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3412.0 - Migration, Australia, 2007-08 Quality Declaration 
Previous ISSUE Released at 11:30 AM (CANBERRA TIME) 28/07/2009   
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POPULATION MOBILITY



INTRODUCTION

Mobility refers to the movement of people from place to place, or job to job, or social class to social class. Population mobility refers to the geographic movement of people where there has been a change in the place of usual residence. In this chapter it is also referred to as internal migration within Australia at both the intrastate and interstate levels. The movement of people at smaller geographic levels is an important factor in population change at the local level and is best measured using census data which becomes available every five years.


Population mobility estimates have been derived from Australia's Census of Population and Housing data over a number of years. The five yearly snapshot on mobility derived from census data is unlike that of the previous chapter on interstate migration which uses administrative data that is being updated continually.


In this chapter, population mobility is measured using census data based on the place of usual residence of each individual at the time of the latest census and is compared with data based on the place of usual residence one year earlier and five years earlier as asked on the census form. The analysis looks at where people were on census night, who moved and who did not move from their place of usual residence, and the movements between different areas. It discusses the extent of population mobility at various geographic levels (intrastate and interstate) and some of the characteristics of movers. The geographic levels that are examined here include Statistical Local Areas (SLA), Statistical Divisions (SD) and interstate. For previous analysis on population mobility, see chapter 3 in Population Growth and Distribution (cat. no. 2035.0).



AUSTRALIANS ON THE MOVE

A population census is limited in capturing the mobility of the population in that it can determine whether a person has moved between two points in time, but not how many times that person has moved within that period of time. The 2006 Census showed that 40% of the population moved in the five years 2001 to 2006, while 16% of people moved in the one year 2005-2006.


Between 2001 and 2006, about 6.6 million people (40%) aged five years and over changed their place of residence in Australia. Of all the people who moved during this period, 5.7 million (86%) moved within the same state or territory and a further 746,700 people (11%) moved interstate. For about 3% of all movers it was not possible to define the type of move.


Of those who moved within the same state and territory, a little over one-third (36%) moved within the same SLA, nearly half (47%) moved to another SLA in the same SD, while about 16% moved to another SD.

2.1 Population mobility by type of move - 1996-2006 Census

1996-2001(a)
2000-2001(b)
2001-2006(a)
2005-2006(b)
Type of move
no
%
no
%
no
%
no
%

Moved
Same SLA
2 205 049
13.7
1 198 451
6.8
2 048 527
12.4
1 002 438
5.5
Other SLA and same SD
2 670 668
16.6
1 171 253
6.7
2 693 521
16.3
1 129 211
6.2
Other SD same state
1 004 048
6.3
368 301
2.1
943 160
5.7
327 260
1.8
Moved interstate
767 932
4.8
286 338
1.6
746 695
4.5
270 491
1.5
Type undefined(c)
157 264
1.0
79 930
0.5
200 934
1.2
82 983
0.5
Total moved
6 804 961
42.4
3 104 273
17.7
6 632 837
40.3
2 812 383
15.5
Did not move
9 253 360
57.6
14 446 309
82.3
9 841 426
59.7
15 345 558
84.5
Total(d)
16 058 321
100.0
17 550 582
100.0
16 474 263
100.0
18 157 941
100.0

(a) For ages five and over.
(b) For ages one and over.
(c) Includes usual residence one/five year/s ago not stated, off-shore and migratory, undefined and no usual address.
(d) Excludes persons overseas at the time of the Census, persons whose usual address one/five year/s ago was overseas, overseas visitors and not stated responses.
Source: 2001 and 2006 Census of Population and Housing.


Trends in population mobility by type of move from the intercensal periods of 1986-1991 to 2001-2006 reveal that there has been little change in the overall pattern of moves over the period (Figure 2.2). The level of population mobility when compared between various censuses has remained around 40%.


The most common type of move recorded in recent censuses was a move to another SLA within the same SD, between 2001-06, 16.3 % of the population undertook this type of move compared to 16.6% between 1996 and 2001. The next most common type of move was within the same SLA, followed by a move to another SD within the same state or territory. About 5% of the total population aged five years and over moved interstate during the five years intercensal period of various censuses from 1986-91 to 2001-06.

2.2 Trend in population mobility by type of move - 1986-2006 Census
Graph: 2.2 Trend in population mobility by type of move19862006 Census


MOBILITY BETWEEN STATES AND TERRITORIES

Between 2001 to 2006, about three quarters of a million people moved interstate at least once during the 5 years period based on data from the 2006 Census of a person's usual residence 5 years ago. Of all these movements, over one third left New South Wales, while only one fifth arrived in New South Wales from other states and territories. In comparison, less than one fifth left Queensland for other states and territories and one third arrived in Queensland from other states and territories (Table 2.3).


