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5368.0 - International Trade in Goods and Services, Australia, 2000  
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  • Goods and Services by Region, 2000 (Feature Article)

Feature Article - Goods and Services by Region, 2000


INTRODUCTION

1 This article provides summary calendar year 2000 data both for Australia's trade in goods and services with selected major trading partners, and for Australia's trade in services by State. Table A presents, for Australia's top 12 trading partners (determined by summing the absolute values of both credits and debits for 2000), the goods and services credits and debits and the balances for 1998 to 2000. For 2000, table B extends the analysis to trade in goods and services for 40 countries or country groups. Table C presents, for the same countries and groups as in Table B, three broad services categories. Tables D and E show, for credits and debits respectively, Australia's 2000 trade in services, classified by State, for 11 broad service types with more detailed components also shown.


GOODS AND SERVICES BY COUNTRY


INTERPRETATION OF TRADE DATA BY COUNTRY

2 The quality of statistics of trade in goods and services by country is considered to be good, although there are occasional difficulties due to lack of information or the confidentiality of the trading partners involved. Therefore about 2% of total credits and debits shown in Table B for 2000 remain unallocated. A comprehensive explanation of the data sources used and the methodology applied in the compilation of regional statistics is provided in Chapter 17 of Balance of Payments and International Investment Position, Australia - Concepts, Sources and Methods (Cat. no. 5331.0). This publication is located on the ABS website (www.abs.gov.au-select Statistics then select Statistical Concepts Library). Appendix A to this article illustrates the types of services covered by the components of other business services.


ANALYSIS OF AUSTRALIAN TRADE WITH SELECTED PARTNER COUNTRIES

3 The Sydney Olympic Games and Paralympic Games impacted on international trade in 2000. A summary of the major impacts of the Games on international accounts is the subject of a feature article, The Sydney Olympic Games Update, contained in the July 2000 issue of this publication.

4 Table A shows that in the calendar year 2000, Australia recorded a deficit of $7.3 billion in the balance on goods and services, a large improvement ($9.2 billion) on the deficit for 1999. The selected countries shown in Table A contributed 72% of Australia's total trade in 2000.

5 In terms of major trading partners, the largest contribution to the improvement in the deficit on goods and services was the rise in the surplus with Japan, up $3.8 billion to $8.2 billion in 2000. Exports to Japan rose $5.5 billion and imports rose $1.7 billion. Also contributing to the improvement in the deficit was the rise in the surplus with the Republic of Korea, up $1.9 billion to $4.6 billion in 2000. These improvements were partly offset by a deterioration in the trading positions with the United Kingdom, Peoples Republic of China and Malaysia of $1.3 billion, $0.5 billion and $0.5 billion, respectively.

6 For 2000, table B presents trade in goods and services for 40 countries or country groups. It shows that, with the exception of the small surpluses with Belgium-Luxembourg, the Netherlands and the Russian Federation, Australia ran trade deficits with all of the identified European trading partners (including the residual category for Europe n.e.s.), with many of those individual deficits over $1 billion. The balance of trade with the Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) recorded an improvement of $1.3 billion in 2000, falling from a deficit of $3.0 billion in 1999.

7 Table C provides further details of the balance of trade in services with selected trading partners for 2000. Sweden was the only identified European partner with which Australia recorded a surplus. Australia recorded surpluses with most of its Asian trading partners, the largest being with Japan at $1.6 billion. Australia also recorded a surplus with New Zealand ($0.6 billion). The largest trade in services deficit was recorded with the United States of America at $0.8 billion.


