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8622.0 - Retail Industry, Australia, 1998-99  
Previous ISSUE Released at 11:30 AM (CANBERRA TIME) 13/10/2000   
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NOTES


ABOUT THIS PUBLICATION

This publication presents results in respect of 1998-99 from an Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) survey of employing retail businesses. The Retail Industry Survey collected structural data (such as income and expenses) and commodity sales from a sample of retail businesses operating in 1998-99. This publication presents estimates of structural data and industry performance measures. Commodity data estimates including gross margin information will be published in Retail Industry, Australia: Commodity Sales, 1998-99 (Cat no. 8624.0), which is expected to be released shortly.

The ABS defines the Retail trade industry as businesses mainly engaged in the resale of new or used goods to final consumers for personal or household consumption, or in selected repair activities such as repair of household equipment or motor vehicles.


COMMENTS ON THIS PUBLICATION

The ABS welcomes comments and suggestions from users recommending industries and data items for inclusion in future surveys. These comments should be addressed to the Director, Service Industries Surveys, Australian Bureau of Statistics, PO Box 10, Belconnen ACT 2616.


RELATED PUBLICATIONS

Other publications which may be of interest are:

  • Business Operations and Industry Performance, Australia (Cat. no. 8140.0)-annual
  • Retail Trade, Australia (Cat. no. 8501.0)-monthly
  • Retail Industry, Australia: Commodity Sales, 1998-99 (Cat. no. 8624.0)
  • Wholesale Industry, Australia, 1998-99 (Cat. no. 8638.0)


ABBREVIATIONS

ABS Australian Bureau of Statistics
ANZSIC Australian and New Zealand Standard Industrial Classification billion thousand million n.e.c. not elsewhere classified OPBT Operating Profit Before Tax RSE Relative standard error SE Standard error
billion thousand million
n.e.c.not elsewhere classified
OPBTOperating Profit Before Tax
RSERelative standard error
SE Standard error
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION

For further information about these and related statistics, contact the National Information Service on 1300 135 070 or Ross Upson on Canberra 02 6252 5644.


SUMMARY OF FINDINGS


INTRODUCTION

The 1998-99 survey is the first detailed ABS survey of the Retail trade industry since 1991-92. This publication presents results, in respect of the 1998-99 financial year, of businesses (management units) in the retail trade industry. Businesses in this industry are classified to Division G of the Australian and New Zealand Standard Industrial Classification (ANZSIC) which includes businesses whose main activity is the resale of new or used goods to final consumers for personal or household consumption, or in selected repair activities such as repair of household equipment or motor vehicles.
Division G (Retail Trade) of the ANZSIC is structured into 10 industry groups, which in turn are divided into 38 industry classes. The tables in this publication generally provide information at each of the levels, although the commentary generally concentrates on the industry group level.


SIZE OF THE INDUSTRY

At the end of June 1999 there were 98,289 employing businesses (management units) operating in the retail trade industry. These businesses generated a total income of $169.3 billion and at 30 June 1999 employed just over 1.1 million persons.


COMPARISONS WITH 1991-92

Compared with 1991-92 the number of businesses in the retail trade industry has 1991-92 increased by 18% and employment has increased by 33%. The total income over the period increased by 48% which represented an annual growth rate of 5%, while the operating profit before tax has almost doubled to $5.4 billion. The operating profit margin of the industry has increased from 2.4% in 1991-92 to 3.2% in 1998-99.


1991–92(a)
1998–99
% change

Management units
no.
83,596
98,289
17.6
Total employment
no. of persons
831,315
1,104,651
32.9
Total income(b)
$m
114,307
169,251
48.1
Operating profit before tax
$m
2,738
5,423
98.1
Operating profit margin
%
2.4
3.2
..

. . not applicable
(a) At 1991–92 prices.
(b) See paragraph 20 of the Explanatory Notes.


PROFITABILITY

The operating profit before tax generated by businesses in the retail trade industry was $5.4 billion and their operating profit margin was 3.2%. The most profitable retail trade industry group was the Household equipment repair services industry which returned an operating profit margin of 7.3%. The least profitable groups were Department stores and Motor vehicle retailing, both with an operating profit margin of 1.7%.