Analysis of the 2006 Census data indicates, that over the five year period (2001-06), the largest interstate migration movement was the 136,800 persons moving from New South Wales to Queensland. The second largest movement was the inverse of this, with 56,600 persons moving from Queensland to New South Wales. The next largest movement was those persons moving from New South Wales to Victoria (51,800 persons).


The states who made a net gain to their populations through interstate migration were Queensland, Tasmania and Western Australia In contrast New South Wales, Victoria, South Australia, the Northern Territory and the Australian Capital Territory all recorded a net loss. The largest net gain of interstate moves was made by Queensland (121,000 persons). Tasmania and Western Australia also gained (4,700 and 600 persons respectively). The largest net loss through interstate migration was for populations in New South Wales (103,500 persons). South Australia and Victoria each lost (7,700 persons), followed by the Northern Territory (6,400 persons) and the Australian Capital Territory (500 persons).

2.3 Interstate mobility - 2001-06 Census(a)

Arrivals to:
NSW
Vic
Qld
SA
WA
Tas
NT
ACT
Total departures(b)
no.
no.
no.
no.
no.
no.
no.
no.
no.

Departures from:
NSW
. .
51 782
136 819
13 336
17 910
9 199
5 464
24 297
258 914
Vic.
42 436
. .
50 047
13 517
14 435
7 914
4 614
5 419
138 419
Qld
56 629
30 329
. .
8 712
12 489
7 418
7 610
5 946
129 184
SA
10 988
15 630
15 719
. .
6 026
2 240
4 197
1 951
56 756
WA
13 320
14 820
17 032
4 968
. .
3 069
4 061
2 169
59 669
Tas.
4 553
7 990
8 368
1 606
2 846
. .
635
821
26 828
NT
5 026
4 549
12 806
5 241
4 254
772
. .
1 152
33 805
ACT
22 297
5 551
9 304
1 619
1 861
878
771
. .
42 313
Total arrivals(b)
155 405
130 687
250 134
49 013
60 306
31 500
27 374
41 799
746 694
Net gain or loss
-103 509
-7 732
120 950
-7 743
637
4 672
-6 431
-514
. .

. . not applicable
(a) Based on place of usual residence on Census night and five years ago, from the 2006 Census of Population and Housing.
(b) Includes Other Territories.
Source: 2006 Census of Population and Housing, data available on request.


MOBILITY BETWEEN STATISTICAL DIVISIONS

Internal mobility between Statistical Divisions (SDs) made a significant contribution to changes in the population distribution between 2001 and 2006. Figure 2.4 shows that net gains from internal migration between 2001 and 2006 were mostly recorded for SDs along the eastern coastline of Queensland and New South Wales and the south-west corner of Western Australia. The capital cities of Brisbane, Perth and Hobart also recorded net gains. On the other hand, net internal migration losses mainly occurred in the rural inland and remote areas of Australia and from the capital cities of Sydney, Melbourne, Adelaide, Darwin and Canberra.

2.4 RATE OF NET MIGRATION, Statistical Divisions - 2001-06 Census
Diagram: 2.4 Rate of Net Migratiion, Statistical Divisions20012006 Census


As with the two previous intercensal periods, the largest net gains between 2001 and 2006 were recorded in Brisbane (42,800), Gold Coast (29,300) and Sunshine Coast (20,500) in south east Queensland (Table 2.5). In Queensland, unlike the previous intercensal period (1996-2001), Wide Bay-Burnett gained significantly (15,800). Significant net inflows were also registered by South West (10,800) in Western Australia and Mid-North Coast (10,300) in New South Wales. In terms of percentage gain, Outer Adelaide in South Australia (6.4%) and every SD in Tasmania recorded net gains between 2001 and 2006 in contrast to significant net migration losses between 1996 and 2001.


Sydney recorded the largest net migration losses between 2001 and 2006 (121,000), with the next largest loss recorded by North Western in New South Wales (6,500). In Victoria, Melbourne also experienced significant loss (18,700). In Queensland, the largest rate of net migration loss were recorded in Central West (12.1%) and North West (10.4%). In Western Australia, South Eastern experienced the largest loss (7.2%).

