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5216.0 - Australian National Accounts: Concepts, Sources and Methods, 2000  
Previous ISSUE Released at 11:30 AM (CANBERRA TIME) 15/11/2000   
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Contents >> Chapter 14: Final consumption expenditure >> 04 Housing, water, electricity, gas and other fuels

04 Housing, water, electricity, gas and other fuels

04.1 Actual rentals for housing

Description

14.38 The scope of this component is dwelling rent paid by households to the owners of dwellings.

Sources and methods

14.39 These estimates are produced using the same sources as for the estimates of Imputed rentals for housing (see 04.2 below). The benchmark calculation gives a direct measure of the dwelling rent paid by households to the owners of dwellings. A small deduction is made to allow for bad debts. See 04.2 below on Imputed rentals for housing for information about how these estimates are interpolated and extrapolated.

Volume estimates

14.40 Chain volume estimates of actual rentals for housing are derived using the relative proportion of the nominal current price values for actual rentals to the sum of actual and imputed rentals for housing. The derived ratio is applied to the aggregate chain volume estimate described in paragraph 14.47

04.2 Imputed rentals for housing

Description

14.41 The scope of this component is the imputed value of housing services accruing to owner-occupiers from their occupation of both their principal residence and any additional residence such as a holiday home.

Sources and methods

14.42 The Census of Population and Housing is used to benchmark these estimates. The census gives the number of owner-occupied and rented dwellings, and information about rents paid for rented dwellings. The imputed rent for owner-occupied dwellings is calculated by multiplying average rents (adjusted to exclude rents at less than market value) reported in the census for unfurnished privately rented dwellings in various categories (major urban, other urban, rural; cross-classified by structure of dwelling and number of bedrooms) by the number of owner-occupied dwellings in the same categories.

14.43 Estimates of total dwelling rent (imputed rent of owner-occupiers plus other dwelling rent) for intercensal and post-census periods are obtained by multiplying an estimate of the stock of dwellings by an estimate of the average rent of rented dwellings. The stock of dwellings is estimated by extrapolating the benchmark estimate. The benchmark stock of dwellings includes all occupied private dwellings and a proportion of unoccupied private dwellings, but excludes short-term caravans in caravan parks. Private dwellings include separate houses, duplexes, town houses, flats, including those which are part of a building which is used for commercial purposes (e.g. a retail shop), and caravans used for long-term accommodation. Additions to the stock are calculated from the number of dwelling completions in Building Activity, Australia (Cat. no. 8752.0). This is then modified by a factor to take account of other changes to the stock of dwellings (demolitions, net conversions from commercial uses, and dwelling completions not in the scope of the survey). For intercensal periods this factor is calculated by dividing the change in the stock between the census benchmarks by the total number of dwelling completions in the period. For the post-census period the factor is assumed to be the same as that for the latest intercensal period.

14.44 Movements over time in average rents are estimated using a weighted average of price indexes for privately owned dwelling rents and government owned dwelling rents from the CPI.

14.45 Total dwelling rent is estimated quarterly, and the annual estimates are the sum of the quarterly estimates. Separate estimates of the imputed rent of owner-occupiers and other dwelling rent are only produced annually. These are obtained by assuming a constant rate of change in the proportion of dwellings that are owner-occupied between census benchmarks. For the post-census period the rate of change observed for the previous intercensal period is used.

Volume estimates

14.46 Chain volume estimates of imputed rentals for housing are derived using the relative proportion of the nominal current price values for imputed rentals to the sum of actual and imputed rentals for housing. The derived ratio is applied to the aggregate chain volume estimate described in paragraph 14.47.

04.1 + 04.2 Actual and imputed rentals for housing

Volume estimates

14.47 Annual volume estimates of actual and imputed rentals for housing are derived by extrapolating the current price value in the reference year with volume estimates of the net capital stock of dwellings published in the Australian System of National Accounts (Cat. no. 5204.0). Quarterly estimates of capital stock are derived by interpolating and extrapolating the annual estimates using quarterly volume estimates of private gross fixed capital formation on dwellings and quarterly volume estimates of consumption of fixed capital derived from either the corresponding annual estimates (for interpolations) or the most recent annual estimates (for extrapolations). Initial State allocations are derived by extrapolating the current price estimates in the reference year with estimates of the mean residential population. These initial estimates are then adjusted to ensure they sum to the unchained Australian totals.

04.3 Other services relating to the dwelling

Description

14.48 This item includes payments for services such as refuse collection, sewerage services, and water supply including standing charges and excess water charges.

Sources and methods

14.49 Total expenditure on rates and excess water is available from Auditors'-General Reports. Households' share of this expenditure is estimated using information provided by public authorities.

Volume estimates

14.50 Current price estimates of purchases of services relating to the dwelling are revalued using the relevant component of the CPI.

04.4 Electricity, gas and other fuels

Description

14.51 This item encompasses expenditure by households on energy for domestic heating, cooking, and lighting; that is, purchases of reticulated gas, LPG, electricity, heating oil, kerosene, firewood, briquettes, coal and coke.

Sources and methods

14.52 Quarterly estimates of household expenditure on gas and associated services are estimated using sales data provided by retail suppliers in each State and unpublished revenue indicators from major State public authorities provided by the ABS Public Finance Section. Quarterly estimates are benchmarked to annual data from the publication Gas Statistics Australia prepared by The Australian Gas Association.

14.53 Domestic expenditure on electricity and associated services is estimated quarterly using data provided by suppliers in each State as well as unpublished revenue indicators from major State public authorities provided by the ABS Public Finance Section. Quarterly estimates are benchmarked to annual data from the publication Electricity Australia published by the Electricity Supply Association of Australia.

14.54 Both annual and quarterly estimates of household expenditure on heating oil, LPG and kerosene are obtained by moving forward benchmark estimates of expenditure based on the periodic Household Expenditure Survey. Composite indicators based on quantities obtained from the monthly publication Major Energy Statistics published by the Department of Industry, Science and Resources, together with unpublished price data from the CPI, are used to extrapolate from the benchmarks. For other household fuels (such as firewood), expenditure is estimated using a variety of indicators to move forward benchmark estimates based on the Household Expenditure Survey and other available data sources.

Volume estimates

14.55 Current price estimates of purchases of electricity, gas and other fuels are each revalued using the relevant components of the CPI.

14.56 Chain volume estimates of purchases of electricity, gas and other fuels are derived by aggregating the elemental volume components of the above.

Total: 04 Housing, water, electricity, gas and other fuels

Volume estimates

14.57 Chain volume estimates of this item are derived by aggregating the elemental volume components of the above.


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