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6359.0 - Forms of Employment, Australia, Nov 2008 Quality Declaration 
Previous ISSUE Released at 11:30 AM (CANBERRA TIME) 12/06/2009   
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SUMMARY OF FINDINGS


OVERVIEW

In November 2008, there were approximately 10.7 million employed people, aged 15 years and over. Of these, 62% (6.6 million) were employees with paid leave entitlements, that is, they were entitled to paid sick and/or paid holiday leave. Of the remaining employed people:

  • 2.0 million were employees without paid leave entitlements
  • 1.0 million were independent contractors
  • 1.1 million were other business operators


EMPLOYEES

Of the 6.6 million people who were employees with paid leave entitlements, 54% were men.

The occupation groups with the greatest proportion of men with paid leave entitlements were Technicians and Trades workers (25%) followed by Professionals (21%). In comparison, for women with paid leave entitlements, the occupation groups with the greatest proportions were Professionals (30%) and Clerical and administrative workers (28%).

For men without leave entitlements the largest proportion were Labourers (31%) followed by Technicians (16%). For women without leave entitlements, Sales workers (29%) and Community and personal service workers (20%) were the largest proportions.

Diagram: EMPLOYEES

Of all employees with paid leave entitlements, 4% worked on a fixed-term contract compared to 3% of all employees without paid leave entitlements. For men who had paid leave entitlements, 3% worked on a fixed-term contract, while for women who received paid leave entitlements, 5% were working on fixed-term contracts. The majority of employees did not work on a fixed-term contract (96%).

An estimated 71% (6.1 million) of employees were full-time workers in their main job. Most employees who were full-time workers in their main job had paid leave entitlements (90%). By comparison, of the 2.5 million part-time workers, less than half (43%) had paid leave entitlements.

The industry groups with the highest proportion of men who were full-time workers with paid leave entitlements were Manufacturing (17%) and Construction (11%). By comparison the industry groups with the largest proportion of women who were full-time workers with paid leave entitlements, were Health care and social assistance (18%) and Education and training (14%).

The occupation group with the highest proportion of full-time workers with paid leave entitlements was Professionals (25%) followed by Technicians and trades workers (18%). The occupation group with the highest proportion of part-time workers with paid leave entitlements was Professionals (26%) followed by Clerical and administrative workers (23%).

For employees without paid leave entitlements, the occupation group with the highest proportion of full-time workers was Labourers (24%) and for part-time workers was Sales workers (28%).

Other characteristics of employees in November 2008 include:
  • 25% had been with their current employer for less than 1 year, while 20% had been with their current employer for 10 years or more
  • 20% were aged over 15-24 years and 13% were aged 55 years and over
  • 41% had some say in their start and finish times
  • 20% worked weekdays only in their main job while a further 29% worked both weekdays and weekends.


INDEPENDENT CONTRACTORS

There were 967,100 people who were independent contractors in their main job in November 2008. The majority (75%) of these were men. Half (50%) of all independent contractors, worked 40 hours or more in their job (60% of men and 22% of women).

Women independent contractors were more likely to work less hours than men. For example, one-third (33%) of women independent contractors worked less than 15 hours in their job compared to 11% of independent contractors who were men. A further 21% of women worked 20-29 hours per week compared to 9% of men while 26% of women independent contractors worked 35 or more hours per week compared with just over two-thirds (67%) of men.

For both men and women, the 35-54 year age group accounted for more than half of the independent contractors (50% and 58% respectively).

Independent contractors were most likely to work in the Construction industry (32%) followed by the Professional, scientific and technical services industry (15%). Independent contractors who were men were more likely to work in the Construction industry (41%) followed by the Professional, scientific and technical services industry (12%). By comparison, independent contractors who were women were most likely to work in the Professional, scientific and technical services industry (23%) followed by the Health care and social assistance industry (13%).

Independent contractors, Occupation of main job - By sex
Graph: Independent contractors, Occupation of main job—By sex


For men, the occupation groups Technicians and trades workers (36%) and Professionals (19%) accounted for the highest proportion of independent contractors. For women, the greatest proportion of independent contractors were Professionals (32%) followed by Clerical and administrative workers (23%).

Most independent contractors (73%) were usually able to work on more than one active contract, however, just under half (46%) of all independent contractors had more than one active contract in the reference week.