2.5 Net Internal Migration, Statistical Divisions - 2001-06 Census

Intrastate
Interstate
Total
Rate(a)
State/territory Statistical division
no
no
no
%

New South Wales
Sydney
-54 513
-66 481
-120 994
-3.0
Hunter
15 164
-5 505
9 659
1.7
Illawarra
8 026
-7 085
941
0.2
Richmond-Tweed
9 387
-3 253
6 134
2.9
Mid-North Coast
15 590
-5 324
10 266
3.7
Northern
1 767
-4 800
-3 033
-1.8
North Western
-3 564
-2 935
-6 499
-5.7
Central West
1 076
-3 833
-2 757
-1.6
South Eastern
5 356
1 146
6 502
3.4
Murrumbidgee
802
-3 648
-2 846
-1.9
Murray
1 063
-850
213
0.2
Far West
-154
-937
-1 091
-4.8
Victoria
Melbourne
-15 990
-2 707
-18 697
-0.5
Barwon
5 426
-758
4 668
1.9
Western District
-318
-207
-525
-0.5
Central Highlands
3 279
-885
2 394
1.7
Wimmera
-1 310
-291
-1 601
-3.3
Mallee
-1 668
-208
-1 876
-2.1
Loddon
4 144
-530
3 614
2.2
Goulburn
2 696
-1 223
1 473
0.8
Ovens-Murray
256
217
473
0.5
East Gippsland
793
-9
784
1.0
Gippsland
2 692
-1 131
1 561
1.0
Queensland
Brisbane
-1 643
44 385
42 742
2.5
Gold Coast
-674
29 963
29 289
(b)6.1
Sunshine Coast
4 919
15 627
20 546
(b)7.4
West Moreton
1 030
1 076
2 106
(b)3.1
Wide Bay-Burnett
5 642
10 161
15 803
6.5
Darling Downs
-38
3 225
3 187
1.5
South West
-2 230
-77
-2 307
-9.1
Fitzroy
-1 139
3 030
1 891
1.0
Central West
-1 332
-59
-1 391
-12.1
Mackay
536
4 601
5 137
3.6
Northern
1 902
2 999
4 901
2.6
Far North
-3 495
5 957
2 462
1.1
North West
-3 478
60
-3 418
-10.4
South Adelaide
Adelaide
-3 358
-6 267
-9 625
-0.9
Outer Adelaide
6 938
522
7 460
6.4
Yorke and Lower North
634
-46
588
1.4
Murray Lands
-583
-531
-1 114
-1.7
South East
-782
-551
-1 333
-2.2
Eyre
-557
-84
-641
-1.9
Northern
-2 292
-791
-3 083
-4.0
Western Australia
Perth
1 698
1 800
3 498
0.3
South West
9 946
895
10 841
5.5
Lower Great Southern
-743
34
-709
-1.4
Upper Great Southern
-1 025
-24
-1 049
-5.9
Midlands
-2 189
-153
-2 342
-4.6
South Eastern
-3 305
-442
-3 747
-7.2
Central
-1 810
-210
-2 020
-3.5
Pilbara
-1 569
-438
-2 007
-5.1
Kimberley
-1 003
-823
-1 826
-6.0
Tasmania
Greater Hobart
2 526
-161
2 365
1.2
Southern
-1 239
1 781
542
1.6
Northern
-65
1 591
1 526
1.2
Mersey-Lyell
-1 222
1 464
242
0.2
Northern Territory
Darwin
1 506
-3 503
-1 997
-1.9
Northern Territory - Bal
-1 506
-2 929
-4 435
-5.2
Australian Capital Territory
Canberra
16
-461
-445
-0.1
Australian Capital Territory - Bal
-16
-52
-68
-21.8

(a) Percentage of the average of the 2001 and 2006 usual residence Census counts.
(b) Annual rates only, as these were new Statistical Divisions and data are only available from the 2006 Census.
Source: 2006 Census of Population and Housing, data available on request.



Capital city SDs

Table 2.5 shows that for most capital city SDs the total net migration gain or loss was largely due to the effects of interstate migration. Brisbane mostly gained population through net interstate migration (NIM), while Sydney and Adelaide lost population through NIM. Sydney was the only capital city to record a large net migration loss through both net interstate and intrastate migration losses. Melbourne also recorded losses through interstate and intrastate, but largely through intrastate migration. Adelaide also experienced losses both through interstate and intrastate migration. Perth was the only capital city to record some net migration gains through both interstate and intrastate migration. Greater Hobart, Darwin and Canberra recorded losses through interstate migration but gained through intrastate migration.


As with the past three intercensal periods (1986-1991, 1991-1996 and 1996-2001), patterns of net intrastate migration between 2001 and 2006 are evident between Sydney and Melbourne and the other capital cities. Both Sydney (54,500) and Melbourne (16,000) lost population through net intrastate migration to a number of surrounding SDs. However, in contrast to past patterns of net intrastate migration, Brisbane (1600) and Adelaide (3400) also lost population through intrastate migration to a number of surrounding SDs.