ABBREVIATIONS

8 The following abbreviations are used for country groups in tables B and C.

APEC Asia Pacific Economic Co-operation

ASEAN Association of South East Asian Nations

EU European Union

OECD Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development


TABLE A: AUSTRALIA'S TRADE IN GOODS AND SERVICES WITH SELECTED MAJOR TRADING PARTNERS


    BALANCE ON GOODS AND SERVICES
    CREDITS
    DEBITS



1998
1999
2000
1998
1999
2000
1998
1999
2000
Country
$m
$m
$m
$m
$m
$m
$m
$m
$m

China, Peoples Republic of
-2,082
-2,516
-3,041
4,371
4,723
6,828
-6,453
-7,239
-9,869
Germany
-4,495
-4,691
-4,814
2,167
2,031
2,152
-6,662
-6,722
-6,966
Hong Kong (SAR of China)
2,126
1,593
1,948
4,601
3,983
4,647
-2,475
-2,390
-2,699
Indonesia
-1,214
-367
452
3,001
2,969
3,739
-4,215
-3,336
-3,287
Japan
5,860
4,356
8,152
20,807
20,041
25,568
-14,947
-15,685
-17,416
Korea, Republic of
2,072
2,696
4,623
6,572
6,832
9,747
-4,500
-4,136
-5,124
Malaysia
-945
-1,462
-1,970
2,527
2,690
3,190
-3,472
-4,152
-5,160
New Zealand
2,191
3,000
2,650
7,477
8,605
8,807
-5,286
-5,605
-6,157
Singapore
111
221
1,956
4,257
5,617
7,848
-4,146
-5,396
-5,892
Taiwan
1,675
1,492
2,346
4,787
4,636
6,038
-3,112
-3,144
-3,692
United Kingdom
-1,734
-2,054
-3,395
7,516
6,741
7,202
-9,250
-8,795
-10,597
United States of America
-14,304
-14,316
-13,116
12,827
12,886
16,752
-27,131
-27,202
-29,868
Sub-total
-10,739
-12,048
-4,209
80,910
81,754
102,518
-91,649
-93,802
-106,727
All other countries
387
-4,462
-3,105
33,753
32,081
39,809
-33,366
-36,543
-42,914
Total all countries
-10,352
-16,510
-7,314
114,663
113,835
142,327
-125,015
-130,345
-149,641



TABLE B: GOODS AND SERVICES BY SELECTED COUNTRIES AND COUNTRY GROUPS, 2000

    CREDITS
DEBITS


Balance on goods and services
Total
goods and services
Goods
Services
Total
goods and services
Goods
Services
Country
$m
$m
$m
$m
$m
$m
$m

Belgium and Luxembourg
215
1,081
1,019
62
-866
-799
-67
Brunei Darussalam
-225
59
43
16
-284
-273
-11
Canada
-412
1,877
1,447
430
-2,289
-1,902
-387
Central America and Caribbean
-89
272
260
12
-361
-333
-28
Chile
39
157
150
7
-118
-84
-34
China, People's Republic of
-3,041
6,828
6,066
762
-9,869
-9,159
-710
Fiji
145
791
598
193
-646
-299
-347
France
-1,545
1,220
918
302
-2,765
-2,363
-402
Germany
-4,814
2,152
1,321
831
-6,966
-5,953
-1,013
Greece
-134
243
203
40
-377
-104
-273
Hong Kong (SAR of China)
1,948
4,647
3,594
1,053
-2,699
-1,295
-1,404
Indonesia
452
3,739
2,898
841
-3,287
-2,737
-550
Ireland, Republic of
-899
334
145
189
-1,233
-1,028
-205
Italy
-1,510
2,097
1,859
238
-3,607
-3,179
-428
Japan
8,152
25,568
22,024
3,544
-17,416
-15,505
-1,911
Korea, Republic of
4,623
9,747
9,082
665
-5,124
-4,859
-265
Malaysia
-1,970
3,190
2,380
810
-5,160
-4,323
-837
Mexico
-136
350
338
12
-486
-460
-26
Netherlands
588
2,123
1,797
326
-1,535
-970
-565
New Zealand
2,650
8,807
6,598
2,209
-6,157
-4,539
-1,618
Papua New Guinea
-278
1,369
989
380
-1,647
-1,449
-198
Philippines
956
1,676
1,531
145
-720
-540
-180
Russian Federation
212
326
268
58
-114
-27
-87
Singapore
1,956
7,848
5,958
1,890
-5892
-3,762
-2,130
South Africa
362
1,398
1,273
125
-1,036
-862
-174
Sweden
-1,359
366
167
199
-1,725
-1,635
-90
Switzerland
-1,452
560
198
362
-2,012
-1,261
-751
Taiwan
2,346
6,038
5,597
441
-3,692
-3,563
-129
Thailand
-1,090
2,455
1,979
476
-3,545
-2,850
-695
United Kingdom
-3,395
7,202
3,783
3,419
-10,597
-6,820
-3,777
United States of America
-13,116
16,752
11,047
5,705
-29,868
-23,399
-6,469
Africa n.e.s.
1,083
1,631
1,401
230
-548
-188
-360
America n.e.s.
-58
1,193
769
424
-1,251
-850
-401
Asia n.e.s.
1,815
9,801
8,476
1,325
-7,986
-6,724
-1,262
Europe n.e.s.
-886
3,317
2,015
1,302
-4,203
-3,298
-905
Oceania n.e.s.
692
1,129
924
205
-437
-184
-253
Unallocated
861
3,984
1,603
2,381
-3,123
-1,018
-2,105
Total all countries
-7,314
142,327
110,718
31,609
-149,641
-118,594
-31,047