Other characteristics of independent contractors in November 2008 include:
  • 62% had authority over their own work (63% of men and 59% of women)
  • 65% were able to (sub)contract their own work (67% of men and 59% of women)
  • 79% had no employees (77% of men and 85% of women)
  • 15% had been with their current business for less than 1 year, while 36% had been with their current business for 10 years or more
  • 5% were aged 15-24 years and 25% were aged 55 years and over
  • 84% had some say in their start or finish times
  • 58% worked weekdays only in their main job while a further 42% worked on both weekdays and weekends.

In addition to the 967,100 independent contractors in their main job, there were 134,100 people who were independent contractors in their second job. Of all people who were independent contractors in their main and second jobs, 30,000 were independent contractors in both their main and second jobs.


OTHER BUSINESS OPERATORS
Other business operators, Occupation of main job - By sex
Graph: Other business operators, Occupation of main job—By sex


There were approximately 1.1 million other business operators in November 2008 of which 62% were men. For both men and women over half of business operators were in the 35-54 year age group (54% and 58% respectively).

Other business operators who where men were most likely to work in the Agriculture, forestry and fishing industry (18%) and the Construction industry (13%). For women, the most common industries were the Agriculture, forestry and fishing and the Retail trade industries (both 14%).

For men who were other business operators the most common occupations were Managers (46%) followed by Professionals (19%). For women, the most common occupations were Managers (31%) followed by Clerical and administrative workers (29%).

Other characteristics of other business operators in November 2008 include:
  • 59% worked 40 hours or more per week (74% of men and 36% of women)
  • 8% had been with their current employer/business for less than 1 year, and a further 48% have been with their current employer/business for 10 years or more
  • 2% were aged 15-24 years and 30% were aged 55 years and over
  • 89% had some say in their start or finish times
  • 46% worked weekdays only in their main job while a further 53% worked on both weekdays and weekends.


ALL EMPLOYED PEOPLE
All employed people, Proportion of type of employment-By age group (years)
Graph: All employed people, Proportion of type of employment—By age group (years)


People who were employees tended to be younger in age compared with independent contractors and other business operators. As age increases, generally, the proportion of employees decreases while independent contractors and other business operators increases. For example:
  • 96% of people aged 15-24 years were employees, 3% were independent contractors and 1% were other business operators
  • 78% of people aged 35-44 years were employees, 10% were independent contractors and 12% were other business operators
  • 45% of people aged 65 years and over were employees, 20% were independent contractors and 35% were other business operators.


PEOPLE WHO FOUND THEIR JOB THROUGH A LABOUR HIRE FIRM/EMPLOYMENT AGENCY

There were 576,700 people (5% of all employed people) who found their job through a labour hire firm/employment agency in November 2008, of which 54% were men. Of the people who found their job through a labour hire firm/employment agency, 218,300 (38%) were currently registered with a labour hire firm/employment agency during the reference week.

Of those people who found their job through a labour hire firm/employment agency most (62%) were in the 25-44 year age group. This was the case for both men and women (63% and 62% respectively).

Of those men who found their job through a labour hire firm/employment agency the Manufacturing (19%) and Professional, scientific and technical services (11%) were the industry groups with the greatest proportion. For women, the most common industry groups were the Professional, scientific and technical services and Health care and social assistance industries (both 13%).

The most common occupation groups for men who found their job through a labour hire firm/employment agency were Professionals (22%) and Technicians and trades workers (19%). For women, the most common occupations group were Clerical and administrative workers (40%) and Professionals (23%).

Diagram: PEOPLE WHO FOUND THEIR JOB THROUGH A LABOUR HIRE FIRM/EMPLOYMENT AGENCY

Other characteristics of people who found their job through a labour hire firm/employment agency in November 2008 include:
  • 23% were paid by a labour hire firm/employment agency
  • 57% usually had continuous ongoing work from their labour hire firm/employment agency
  • 40% were still registered with the same labour hire firm/employment agency that found their job
  • 37% had been with their current employer/business for less than 1 year and a further 49% had been with their current employer/business for 1-5 years
  • 52% had one job placement from their labour hire firm/employment agency in the last 12 month while 31% had no job placements in the last 12 months.

Approximately 43% of people who found their job through a labour hire firm/employment agency worked 40 hours in their main job during the reference week (52% of men and 31% of women).

The main reason for using a labour hire firm/employment agency for finding work was 'Ease of obtaining work' reported by 52% of people who found their job through a labour hire firm/employment agency.


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