Non-metropolitan SDs

In New South Wales, the drift of population away from inland regions continued, with net intrastate migration losses being recorded by North Western (3,600) and Far West (200). In contrast, all the coastal non-metropolitan SDs gained through net intrastate migration. The largest net intrastate gains were registered in Mid-North Coast (15,600), Hunter (15,200), Richmond-Tweed (9,400) and Illawarra (8,000). The only SD to gain from NIM was South Eastern (1,200), which gained population largely from Victoria and the Australian Capital Territory.


Like New South Wales, the majority of Victorian SDs to lose population to other areas in the state were located in western Victoria, such as Mallee (1,700), Wimmera (1,300) and Western District (300). All other non-metropolitan SDs made net gains from within Victoria. The largest net intrastate gains were experienced in Barwon (5,400), Loddon (4,100) and Central Highlands (3,300), three SDs that border the SD of Melbourne. Goulburn and Gippsland also gained (2,700) each.


The non-metropolitan SDs in Queensland that recorded a net intrastate migration gains were Wide Bay-Burnett (5,600), Sunshine Coast (4,900), Northern (1,900), West Moreton (1,000) and Mackay (500).


In South Australia, Outer Adelaide and Yorke and Lower North were the only non-metropolitan SDs to experience net intrastate migration gains (6,900 and 600 respectively). Outer Adelaide was the only non-metropolitan SD to record NIM gains (500).


South West SD in Western Australia was the only non-metropolitan SD to experience a net intrastate migration gain (9,900). South West SD also made net gains from interstate migration (900).


In Tasmania all of the non-metropolitan SDs experienced a net intrastate migration loss, while all these SDs made net gains in interstate migration.


MOVEMENT WITHIN CAPITAL CITIES

There were about 4.0 million people counted in capital city SDs in 2006 who changed their place of residence between 2001 and 2006 (Table 2.6). Of these people, 80.6% (3.2 million) moved within their city. The proportion of people who moved within their capital city varied considerably between capital cities. Darwin was the only city where the proportion of moves from within Darwin (47.6%) was similar to the moves from interstate (40.9%).

2.6 Capital City Mobility - 2001-06 Census

INTRA-URBAN(a)
ARRIVALS FROM INTRASTATE(b)
ARRIVALS FROM INTERSTATE(c)
TOTAL MOVED(d)
No.
Prop of total
No.
Prop of total
No.
Prop of total
No.
Capital city SD
000
%
000
%
000
%
000

Sydney
1 041.7
87.4
58.4
4.9
63.8
5.4
1 191.9
Melbourne
872.0
84.3
54.8
5.3
85.9
8.3
1 034.2
Brisbane
474.5
70.6
81.4
12.1
95.7
14.2
671.9
Adelaide
263.0
79.1
27.3
8.2
34.3
10.3
332.2
Perth
402.3
80.0
47.4
9.4
42.6
8.5
502.8
Greater Hobart
46.8
69.1
7.9
11.7
11.5
17.0
67.7
Darwin
20.8
47.6
3.2
7.4
17.9
40.9
43.7
Canberra
67.9
61.1
-
-
41.8
37.6
111.2
All capital cities
3 188.8
80.6
280.5
7.1
393.5
9.9
3 955.8

- nil or rounded to zero (including null cells)
(a) Moves within the capital city SD.
(b) Moves to other SDs, same state.
(c) Moves to other SDs, different state.
(d) Includes undefined moves.
Source: 2006 Census of Population and Housing, data available on request.


Table 2.7 summarises the SLAs which recorded the largest net gains and losses to or from other SLAs within the same capital city between 2001 and 2006. In most cases, the SLAs which registered the largest net gains were located in the outer areas of the capital cities, while those that had the largest net loses were located in the inner and middle areas of the metropolitan regions.


2.7 Net Gains and Losses, To or from selected Statistical Local Areas within
capital cities - 2001-06 Census




Largest
net gain
Largest
net loss
Capital city,
    Statistical Local Area
no.
Capital city,
    Statistical Local Area
no.