RETAIL LOCATIONS, FLOORSPACE AND SALES TO FLOORSPACE

At 30 June 1999, the 67,561 businesses in food retailing and personal and household good retailing operated from an estimated 89,039 retail locations operating across Australia. Total floorspace of these 89,039 locations was estimated to be 26.3 million square metres, with the average retail sales being $5,568 per square metre. This varied from a high of $7,666 per square metre in the Supermarket and grocery stores group to a low of $383 per square metre in the Household and repair services group. However these totals do not include all retail industries as floor space was not collected for some industries (see paragraph 7 of the Explanatory Notes).


SOURCES OF INCOME


TOTAL INCOME

In 1998-99 the Supermarkets and grocery stores industry generated the highest income ($38.8 billion) which was 23% of the total income for the retail trade industry. This was followed by motor vehicle services which generated $25.2 billion in income, or 15% of total income. Household equipment repair services contributed the least to total income ($0.7 billion) with only 0.4% to total income of all retail trade industries.




RETAIL SALES

Supermarkets and grocery stores recorded the highest retail sales with $38.3 billion and contributed 26% to total retail sales. Specialised food retailing, Furniture, houseware and appliance retailing and Motor vehicle retailing were the next highest, each contributing around 11% to total retail sales.

Household equipment repair services had the lowest retail sales ($0.1 billion) as income in this industry is derived mainly from repair or other services activities.


SERVICE INCOME

Total service income ($12.8 billion), made up of Commission income ($0.9 billion), Rent, leasing and hiring income ($0.4 billion) and Other service income ($11.5 billion), contributed 8% to total income. The major contributor to Other service income was the industry group Motor vehicle services ($8.4 billion). Within this industry group two industry classes reported very significant amounts of Other service income. The Automotive repair and services n.e.c. industry class recorded Other service income of $4.1 billion which was 36% of the total other service income and 90% of total income for this industry class. The other industry class, Smash repairing, reported Other service income of $3.0 billion which was 98% of that industry's total income. Apart from the repair and service industries, only Floor covering retailing recorded a significant proportion (10%) of Other service income.


WHOLESALE SALES

Overall, wholesale sales contributed only $8.2 billion (5%) to total income in the retail trade industry. Motor vehicle retailing however had a significant proportion of its income, $5.7 billion (25%) derived from wholesale sales. The motor vehicle retailing industry is very much a mixture of sales to the general public as well as sales to fleet operators, government, rental companies or other businesses, and other motor vehicle dealers. Two industry classes, Domestic hardware and houseware retailing and Tyre retailing, also received a significant amount of their total income from wholesale sales (both 14%). Apart from industry classes Specialised food retailing n.e.c. and Trailer and caravan dealing, where 5% of their income is derived from wholesale sales, all the remaining retail industries derived less than 5% of their total income from wholesale sales. In fact, for more than half of the remaining retail industries, wholesale sales was less than 1% of total income.


EXPENSE ITEMS


TOTAL EXPENSES

Total expenses in 1998-99 for the retail trade industry were $164.9 billion. The largest single expense item was purchases ($119.6 billion) accounting for 73% of total expenses. Other major expense items included total labour costs ($21.4 billion) and other expenses ($11.1 billion), which represented 13% and 7% respectively.

Other expenses, which were not separately itemised, included expenses such as insurance premiums, electricity and gas charges, repair and maintenance, motor vehicle running expenses and bad and doubtful debts.


PURCHASES

Purchases formed the majority of total expenses across all industry groups. The industry class Car retailing had the highest proportion of its total expenses being purchases (89%) closely followed by Milk vending (87%), Automotive fuel retailing (86%) and Liquor retailing (83%). Apart from the repair and service industries (industry groups 526 and 532), two industry classes within the Specialised food retailing group, Takeaway food retailing and Bread and cake retailing, had the lowest proportions of purchases to total expenses (51% and 45% respectively). This is consistent with expectations because of the further processing of purchased items that occurs in these industries.


RENT, LEASING AND HIRING EXPENSES

Rent, leasing and hiring expenses accounted for 4% of total expenses. Household equipment repair services n.e.c. (15%), Clothing retailing, Footwear retailing and Watches and jewellery retailing (all 10%) had the highest proportions of rent, leasing and hiring to total expenses.


ADVERTISING

Advertising expenses ($2.1 billion) made up just over 1% of total expenses. As a proportion of total expenses the industries outlaying most on advertising were Furniture retailing and Takeaway food retailing (both 3%).


LABOUR COSTS

Supermarkets and grocery stores contributed $4.4 billion (20%) to total labour costs for the retail trade industry. This was followed by Motor vehicle services (16%). Household equipment repair services contributed least to overall labour costs (1%).

