TECHNICAL NOTE DATA QUALITY
1 Non-sampling errors may arise as a result of errors in the reporting or processing of data. These errors can be introduced through inadequacies in the collection instrument, treatment of non-response, inaccurate reporting by data providers, errors in the application of survey procedures, incorrect recording of answers and errors in data capture and processing.
2 The extent to which non-sampling error affects the results is difficult to measure. Every effort is made to minimise non-sampling error by careful design and testing of the collection instrument, the use of efficient operating procedures and systems, and the use of appropriate methodologies.
Reliability of statistics
3 When interpreting the statistics in this release, the reliability and comparability of the estimates may be affected by the following specific non-sampling errors:
- Many institutions provided estimates due to a lack of separately recorded data on R&D activity.
- Data were subjectively classified, by institutions, to Research fields, Socio-economic objectives and Type of activity at the time of reporting. Some institutions may have experienced difficulty in classifying their R&D projects. The ABS makes every effort to ensure correct and consistent interpretation and reporting of these data by applying consistent processing methodologies.
- The estimation method of R&D related overheads varied between institutions and reference periods. See paragraph 14 of the Explanatory notes.
Revisions to previous cycle data occur on discovery of errors in previously reported data. Revisions are only applied to the previous cycle, where the impact on:
- R&D expenditure is equal to $5 million or more; or
- Human resources devoted to R&D is equal to 25 PYE or more.
This release includes revised data for the 2004 reference period. Revisions impacted four states and territories for expenditure and/or human resource effort devoted to R&D. Most significantly, the revision to human resource effort devoted to R&D was primarily a result of some misreporting of Other staff in the 2004 survey.