Sydney Sydney
Baulkham Hills (A) - North
7 809
    Canterbury (C)
-6 977
Wyong (A) - North-East
6 884
    Fairfield (C) - East
-5 789
Blacktown (C) - North
5 072
    Randwick (C)
-4 121
Camden (A)
4 269
    Fairfield (C) - West
-3 328
Wollondilly (A)
3 623
    Liverpool (C) - East
-3 038
Melbourne Melbourne
Melton (S) - East
12 728
    Hume (C) - Broadmeadows
-6 084
Casey (C) - Berwick
9 441
    Gr. Dandenong (C) - Dandenong
-5 742
Hume (C) - Craigieburn
7 645
    Brimbank (C) - Keilor
-5 318
Whittlesea (C) - North
6 977
    Whittlesea (C) - South-West
-4 106
Wyndham (C) - South
6 123
    Gr. Dandenong (C) Bal
-3 549
Brisbane Brisbane
Griffin-Mango Hill
2 780
    Alexandra Hills
-1 285
Parkinson-Drewvale
2 542
    St Lucia
-1 191
Ipswich (C) - East
2 536
    Woodridge
-1 090
Beaudesert (S) - Pt A
2 516
    Runcorn
-1 059
Central Pine West
2 423
    Marsden
-903
Adelaide Adelaide
Salisbury (C) Bal
2 593
    Tea Tree Gully (C) - Central
-1 227
Port Adel. Enfield (C) - East
1 682
    Port Adel. Enfield (C) - Inner
-999
Onkaparinga (C) - South Coast
1 213
    Onkaparinga (C) - Morphett
-901
Playford (C) - East Central
807
    Salisbury (C) - Central
-881
Playford (C) - West
616
    Salisbury (C) - Inner North
-839
Perth Perth
Wanneroo (C) - North-East
6 161
    Joondalup (C) - South
-7 879
Wanneroo (C) - North-West
3 423
    Canning (C)
-3 381
Rockingham (C)
3 209
    Melville (C)
-2 705
Swan (C)
2 314
    Joondalup (C) - North
-2 076
Gosnells (C)
2 129
    Stirling (C) - Central
-1 670
Hobart Hobart
Clarence (C)
397
    Hobart (C) - Remainder
-380
Brighton (M)
166
    Derwent Valley (M) - Pt A
-133
Sorell (M) - Pt A
144
    Kingborough (M) - Pt A
-109
na
    Glenorchy (C)
-66
na
    Hobart (C) - Inner
-19
Darwin Darwin
Palmerston (C) Bal
509
    Karama
-267
Bayview-Woolner
383
    Nightcliff
-206
Gunn-Palmerston City
269
    Gray
-177
Litchfield (S) - Pt B
203
    Moulden
-126
Stuart Park
142
    Malak
-109
Canberra Canberra
Dunlop
1 690
    Kambah
-556
Gungahlin
1 661
    Ngunnawal
-554
Amaroo
774
    Kaleen
-378
Banks
724
    Evatt
-377
Nicholls
560
    Palmerston
-368



Source: The 2006 Census of Population and Housing, data available on request.


CHARACTERISTICS OF MOVERS

As well as the impact of the volume of movement on state and regional population growth and distribution, the characteristics of the people who move into or out of a region affect the nature and structure of the region's population. For example, because movers are generally younger in age than non-movers, in regions which gain in population through internal migration there is usually a rejuvenation effect, while regions which lose population are usually subjected to more rapid ageing. An obvious exception to this is the ageing effect of incoming retirement flows in some local areas.


This last section discusses the movement propensities of people by four types of characteristics. These are age, sex, birthplace and Indigenous origin.


Mobility by age and sex

Mobility rates (the number of movers in each category divided by the total number of persons in each category) by age and type of move between 2001 and 2006 confirm previous findings from the 1996 and 2001 Census, indicating that there has been little change in the propensity to move between these two periods. Comparing all moves by age, the most mobile group were those people aged in their twenties, followed by children, who were likely to have moved with their families.


Figure 2.8 shows that not all movement types by age have the same pattern. Overall, the age group 25-29 years were the most mobile for all movement types and more likely to move interstate and to move to another SLA within the same SD or within the same SLA. Those around retiring age (ages 60-64 years) also tended to have a slightly higher propensity to move to another SD but stay within the same state.

2.8 Mobility rates by age(a) and type of move - 2001-06 Census
Graph: 2.8 Mobility rates by age(a) and type of move200106 Census


While there was little difference in the overall mobility rate between males and females, there were distinct features across age groups (see graph 2.9). Females aged 25-29 years and below, as well as 75 years and over, had a higher propensity to move than males of the same age. Males aged 30-54 years had a higher propensity to move than females of the same age. The mobility rate for males and females aged 55-74 were very similar.


Women tend to leave home earlier than men, so women's mobility rates tend to be higher than men's in young adulthood, especially for those aged 15-24 years. As women tend to marry men older than themselves, and most moves are undertaken by families, women's age-specific mobility rates are very similar to men's but at a slightly younger age.

2.9 Mobility rates by age(a) and sex - 2001-06 Census
Graph: 2.9 Mobility rates by age(a) and sex200106 Census


As wives are more likely to outlive their husbands and widowhood can be a catalyst to moving, in the older age groups women are more likely to move short distances, such as to nursing homes or hostels. The mobility rates for older men and women are very similar for longer distance moves (Table 2.10). This suggests that longer distance moves are more likely to be made by a couple.