Apart from repair and service industries, at the industry class level Bread and cake retailing and Takeaway food retailing had the highest proportions of labour costs to total expenses (32% and 24% respectively). Conversely, Car retailing, Automotive fuel retailing (both 6%) and Milk vending (7%) had the lowest proportions of labour costs to total expenses.




LABOUR COST BREAKDOWN

For the retail trade industry wages and salaries at $18.7 billion (88%) was the largest contributor to total labour costs. This was followed by employer contributions to superannuation at $1.4 billion (7%). Payroll tax ($0.7 billion), worker's compensation ($0.5 billion) and fringe benefits tax ($0.1 billion) made up the remaining labour costs.


EMPLOYMENT AND LABOUR COSTS


INDUSTRY EMPLOYMENT

The total employment of the retail trade industry at 30 June 1999 was estimated to be 1,104,651 persons. Specialised food retailing had the highest level of employment, with 243,757 persons, which was 22% of total retail employment. This was followed by Supermarkets and grocery stores with employment of 234,960 persons (21% of the total retail employment). Within the Specialised food industry group, Take away food retailing was by far the largest contributor to employment with 166,612 persons in this industry alone. Those industry classes with the least employment included Trailer and caravan dealing (1,105 persons), Milk vending (1,156 persons) and Photographic equipment retailing (1,906 persons).


FULL-TIME / PART-TIME EMPLOYEES

The estimated total number of retail employees (excluding working proprietors and partners) at 30 June 1999 was 1,046,773 persons. The majority of employees (600,163, or 57% of all employees) worked part-time compared with 43% who worked full-time. Most (66%) part-time employees were female. Part-time employees dominated in Takeaway food retailing (77% of all employees), Supermarkets and grocery stores (67%) and Toys and games retailing (61%).

Of the 446,610 employees who worked full-time, 267,274 (60%) were males. In the Motor vehicle retailing and Motor vehicle services industries full-time male employees (105,917) outnumbered full-time females by the order of five to one. The industries where full-time females clearly dominated overall full-time employees were Pharmaceutical, cosmetic and toiletry retailing (77% female) and Clothing retailing (74%).


EMPLOYMENT DISTRIBUTION BY SEX

Of the total retail employment as at 30 June 1999, 54% were female and 46% were male. The industries with the greatest proportion of female employment were Fabric and other soft good retailing (84%), Flower retailing (82%) and Clothing retailing (81%). Those industries with the greatest proportion of male employment were Tyre retailing (89%) and Smash repairing (84%).


STATE AND TERRITORY DATA


INTRODUCTION

This section of the publication presents results at the State level for a limited number of data items (i.e. Employment, Wages and salaries and Total income). These broad data items at the State level for the total retail trade industry are the lowest level of disaggregation available as output from the collection. There are no sub-State or small area data available from this collection (see paragraph 17 of the Explanatory Notes).


CONTRIBUTIONS TO MAJOR DATA ITEMS

The retail sector is dominated by the eastern seaboard with three-quarters of retail employment, wages and salaries and income recorded there. New South Wales was the largest contributor with 33% of the national total for employment, wages and salaries and income whilst contributing 30% of total retail locations. In terms of total income, the percentage contribution of the remaining States and Territories in descending order was Victoria (23%), Queensland (18%), Western Australia (10%), South Australia (8%), Tasmania (4%), Australian Capital Territory (2%) and the Northern Territory (2%). This order was also maintained for employment and wages and salaries. This distribution is largely consistent with estimated resident population figures for the States and Territories at June 1998.


BUSINESS SIZE


INTRODUCTION

Small employing businesses (with employment of less than 20 persons) accounted for 95% of total retail businesses but only 38% of total retail income. Conversely, large businesses (with employment of 200 persons or more) contributed less than 1% of the total number of retail businesses, but 41% of total retail income. The remaining 4% of retail businesses and 21% of income was attributable to medium size businesses (with employment 20-199 persons).




LARGE BUSINESSES

Large businesses completely dominated total income for the Department stores (99.6%) and Supermarkets and grocery stores (86%) industries. They also contributed the largest proportion of the Clothing and soft good retailing industry with 47% of total income.


