
1.02
1.04
0.98
0.99
0.99
0.98
1.05
NILF
1.03
1.00
1.02
1.00
1.09
1.11
1.09
1.09
1.04
Male
1.04
Female
1.02

(a) Applied to the Standard Error of the larger of the two estimates.


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Commonwealth of Australia 2014

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