2.10 Population Mobility(a), By age and type of move - 2001-06 Census

Moved same SLA
Moved other SLA same SD
Moved other SD same state
Moved interstate
Total moved(b)
Males
Females
Males
Females
Males
Females
Males
Females
Males
Females
Age group (years)(c)
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%

5-9
17.1
17.4
17.6
17.6
6.4
6.4
5.2
5.2
47.8
48.2
10-14
15.1
15.3
13.7
13.9
5.3
5.4
4.0
4.1
39.2
39.9
15-19
12.7
13.3
12.7
14.2
5.7
6.6
3.6
4.0
35.8
39.3
20-24
13.9
15.6
20.6
25.1
8.9
11.2
6.4
7.4
51.7
60.9
25-29
17.1
18.1
31.1
34.2
8.2
9.4
8.3
8.9
67.3
72.8
30-34
16.9
17.7
29.8
29.3
7.4
7.7
7.7
7.6
64.3
64.2
35-39
15.7
16.1
23.4
21.8
6.3
6.2
6.4
6.0
53.6
51.5
40-44
13.7
13.8
17.4
15.8
5.1
4.9
4.9
4.4
42.5
39.7
45-49
11.4
11.1
13.8
12.7
4.4
4.2
3.7
3.4
34.3
32.1
50-54
9.3
8.9
11.8
11.5
4.3
4.4
3.2
3.2
29.4
28.6
55-59
7.8
7.5
10.5
10.4
4.6
4.9
3.2
3.2
26.9
26.7
60-64
6.9
6.8
9.3
9.2
5.1
5.0
3.0
2.9
25.0
24.5
65-69
6.3
6.6
8.2
8.1
4.8
4.2
2.7
2.4
22.7
21.8
70-74
6.1
6.6
7.3
7.4
3.8
3.1
2.1
1.9
19.9
19.5
75-79
6.0
6.8
7.0
7.3
2.9
2.7
1.7
1.6
18.2
19.0
80-84
6.4
7.4
7.3
8.5
2.6
2.8
1.5
1.6
18.5
21.2
85 and over
8.7
10.7
10.0
12.3
2.8
3.1
1.5
1.6
24.5
29.9
Total
12.3
12.6
16.3
16.4
5.6
5.8
4.6
4.5
40.1
40.4

(a) Calculated as the proportion of each category to the total population. The total population has been calculated by adding together those who moved and those who did not move. Excludes persons overseas at the time of the Census, persons whose usual address one/five year/s ago was overseas, overseas visitors and not stated responses.
(b) Includes undefined moves
(c) Age in 2006.
Source: 2006 Census of Population and Housing, data available on request.



Mobility by birthplace

The mobility rates of overseas-born residents are very high on arrival and for the first decade of their residence in Australia, a reflection that immigrants move early in their residence as part of the process of settling into their new environment. Table 2.11 shows however, that in the long term, the mobility rates of immigrants are lower than the Australia-born population. Age is a key driver lowering these mobility rates due to the fact that there is a much higher propensity to move at younger ages and that these earlier immigrants are now from the older age groups..


Of the 424,000 people recorded as being born overseas in the 2006 Census and who arrived in Australia between 1996-2000, 256,400 changed address since 2001. This represents a mobility rate of 60.5% which far exceeds the mobility rate of the Australia-born population (41.6%). The mobility rate for those who arrived between 1991-1995 was also higher (44.9%) than the Australia-born population. However, immigrants who had arrived in Australia before 1986, and who are now in primarily older age groups, had a mobility rate (28.9%) which was much lower than the Australia-born population (41.6%) as a whole.


The overseas-born, despite when they arrive, show similar patterns to the Australia-born population in that most moves are made within the same SLA and same SD. However, overseas-born people who arrived in 1996-2000 moved much more within the same SD (31.2%) than did the Australia-born population (16.1%). Since most overseas-born residents live in capital cities, most of these shorter distance moves would have occurred within capital cities. Recent immigrants who arrived in 1996-2000 made more interstate moves (6.0%), than the Australia-born (4.8%).