COUNTRY GROUPS
APEC
1,466
101,924
82,495
19,429
-100,458
-82,890
-17,568
ASEAN
-1,737
19,574
15,290
4,284
-21,311
-16,665
-4,646
EU
-13,990
18,726
12,606
6,120
-32,716
-25,533
-7,183
OECD
-13,795
82,958
63,764
19,194
-96,753
-77,952
-18,801



TABLE C: SERVICES BY SELECTED COUNTRIES AND COUNTRY GROUPS, 2000

CreditsDebits


Balance on services
Total services
Transport
ation
Travel
Other
Total services
Transport
ation
Travel
Other
Country
$m
$m
$m
$m
$m
$m
$m
$m
$m

Belgium and Luxembourg
-5
62
n.p.
41
21
-67
0
-21
-46
Brunei Darussalam
5
16
n.p.
12
4
-11
n.p.
-11
n.p.
Canada
43
430
89
284
57
-387
-88
-225
-74
Central America and Caribbean
-16
12
0
4
8
-28
0
-28
n.p.
Chile
-27
7
0
7
0
-34
-19
-14
-1
China, People's Republic of
52
762
121
522
119
-710
-357
-252
-101
Fiji
-154
193
85
68
40
-347
-105
-169
-73
France
-100
302
n.p.
205
97
-402
-13
-261
-128
Germany
-182
831
186
511
134
-1,013
-634
-179
-200
Greece
-233
40
n.p.
34
6
-273
-79
-179
-15
Hong Kong (SAR of China)
-351
1,053
295
530
228
-1,404
-680
-500
-224
Indonesia
291
841
158
554
129
-550
-221
-256
-73
Ireland, Republic of
-16
189
0
155
34
-205
-18
-154
-33
Italy
-190
238
n.p.
202
36
-428
-32
-350
-46
Japan
1,633
3,544
1,217
2,001
326
-1,911
-1,101
-262
-548
Korea, Republic of
400
665
114
496
55
-265
-89
-57
-119
Malaysia
-27
810
101
552
157
-837
-488
-286
-63
Mexico
-14
12
n.p.
8
4
-26
0
-25
-1
Netherlands
-239
326
73
198
55
-565
-205
-91
-269
New Zealand
591
2,209
428
1,206
575
-1,618
-525
-770
-323
Papua New Guinea
182
380
111
114
155
-198
-28
-124
-46
Philippines
-35
145
n.p.
83
62
-180
0
-122
-58
Russian Federation
-29
58
8
46
4
-87
-58
-27
-2
Singapore
-240
1,890
744
763
383
-2,130
-1,521
-356
-253
South Africa
-49
125
n.p.
100
25
-174
-45
-113
-16
Sweden
109
199
40
139
20
-90
0
-31
-59
Switzerland
-389
362
127
188
47
-751
-572
-61
-118
Taiwan
312
441
46
370
25
-129
-26
-91
-12
Thailand
-219
476
132
290
54
-695
-227
-434
-34
United Kingdom
-358
3,419
709
1,717
993
-3,777
-829
-1,626
-1,322
United States of America
-764
5,705
823
1,427
3,455
-6,469
-1,405
-1,664
-3,400
Africa n.e.s.
-130
230
72
110
48
-360
-53
-277
-30
America n.e.s.
23
424
103
99
222
-401
-47
-100
-254
Asia n.e.s.
63
1,325
286
645
394
-1,262
-475
-493
-294
Europe n.e.s.
397
1,302
361
546
395
-905
-181
-610
-114
Oceania n.e.s.
-48
205
36
122
47
-253
-43
-188
-22
Unallocated
276
2,381
994
141
1,246
-2,105
-696
17
-1,426
Total all countries
562
31,609
7,459
14,490
9,660
-31,047
-10,860
-10,390
-9,797