SMALL BUSINESSES

Small businesses dominated total income in a number of the repair and service industries. These businesses contributed 86% to the Household equipment repair services industry and 64% to the Motor vehicle services industry. They also contributed to over 50% of total income in Recreational good retailing (69%); Specialised food retailing (58%); Furniture, houseware and appliance retailing (57%); and the Other personal and household good retailing (56%) industries. The lowest contribution to total income by small businesses was in Department stores (less than 1%) and Supermarkets and grocery stores (9%).


COMPARISONS WITH 1991-92




Large businesses have increased their percentage share of total income from 1991-92 in a number of retail industries. The most notable increases were in Motor vehicle services (from 5% to 19%), followed by Supermarket and grocery stores (from 77% to 85%). Motor vehicle retailing showed a significant decrease in percentage share (from 16% to 11%).




Small businesses have only increased their percentage share of total retail income in the relatively small retail industry of Household equipment repair services (from 80% to 86%). Large decreases in the percentage share of total retail income for small businesses were recorded in Motor vehicle services (from 81% to 64%), Other personal and household good retailing (from 72% to 56%), Specialised food retailing (from 69% to 57%) and Recreational good retailing (from 81% to 69%) industries.


PERFORMANCE MEASURES


INTRODUCTION

This section presents indicators of the relative performance of the various retail industries. Indicators included are profitability margins, sales per square metre, ratios of expenses and income per person employed, and inventory turnover.


OPERATING PROFIT MARGIN




The operating profit margin for the total retail trade industry for 1998-99 was 3.2%. The Household equipment repair services industry had the highest operating profit margin (7.3%) followed by Specialised food retailing (5.1%) and Other personal and household good retailing (4.8%). Department stores and the Motor vehicle retailing industry recorded the lowest operating profit margins (both 1.7%).


RETAIL SALES PER SQUARE METRE OF FLOORSPACE

Retail sales per square metre of floorspace for shopfront retailing were ($5,568) per square metre (see paragraphs 6 and 7 of the Explanatory Notes). The highest retail sales per square metre were recorded by Supermarket and grocery stores ($7,666), Specialised food retailing ($5,811) and Furniture, houseware and appliance retailing ($4,958). The lowest retail sales per square metre were recorded by Household equipment repair services ($383), Other personal and household good retailing ($2,456)and Department stores ($2,555)


LABOUR COST PER EMPLOYEE

Labour cost per employee mirrors the relationship of full-time to part-time employment across the various retail industries. The highest labour cost per employee was recorded in Motor Vehicle retailing with ($36,400), followed by Household equipment repair ($30,700) and Furniture, houseware and appliance retailing ($28,400). These industries had a high proportion of full-time employees. The lowest labour cost per employee was recorded in Specialised food retailing ($12,800), followed by Department stores ($18,000) and Supermarkets and grocery stores ($18,900) which had a high proportion of part-time employees.


INVENTORY TURNOVER

Industries that regularly turned over their inventory had a high proportion of stock that was perishable. For example, the Supermarkets and grocery stores group turned over their inventory 11 times and the Specialised food retailing group 17 times in the year. Within those industries, the industry classes Fruit and vegetable retailing, Milk vending and Fresh meat, fish and poultry retailing turned over their entire inventory on an almost weekly basis.

The Motor vehicle services industry group also recorded a high inventory turnover of 21 due mainly to the Automotive fuel retailing industry class which turned over their inventory 34 times in the year. The lowest inventory turnover was recorded by Department stores and Clothing and soft good retailing which turned over their inventory 3 times in the year.




Inventory turnover in 1998-99 for total retail trade increased from 5 to 7 times per year when compared to 1991-92. This trend was evident for practically all retail trade industries. In absolute terms, the highest increase was recorded in Motor vehicle servicing (from 14 to 21), Specialty food retailing (from 12 to 17), Household equipment repair (from 3 to 7) and Supermarkets and grocery stores (from 7 to 11).


EXPLANATORY NOTES


SCOPE AND COVERAGE

1 The scope of the Retail Industry Survey was all public and private employing businesses in Australia, recorded on the ABS Business Register with a predominant activity of retailing (i.e. ANZSIC Division G). The ABS defines a retail business as a business mainly engaged in the resale of new or used goods to final consumers for personal or household consumption, or in selected repair activities such as repair of household equipment or motor vehicles. The population for the Retail Industry Survey was taken from the ABS Business Register and was limited to the 116,000 employing retail businesses on the register in June 1999. Non-employing businesses were therefore excluded from this collection.