2.11 Population mobility by year of arrival - 2001-06 Census

Type of move(a)
Did not move
Same SLA
Other SLA same SD
Other SD same state
Interstate
Total moved(b)
Total
%
%
%
%
%
%
%

Overseas born-Year of arrival
Before 1986
71.1
8.3
13.0
3.6
3.2
28.9
100.0
1986-90
59.6
12.0
21.0
2.8
3.8
40.4
100.0
1991-95
55.1
14.3
23.1
2.6
4.0
44.9
100.0
1996-2000
39.5
18.0
31.2
3.4
6.0
60.5
100.0
Total
63.9
10.6
17.5
3.4
3.7
36.1
100.0
Australia-born
58.4
13.0
16.1
6.4
4.8
41.6
100.0
Total
59.6
12.5
16.4
5.8
4.6
40.4
100.0

(a) For ages five and over.
(b) Includes undefined moves.
Source: 2006 Census of Population and Housing, data available on request.


Figure 2.12 illustrates that the population of overseas-born people who have the longest residence in Australia (arriving before 1986) and are now generally in older age groups, closely resemble the age mobility rates for the Australia-born population. The mobility rates were highest for young adults and thereafter steadily declined.


Regardless of year of arrival, the most mobile age group for immigrants and the Australia-born population was the 25-29 year age group. For older ages there were major differences between recent immigrants (those who arrived in Australia since 1986), those immigrants who had arrived in earlier years and the Australia-born population.


One main difference was that recent immigrants had a much higher mobility rate at every age group than the Australia-born population. Further, the age mobility pattern for recent immigrants was considerably different to that of the earlier immigrants and the Australia-born population. Rather than showing rapid declines in mobility after the 25-29 year age group, the pattern for recent immigrants declined more gradually.

2.12 Mobility rates by age(a), Australia-born and overseas-born by year of arrival
Graph: 2.12 Mobility rates by age(a), Australia-born and overseas-born by year of arrival


While mobility varies between the Australia-born and the overseas born, this variability is even more pronounced when compared by country of birth (Table 2.13). In a comparison of 21 countries of birth, there was a range of 40 percentage points in the mobility rates of the most and the least mobile birthplace population groups. Eight of the selected countries had a mobility rate higher than the Australia-born population even though the overall mobility rate for overseas-born (36.1%) was lower than that of the Australia-born (41.6%).


As observed in the 2001 Census, the findings of the 2006 Census also indicated that the most mobile group were born in Pakistan (54.0%) followed by New Zealand (53.4%). The mobility rate of those born in Pakistan was almost four times higher than those born in Italy (14.3%) and Greece (14.0%). The older age structure of those born in Italy and Greece (as indicated in Chapter 4 in Table 4.6) can assist with explaining their lower mobility rates, given that it is the younger age groups who have higher mobility rates overall.

2.13 Mobility Rates by Country of birth(a) - 2001-06 Census

Movers
Total population(b)
Mobility rate
Birthplace
no
no
%

Oceania and Antarctica (excl. Australia)
198 510
385 463
51.5
New Zealand
159 320
298 332
53.4
Europe and the Former USSR
576 866
1 857 229
31.1
United Kingdom and Ireland
354 471
946 125
37.5
Greece
14 768
105 800
14.0
Italy
27 448
191 678
14.3
Germany
27 589
95 122
29.0
Netherlands
22 242
72 958
30.5
Poland
13 120
48 106
27.3
Czech Republic
1 943
6 105
31.8
North Africa and the Middle East
71 816
195 312
36.8
Lebanon
19 850
66 867
29.7
South-East Asia
167 442
437 882
38.2
Malaysia
24 628
67 937
36.3
Philippines
38 902
96 264
40.4
Singapore
10 671
25 431
42.0
Viet Nam
50 391
143 817
35.0
North-East Asia
103 260
254 380
40.6
China (excl. SARs and Taiwan Province)
54 319
133 923
40.6
Hong Kong (SAR of China)
18 206
56 019
32.5
Southern and Central Asia
78 085
169 183
46.2
India
37 957
86 860
43.7
Pakistan
5 598
10 361
54.0
Sri Lanka
20 218
48 521
41.7
Northern America
30 140
65 359
46.1
Canada
10 870
22 775
47.7
United States of America
19 073
42 113
45.3
South and Central America and the Caribbean
30 463
70 945
42.9
Sub-Saharan Africa
60 483
128 403
47.1
South Africa
35 675
72 028
49.5
Total overseas-born
1 317 065
3 564 156
37.0
Australian-born
5 217 978
12 542 522
41.6
Total(c)
6 632 791
16 474 171
40.3

(a) For ages five and over.
(b) The total population has been calculated by adding together those who moved and those who did not move. It excludes persons overseas at the time of Census, persons whose usual address one/five year/s ago was overseas, overseas visitors and not stated responses.
(c) Includes country of birth not stated, not elsewhere classified, inadequately described and at sea.
Source: 2006 Census of Population and Housing, data available on request.



