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AGE AND SEX DISTRIBUTION
The following graph (called a 'population pyramid') compares the age/sex structure of the population residing in greater capital cities with the population residing in the rest of Australia. Each dark bar illustrates the percentage contribution of a sex and five-year age group to the total population of capital cities, while each light bar illustrates the percentage contribution to the rest of Australia's population. For example, the graph shows that in June 2013, males aged 0 to 4 years made up 3.4% of the population of the combined capital cities compared to 3.3% of the rest of Australia.
A distinctive feature in the age distribution of Australia at June 2013 was the high representation of people aged 20 to 39 years residing in capital cities. People in this age group represented 31% of the combined capital city population, compared to 24% of the population in the rest of Australia. This reflects the attraction of younger adults to education, employment and other opportunities in capital cities. In contrast, older adults aged 40 years and over made up a smaller proportion of the population in capital cities (44%) than in the rest of Australia (50%).
The population pyramid also highlights differences between the sexes. For June 2013, the most notable feature was the higher proportions of females than males aged 80 years and over. This was evident in both capital cities and in the rest of Australia. The difference was most marked among the population aged 85 years and over, and is attributable to the longer life expectancies of female Australians.
In 2013, 15.3 million people (66% of the population) resided in greater capital cities and 7.8 million (34%) resided in the rest of Australia. There were more females (7.73 million) than males (7.61 million) living in capital cities, while slightly more males (3.91 million) than females (3.89 million) resided in the rest of the country.
Almost three quarters (73%) of people aged 25 to 29 years resided in Australia's capital cities, the highest proportion of any five-year age group. Conversely, the 70 to 74 year age group had the lowest proportion living in Australia's capital cities (60%).
At June 2013, the median age of the Australian population (the age at which half the population is older and half is younger) was 37.3 years, up from 36.9 years at June 2008. The median age of males at June 2013 was 36.4 years while the median age of females was 38.1 years.
Tasmania had the oldest median age of all states and territories, at 41.2 years, ahead of South Australia at 39.8 years. The Northern Territory was the youngest state or territory with a median age of 31.6 years, followed by the Australian Capital Territory at 34.6 years.
The Statistical Areas Level 4 (SA4s) with the highest median ages were Mid North Coast (48.1 years) and Southern Highlands and Shoalhaven (46.2), both on the New South Wales coast, followed by South East (45.5) in Tasmania. These areas are all popular retirement destinations. The SA4 with the lowest median age was Northern Territory - Outback (29.9 years), followed by Queensland - Outback (32.6) and Brisbane Inner City (32.7).
The SA4 with the largest increase in median age between 2008 and 2013 was South East in Tasmania (up by 2.8 years), while Perth - Inner had the largest decline (down by 1.6 years).
CHILDREN (UNDER 15 YEARS OF AGE)
At June 2013, there were 4.37 million children under 15 years of age in Australia, accounting for 19% of the total population. In the five years to June 2013, the number of children increased by 271,200 (6.6%).
The Northern Territory had the highest proportion of children (22% of its total population), while South Australia had the lowest (18%).
The SA4s with the highest proportions of children were Northern Territory - Outback (25%), Queensland - Outback (24%) and Sydney - Blacktown (23%). The lowest proportions of children were in the inner-city SA4s of Sydney - City and Inner South (10%), Melbourne - Inner (12%) and Brisbane Inner City (14%).
WORKING AGE POPULATION (AGED 15-64 YEARS)
At June 2013, there were 15.4 million people of working age (15 to 64 years) in Australia, an increase of 1.1 million (7.5%) since June 2008. The proportion of the total population in this age group was 67% in 2013.
The Northern Territory had the highest proportion of people of working age (71%), closely followed by the Australian Capital Territory (70%). Tasmania had the lowest proportion at 64%.
The SA4s with the highest proportions of working age people were Sydney - City and Inner South (80%), Melbourne - Inner (78%) and Brisbane Inner City (77%). The SA4s with the lowest proportions were Mid North Coast (57%) and Southern Highlands and Shoalhaven (58%), both in New South Wales, and Wide Bay (60%) on Queensland's coast.
PEOPLE AGED 65 YEARS AND OVER
In the five years since June 2008, the number of people aged 65 years and over in Australia increased by 533,000 (19%) to reach 3.34 million people at June 2013. This accounted for 14% of the total Australian population.
Tasmania and South Australia had the highest proportions of people aged 65 years and over, both at 17%. The Northern Territory had the lowest proportion (6.2%).
The SA4s with the highest proportion of people aged 65 years and over were Mid North Coast (25%) and Southern Highlands and Shoalhaven (24%), both in New South Wales, followed by Wide Bay (21%) in Queensland. The SA4s with the lowest proportion of people in this age group were Northern Territory - Outback (5.2%), Darwin (7.1%) and Western Australia - Outback (7.4%).
At June 2013, there were 98,900 more females than males residing in Australia, with 11.5 million males and 11.6 million females. The sex ratio (the number of males per hundred females) was 99.1. The sex ratio of the states and territories ranged from a low of 98.0 in Victoria to a high of 111.3 in the Northern Territory. Only in the Northern Territory and Western Australia (102.3) did males outnumber females.
The sex ratio of all greater capital cities combined (98.4) was lower than for the rest of Australia (100.6). In all states and territories, the ratio of males to females was lower in the capital city than in the rest of the state or territory. Greater Adelaide (96.8) had the lowest sex ratio of all capital cities, while Greater Darwin (110.2) had the highest. In the five years since June 2008, the sex ratio of Greater Perth increased from 99.7 to 100.2, making it the only other capital city where males outnumbered females.
The SA4s with the highest sex ratios were Western Australia - Outback (124.5), Queensland - Outback (114.3) and Northern Territory - Outback (112.8), which were all areas with significant mining and/or agricultural activity. The lowest sex ratios were in the inner and middle suburban SA4s of Melbourne - Inner East (93.7), Sydney - North Sydney and Hornsby (93.9) and Melbourne - Inner South (94.3).
Between June 2008 and June 2013, the sex ratio increased the most in the SA4 of Western Australia - Outback (up by 7.4) and decreased the most in Bunbury (down by 3.0), also in Western Australia.
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