COUNTRY GROUPS
APEC
1,861
19,429
4,379
9,219
5,831
-17,568
-6,775
-5,449
-5,344
ASEAN
-362
4,284
1,136
2,331
817
-4,646
-2,483
-1,623
-540
EU
-1,063
6,120
1,120
3,448
1,552
-7,183
-1,916
-3,138
-2,129
OECD
393
19,194
3,959
9,145
6,090
-18,801
-5,741
-6,325
-6,735



SERVICES BY STATE

INTERPRETATION OF TRADE DATA BY STATE

9 Tables D and E present, respectively, international services credits (by State of provision) and international services debits (by State of consumption) for 2000, for 11 broad service types and more detailed components. Confidentiality constraints severely restrict the detail that can be provided for some States and Territories. Care should be exercised in interpreting the data. While the State allocation methods for transportation, travel and communication services are considered reasonable, especially for the analysis of movements in the services, the allocation for other services (about 25% of all trade in services) is primarily based on the location of the business reporting the information which serves as a proxy for State of origin/consumption of that service.

10 The international trade in services of the Sydney Organising Committee for the Olympic Games (SOCOG) has been allocated to New South Wales.


TABLE D: AUSTRALIA'S INTERNATIONAL TRADE IN SERVICES CREDITS BY STATE, 2000

NSW
Vic.
Qld.
SA
WA
Tas.
NT
ACT
Australia
$m
$m
$m
$m
$m
$m
$m
$m
$m

Transportation services
3,126
2,090
1,339
134
680
8
82
0
7,459
Travel services
7,640
2,382
2,571
613
939
123
126
96
14,490
Business
482
165
301
27
104
7
15
9
1,110
Personal
7,158
2,217
2,270
586
835
116
111
87
13,380
Education-related
1,360
1,057
608
393
178
77
34
10
3,717
Other
5,798
1,160
1,662
193
657
39
77
77
9,663
Communication (a)
585
342
240
159
125
31
14
37
1,533
Construction services
30
1
n.p.
n.p.
n.p.
0
0
0
34
Insurance services
492
258
0
0
0
0
0
0
750
Financial services
422
321
3
0
1
0
0
0
747
Computer & information services
560
106
n.p.
11
10
n.p.
0
0
733
Royalties & licence fees
421
124
17
n.p.
8
n.p.
0
5
589
Other business services
1,930
731
175
34
92
n.p.
n.p.
15
2,991
Merchanting
82
60
n.p.
n.p.
n.p.
n.p.
n.p.
n.p.
215
Other trade related services
248
22
9
n.p.
2
n.p.
n.p.
0
284
Operational leasing services
2
n.p.
n.p.
0
n.p.
n.p.
n.p.
0
13
Professional services
311
123
20
3
n.p.
n.p.
n.p.
n.p.
481
Research and development
91
124
2
4
8
n.p.
n.p.
n.p.
238
Architectural, engineering and other technical services
355
187
72
4
34
n.p.
n.p.
3
655
Agriculture, mining and on-site processing
5
n.p.
n.p.
n.p.
1
n.p.
n.p.
n.p.
24
Services between affiliated enterprises n.i.e.
691
174
10
4
11
n.p.
n.p.
n.p.
890
Other
145
33
2
2
7
n.p.
n.p.
2
191
Confidential items - other business services (b)
0
8
60
17
29
n.p.
n.p.
10
. .
Personal, cultural and recreational services
1,210
100
34
63
n.p.
n.p.
n.p.
29
1,461
Audiovisual and related services
1,130
36
n.p.
n.p.
n.p.
n.p.
n.p.
n.p.
1,169
Other personal, cultural and recreational services
80
64
n.p.
n.p.
n.p.
n.p.
n.p.
n.p.
292
Government services n.i.e.
41
14
2
58
23
0
258
426
822
Total confidential items (b)
0
0
48
14
13
16
11
0
. .
Total
16,457
6,469
4,429
1,086
1,891
178
491
608
31,609

(a) Communication services includes other services n.i.e.
(b) For cells annotated 'n.p.' the data are included in Confidential items


11 Transportation services are allocated by State using a combination of indicators including merchandise trade statistics by State and short term overseas passenger arrivals and departures by State of clearance. Overseas passenger departures data by the State where most time was spent are used to allocate the business and personal travel components of travel credits. Education-related travel credits are split using State data provided by the Department of Education, Training and Youth Affairs. Travel debits are split using overseas departures data for resident departures by State.