Mobility by Indigenous origin

Census data also provides a further breakdown of population mobility within Australia with information on the movement of Indigenous Australians. However, it is important to note that there is significant volatility in census counts of the Indigenous population. This volatility can, in part, be attributed to changes in the propensity of persons to identify as being of Indigenous origin. For 2006 the census count of Indigenous people excludes people whose Indigenous status was unknown in the census. It was estimated there was a net undercount of 59,200 persons.


During 2001-06, 46.4% of Indigenous people changed their usual residence in Australia. Of all the interstate moves made by Indigenous people, 52.1% were made between New South Wales, Queensland, Western Australia and the Northern Territory. These states and one territory accounted for 83.2% of the total Indigenous population in Australia on Census Night.


The interstate movements by Indigenous people between 2001 and 2006 was in many ways similar to that of the total population. Table 2.14 shows that, as for the total population, the single most prevalent move for Indigenous people was from New South Wales to Queensland (19.4%), followed by moves from Queensland to New South Wales (11.1%). Net interstate migration of Indigenous people showed net gains for Victoria, Queensland, South Australia and the Australian Capital Territory with losses for all other states and territories.

2.14 Interstate moves made by Indigenous persons - 2001-06 Census(a)

Arrivals to:
NSW
Vic
Qld
SA
WA
Tas
NT
ACT
Total departures
no.
no.
no.
no.
no.
no.
no.
no.
no.

Departures from:
NSW
. .
910
3 342
261
300
174
193
437
5 629
Vic.
576
. .
489
179
171
145
90
18
1 668
Qld.
1 910
516
. .
261
348
177
551
149
3 912
SA
189
204
218
. .
159
48
319
23
1 160
WA
222
181
380
233
. .
73
501
26
1 616
Tas.
117
175
230
51
79
. .
30
18
700
NT
201
145
710
391
344
33
. .
43
1 867
ACT
328
63
177
22
27
18
36
. .
675
Total arrivals(b)
3 580
2 194
5 546
1 398
1 431
668
1 720
714
17 267
Net gain/loss
-2 049
526
1 634
238
-185
-32
-147
39
. .

. . not applicable
(a) Based on place of usual residence on Census night and five years ago, from the 2006 Census of Population and Housing.
(b) Includes Other Territories.
Source: The 2006 Census of Population and Housing, data available on request.


It is generally assumed that Indigenous persons have a greater propensity to move than non-Indigenous persons (Taylor & Bell, 1996, P. 369). Both the original and standardised mobility rates presented in Table 2.15 support this assumption.


In the original series, 46.4% of the Indigenous population changed their place of usual residence between 2001 and 2006 compared to 40.2% for non-Indigenous persons. The original series also shows some variation between Indigenous and non-Indigenous by type of move. Indigenous people had a much higher propensity to move within the same SLA (that is, shorter distances) and to other SDs but in the same state, than non-Indigenous people.


While the above analysis on the original series has some use, it does not take into account the higher rate of movement which may be attributed to there being a higher proportion of Indigenous people in the mobile youthful age groups than non-Indigenous people. Standardising by age shows much less variation in the total movement between Indigenous and non-Indigenous people (42.3% of Indigenous moved compared to 41.7% for non-Indigenous) as seen in Table 2.15. There remained significant variation for some movement types, particularly moves within SLAs and other SDs same state. The only movement type where the Indigenous people has a standardised mobility rate lower than the non-Indigenous people was for those who moved interstate with a rate of 4.3% and 4.7% respectively.

2.15 Indigenous and non-Indigenous mobility rates(a) - 2001-06 Census(b)

Indigenous
Non-Indigenous
Type of move
%
%

Original series

Moved
Same SLA
16.3
12.4
Other SLA and same SD
13.5
16.5
Other SD same state
8.7
5.7
Moved interstate
4.7
4.5
Total moved(c)
46.4
40.2
Did not move
53.6
59.8
Total
100.0
100.0

Standardised rates(d)

Moved
Same SLA
14.9
12.8
Other SLA and same SD
12.4
17.2
Other SD same state
7.8
5.8
Moved interstate
4.3
4.7
Total moved(c)
42.3
41.7
Did not move
57.7
58.3
Total
100.0
100.0

(a) For ages five and over.
(b) Moves expressed as a percentage of the population. This excludes persons overseas at the time of the Census, persons whose usual address five years ago was overseas, overseas visitors and not stated responses.
(c) Includes undefined moves.
(d) Standardised by age using the final estimated resident population at 30 June 2001.
Source: 2006 Census of Population and Housing, data available on request.


The reasons for Indigenous population mobility may be diverse. There may be linkages between mobility and Indigenous culture, income distribution, labour force participation, and other factors.

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