2 Approximately 7,200 business units were selected from the population using stratified random sampling techniques. All businesses with 50 or more employees and/or multi-state retailing business units were selected in the sample.

3 Data in this publication have been adjusted to allow for lags in processing new businesses to the ABS business register, and the omission of some businesses from the business register. The majority of businesses affected and to which the adjustments apply are small in size. For more information, please refer to ABS Information Paper: Improvements to ABS Economic Statistics, 1997 (Cat. no. 1357.0).


REFERENCE PERIOD

4 The statistical results in this publication are based on the financial year ending 30 June 1999. In a minority of cases, where businesses did not account on a June-year basis, details were reported in respect of the accounting year that ended between 1 October 1998 and 30 September 1999.


STATISTICAL UNIT

5 The unit about which information was collected in the Retail Industry Survey is termed the management unit. The management unit is the highest-level accounting unit within a business, having regard for industry homogeneity, for which accounts are maintained. In nearly all cases it coincides with the legal entity owning the business (i.e. company, partnership, trust, sole operator, etc). In the case of large diversified businesses, however, there may be more than one management unit, each coinciding with a 'division' or 'line of business'. A division or line of business is recognised where separate and comprehensive accounts are compiled for it.

6 Information relating to retail locations was also collected on forms completed by retail management units. The retail location equates to a retail outlet and it is therefore possible for retail management units to have more than one location. The majority of retail management units are single location businesses. A limited range of structural data items were collected in respect of retail locations. The data items collected were number of retail locations, employment, wages and salaries, total income and retail floorspace.

7 Information relating to retail locations was NOT collected for all ANZSIC classes. Two ANZSIC classes within subdivision 52, ANZSIC 5233 Domestic hardware and houseware and 5245 Marine equipment, and all ANZSIC classes within the Motor vehicle retailing and Motor vehicle services industry groups are excluded from aggregates relating to retail locations and floorspace. As a consequence, the number of retail locations shown in Table 5.1 are actually less than the total number of management units shown in Table 1.1, Table 1.2 and Table 6.1. Floorspace and ratios relating to floorspace are therefore not available in Table 1.2 , Table 5.1 and Table 7.1 for these ANZSIC classes.


CLASSIFICATION BY INDUSTRY

8 This publication presents statistics classified according to the Australian and New Zealand Standard Industry Classification, 1993 (Cat. no. 1292.0). Each business unit is classified to a single industry. The industry allocated is based on an estimate of the primary activity of the management unit irrespective of whether a range of activities or a single activity is undertaken by the unit. For example a management unit which derives most of its income from retailing activities would have all of its operations included in the aggregates for retailing, even if significant secondary activities (e.g. wholesaling) were undertaken.


RELIABILITY OF THE DATA

9 The estimates in this publication are subject to sampling and non-sampling error.


STANDARD ERROR

10 The estimates in this publication are based on information from a sample of businesses in the surveyed population. Consequently, the estimates in this publication are subject to sampling variability; that is, they may differ from the figures that would have been obtained if all units had been included in the survey. One measure of the likely difference is given by the standard error (SE), which indicates the extent to which an estimate might have varied by chance because only a sample of units was included.

11 There are two chances in three that a sample estimate will differ by less than one SE from the figure that would have been obtained if a census had been conducted, and approximately 19 chances in 20 that the difference will be less than 2 SEs.


RELATIVE STANDARD ERROR

12 Sampling variability can be measured by the relative standard error (RSE) which is obtained by expressing the SE as a percentage of the estimate to which it refers. The RSE is a useful measure in that it provides an immediate indication of the percentage errors likely to have occurred due to sampling, and thus avoids the need to refer also to the size of the estimate.

13 As an example of the above, an estimate of total income for the retail industry is $169,251 million and the RSE is 1.5%, giving an SE of $2,539 million. Therefore, there would be two chances in three that, if all units had been included in the survey, a figure of $166,712 million to $171,790 million would have been obtained, and 19 chances in 20 (i.e. a confidence level of 95%) that the figure would have been in the range $164,173 million to $174,329 million.

14 Information about the relative standard errors relating to key aggregates in this publication can be found in the table at the end of these Explanatory Notes.


NON-SAMPLING ERROR

15 Errors other than those due to sampling may occur because of deficiencies in the register of units from which the sample was selected, non-response, and imperfections in reporting by respondents. Inaccuracies of this kind are referred to as non-sampling errors and they may occur in any collection, whether it be a census or a sample.