12 For communication services, a domestic indicator for allocating the consumption of telecommunications and postal services by State in the national accounts is used to approximate the State allocation of the international trade in these services. It is assumed that each State's share of outgoing international calls and terminating connections for incoming international calls will be reasonably well aligned with total service consumption by State or Territory.


FURTHER INFORMATION

13 Further information and longer time series for both calendar and financial year data by region can be obtained by contacting Val Tot on Canberra 02 6252 6419, or fax 02 6252 7219, or email at val.tot@abs.gov.au.

TABLE E: AUSTRALIA'S INTERNATIONAL TRADE IN SERVICES DEBITS BY STATE, 2000

NSW
Vic.
Qld.
SA
WA
Tas.
NT
ACT
Australia
$m
$m
$m
$m
$m
$m
$m
$m
$m

Transportation services
-4,782
-2,905
-1,609
-358
-1,052
-37
-117
0
-10,860
Travel services
-4,140
-2,470
-1,556
-507
-1,278
-94
-124
-221
-10,390
    Business
-1 096
-644
-404
-134
-341
-26
-31
-54
-2,730
    Personal
-3,044
-1,826
-1,152
-373
-937
-68
-93
-167
-7,660
      Education-related
-218
-164
-109
-27
-55
0
-14
-27
-614
      Other
-2,826
-1,662
-1,043
-346
-882
-68
-79
-140
-7,046
Communication (a)
-621
-498
-324
-133
-170
-43
-17
-33
-1,839
Construction services
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Insurance services
-866
-36
0
0
0
0
0
0
-902
Financial services
-343
-184
0
0
0
0
0
0
-527
Computer & information services
-293
-91
-12
n.p.
-3
n.p.
n.p.
n.p.
-428
Royalties & licence fees
-1,137
-458
-21
-76
-22
n.p.
n.p.
n.p.
-1,716
Other business services
-1,271
-1,156
-157
-80
-248
n.p.
n.p.
-5
-2,924
    Merchanting and other trade related services
-61
-73
-26
n.p.
-33
n.p.
n.p.
n.p.
-224
    Operational leasing services
-208
-673
n.p.
n.p.
n.p.
n.p.
n.p.
n.p.
-895
    Professional services
-180
-83
-11
-5
-16
n.p.
n.p.
-2
-302
    Research and development
-27
-38
-1
-1
-14
n.p.
n.p.
n.p.
-81
    Architectural, engineering and other technical services
-287
-65
n.p.
-30
-17
n.p.
n.p.
n.p.
-457
    Agriculture, mining and on-site processing
-1
n.p.
n.p.
n.p.
n.p.
n.p.
n.p.
0
-161
    Services between affiliated enterprises n.i.e.
-433
-163
-29
-10
-21
n.p.
n.p.
0
-657
    Other
-74
n.p.
n.p.
-2
-17
n.p.
n.p.
n.p.
-147
    Confidential items - other business services (b)
0
-61
-90
-32
-130
n.p.
n.p.
-3
. .
Personal, cultural and recreational services
-553
-190
-2
n.p.
-1
n.p.
n.p.
n.p.
-811
    Audiovisual and related services
-520
n.p.
n.p.
n.p.
n.p.
n.p.
n.p.
n.p.
-670
    Other personal, cultural and recreational services
-33
n.p.
n.p.
n.p.
n.p.
n.p.
n.p.
n.p.
-141
Government services n.i.e.
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
-650
-650
Total confidential items (b)
0
0
0
-70
0
-4
-4
-25
. .
Total
-14,006
-7,988
-3,681
-1,224
-2,774
-178
-262
-934
-31,047

(a) Communication services includes other services n.i.e.
(b) For cells annotated included 'n.p.' the data are in Confidential items

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