16 While it is not possible to quantify non-sampling error, every effort has been made to reduce non-sampling error to a minimum by careful design and testing of questionnaires, efficient operating procedures and systems, and appropriate methodology.


AVAILABILITY OF ADDITIONAL DATA

17 It should be noted that the sample size for this collection was not large enough to support reliable estimates at the sub-state or small area level. Broad level data at the state level as presented in Table 5.1 are the only data below the national level available from this collection.

18 Enquires for further information about these and related statistics in this publication can be made by telephoning the National Information Services 1300 135 070 or Ross Upson on (02) 6252 5644.


COMPARABILITY WITH OTHER SERIES

19 The Retail Trade Survey series published monthly by the ABS in Retail Trade, Australia (Cat. no. 8501.0) covers 7,000 retail and selected services businesses similar to this collection. It differs in scope to the Retail Industry Survey in that it excludes Milk vending (5126), Marine equipment retailing (5245), Household equipment repair services (electrical) (5261), Household equipment repair services n.e.c. (5269), Car retailing (5311), Motor cycle dealing (5312), Trailer and caravan dealing (5313), Automotive fuel retailing (5321), Automotive electrical services (5322), Smash repairing (5323), Tyre retailing (5324) and Automotive repair and service n.e.c. (5329). In addition, it includes selected hospitality and services industry such as Pubs, taverns and bars (5720), Clubs (hospitality) (5740), Cafes and restaurants (5730), Video hire outlets (9511) and Hairdressing and beauty salons (9526).

20 This publication draws comparisons where appropriate with the 1991-92 Retail Activity Survey. In some instances there are slight definitional differences between some of the data items being compared. In particular, the charts in Section 6 relating to small and large businesses compare turnover in 1991-92 with total income in 1998-99. The definition of total income includes items such as interest earned, government funding, royalties and dividends whereas turnover in 1991-92 did not. These components make up an extremely small proportion of total income and therefore the comparability of these items as outlined in Section 6 have been included as it is assessed that valid comparisons can be made.


GENERAL ACKNOWLEDGMENT

21 ABS publications draw extensively on information provided freely by individuals, businesses, governments and other organisations. Their continued cooperation is by much appreciated; without it, the wide range of statistics published by the ABS would not be available. Information received by the ABS is treated in strict confidence as required by the Census and Statistics Act 1905.


RELATIVE STANDARD ERRORS FOR SELECTED ITEMS

INDUSTRY CLASS
Management units
Employment
Total income
Operating profit before tax
Floorspace(a)
ANZSIC
CodeDespcription
%
%
%
%
%

511Supermarket and Grocery Stores
25.2
2.2
2.3
7.4
4.1
512Specialised Food Retailing
5121Fresh Meat, Fish and Poultry Retailing
4.7
9.0
10.3
16.4
14.5
5122Fruit and Vegetable Retailing
5.3
7.5
8.8
19.7
14.9
5123Liquor Retailing
12.6
6.7
6.8
14.9
11.2
5124Bread and Cake Retailing
4.4
7.0
6.6
12.5
12.0
5125Takeaway Food Retailing
10.1
6.2
7.4
10.8
12.0
5126Milk Vending
9.7
14.3
13.5
18.1
na
5129Specialised Food Retailing n.e.c.
10.2
10.2
11.2
22.8
20.1
Total
5.6
4.4
3.9
6.8
6.7

521Department Stores
34.1
0.1
0.1
0.4
1.4
522Clothing and Soft Good Retailing
5221Clothing Retailing
20.5
8.5
8.6
16.9
16.9
5222Footwear Retailing
16.6
8.2
10.9
26.3
12.5
5223Fabric and Other Soft Good Retailing
17.1
9.7
7.0
20.8
7.0
Total
14.5
6.1
6.4
13.2
12.5

523Furniture, Houseware and Appliance Retailing
5231Furniture Retailing
8.7
6.3
8.7
17.8
9.9
5232Floor Covering Retailing
5.8
7.1
9.3
20.1
9.6
5233Domestic Hardware and Houseware
Retailing
8.5
5.1
5.6
7.4
na
5234Domestic Appliance Retailing
10.5
10.1
12.4
23.4
15.5
5235Recorded Music Retailing
18.9
9.3
10.5
16.7
17.7
Total
5.1
4.5
6.6
9.8
8.0

524Recreational Good Retailing
5241Sport and Camping Equipment Retailing
8.6
10.9
10.9
19.4
17.4
5242Toy and Game Retailing
12.4
9.7
9.8
75.4
12.5
5243Newspaper, Book and Stationery Retailing
5.1
7.0
6.7
22.7
13.4
5244Photographic Equipment Retailing
8.7
10.3
11.7
20.3
14.8
5245Marine Equipment Retailing
7.7
10.6
11.2
20.7
na
Total
3.8
5.1
4.7
14.8
9.2

525Other Personal and Household Good Retailing
5251Pharmaceutical, Cosmetic and Toiletry
Retailing
4.3
6.6
11.9
13.5
11.7
5252Antique and Used Good Retailing
21.4
14.9
13.6
25.5
12.8
5253Garden Supplies Retailing
7.2
11.1
10.7
46.0
17.3
5254Flower Retailing
4.9
7.3
7.2
17.0
63.5
5255Watch and Jewellery Retailing
19.9
9.5
10.2
26.6
17.2
5259Retailing n.e.c.
10.5
10.4
6.4
20.8
35.5
Total
4.8
4.3
6.6
9.5
12.9

526Household Equipment Repair Services
5261Household Equipment Repair Services
(ELECTRICAL)
5.8
7.9
12.7
17.3
22.3
5269Household Equipment Repair Services n.e.c.
10.3
10.3
9.6
23.1
26.9
Total
5.0
6.5
10.3
14.8
18.5

531Motor Vehicle Retailing
5311Car Retailing
19.5
7.3
6.1
22.3
na
5312Motor Cycle Dealing
9.9
9.3
8.1
15.7
na
5313Trailer and Caravan Dealing
12.6
11.8
14.5
28.0
na
Total
14.8
6.3
5.6
16.7
na

532Motor Vehicle Services
5321Automotive Fuel Retailing
8.0
9.2
7.2
13.3
na
5322Automotive Electrical Services
7.8
7.8
9.1
24.8
na
5323Smash Repairing
5.8
4.9
5.5
10.5
na
5324Tyre Retailing
8.9
7.0
7.0
28.4
na
5329Automotive Repair and Services
n.e.c.
4.4
7.5
8.0
23.6
na
Total
2.2
3.8
4.4
9.2
na
Total Retail Trade
1.9
1.3
1.5
3.4
3.5

na not available
(a) See paragraph 7 of Explanatory Notes.

GLOSSARY

Advertising expenses

Includes expenses associated with the promotion and publicity of the business and/or its products. It includes expenses paid to advertising agencies, and direct payments to radio, television and print media businesses.

Closing inventories

See inventories

Commission income

Includes sales commission received, commission received on sales of petrol, motor vehicles and other commission income.

Depreciation

The financial charges made to the accounts to reflect that part of the value of the asset which may be regarded as having been used up in producing revenue in a particular accounting period.

Employer contributions to superannuation

Includes all employer provisions and contributions to superannuation schemes (including the employer productivity contribution).

Employment

Includes working directors, working proprietors and partners of unincorporated businesses and other permanent, temporary and casual employees working for a business during the last pay period in June 1999. Employees absent on paid or prepaid leave are included.

Floorspace

Includes selling space, office space, storage space, basements and non-residential upper floor areas.

Fringe benefits tax

Tax amounts paid by employers on the value of non-cash remunerations provided by the employees.

Income per person employed

Total income divided by number of persons employed, i.e. total income/employment.

Interest expenses

Includes interest on bank loans, on loans made from related as well as unrelated businesses/organisations, and interest in respect of finance leases, interest paid to loans from partners and interest equivalents (such as hedging costs, and expenses associated with discounted bills). Excludes bank charges and capital repayments.

Inventories

The reported total book value of inventories as at the beginning (for Opening inventories) and at the end (for Closing inventories) of the reporting period. The values reported are those as recorded on business balance sheets.

Inventory turnover

A ratio signalling the number of times that inventories are turned over during the year. It is expressed as the ratio of cost of goods sold divided by average inventories (where average inventories is opening inventories plus closing inventories divided by 2).

Labour costs

Includes wages and salaries, employer contributions to superannuation funds -including salary sacrifice, workers' compensation costs, fringe benefits tax and payroll tax.

Labour costs per employee

Labour costs divided by number of employees, i.e. labour costs/employees.

Labour costs to total expenses

Labour costs divided by total expenses, i.e. labour costs/total expenses

Management units

The highest level unit within a business, having regard to the required level of industry dissection, for which a set of management accounts is maintained. In most cases it coincides with the legal entity owning the business (i.e. company, partnership, trust, sole operator, etc).

However, in the case of large diversified businesses there are often a number of management units, each coinciding with a 'division' or 'line of business'. A division or line of business is recognised where separate and comprehensive accounts are compiled for it.

Opening inventories

See inventories.

Operating profit before tax (OPBT)

A measure of profit (or loss) before extraordinary items are brought to account and prior to the deduction of income tax and appropriations to owners. It is derived as:
    Total income
    plus
    closing inventories
    less
    total expenses
    less
    opening inventories

Operating profit margin

Ratio of operating profit to income from : sales, services, commissions, royalties, and rent, lease and hiring; expressed as a percentage.

Operating profit before tax per person employed

The amount of operating profit before tax divided by the total employment, i.e. OPBT / Employment

Other expenses

Includes various expense items which are general in nature and are not included elsewhere, e.g. insurance, land tax, bank charges, bad and doubtful debts, royalties, motor vehicle running costs, freight and cartage, computer software and other operating expenses such as repair and maintenance, postal, mailing and courier services, paper, printing and stationery, telecommunication, travelling, accommodation and entertainment, training, audit and other accounting, legal etc.

Other income

Includes interest, government funding, royalties and dividend, net profit (loss) on the sale of non-current assets, foreign loans as a result of variations in foreign exchange rates/transaction and on share trading. Excluded are extraordinary profits or losses such as goodwill revaluations.

Other service income

Includes income from meals sold for consumption on the premises, motor vehicle repair and services, delivery charges not elsewhere included, repair and maintenance, other repair and services and other services income such as Consultancy fees, Installation fees, Management and administration service fees, Subscriptions and membership fees and other specified and unspecified service fees.

Payroll tax

A State and Territory tax levied on employers based on the amount of wages and salaries paid.

Purchases

Consists mainly of goods purchased for resale. Also included are electricity gas and water charges, petroleum products and other fuel, purchases of container and packaging materials, materials and components used in repair and manufacturing activity.

Rent, leasing and hiring expenses

Costs for renting, leasing (except finance leases) and hiring of land, buildings and other structures, hiring of vehicles, plant, machinery, equipment and other rent, leasing and hiring expenses from other businesses or individuals.

Rent, leasing and hiring income

Includes income received from renting, leasing or hiring of vehicles, land, buildings, plant, machinery, equipment and any other property to other businesses or individuals.

Retail locations

Are the physical sites from which the business provides goods and services on a relatively regular basis.

Retail sales

Sales of goods to final consumers for personal or household consumption, i.e., sales of goods to the public, delivery charges not separately invoiced to customers, and export sales.

Retail sales per square metre

Retail sales divided by total floorspace (expressed as square metres), i.e. retail sales/floorspace.

Total employment

The sum of working proprietors, working partners, permanent, part-time, temporary, casual, managerial and executive employees working for a business during the last pay period in June 1999. Employees absent on paid or prepaid leave are included.

Total expenses

The sum of all expense items. The major items included are labour costs, purchases and rent, leasing and hiring expenses. Other expenses such as depreciation and amortisation, advertising expenses, interest and other expenses are also included.

Total full-time employees

Includes all employees who work 35 hours or more per week.

Total income

The sum of all income items. The major items included are retail sales, wholesale sales, service and other income. Income from all other sources such as renting, leasing, hiring, interest earned, government funding, royalty and dividend is also included.

Total labour cost

This item includes wages, salaries, contributions to superannuation and workers compensation. It excludes payments to self-employed persons such as consultants, partners and proprietors, contractors and persons paid solely on commission.

Total working proprietors and partners

Includes the owners of unincorporated business working either full-time or part-time within the business.

Total part-time employees

Includes all employees who work less than 35 hours per week.

Wages and salaries

Includes payment of wages, salaries, penalties, allowances, bonuses, etc. to all employees of the business before taxation and other deductions.

Wholesale sales

Sales of goods to business and institutional users, i.e., goods sold to other businesses, delivery charges not separately invoiced to other businesses and export sales to other businesses.

Workers compensation

Includes the compulsory insurance cover taken out by all employers to cover employees who suffer from injury or disease in the course of or arising out of employment.

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