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6310.0 - Employee Earnings, Benefits and Trade Union Membership, Australia, Aug 2007 Quality Declaration 
Previous ISSUE Released at 11:30 AM (CANBERRA TIME) 14/04/2008   
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SUMMARY OF FINDINGS


OVERVIEW

In August 2007, there were 9.0 million employees. Of these, 53% were men of whom 86% were full-time workers. Women made up 46% of employees, and 56% of these were full-time workers. Other characteristics of employees include:

  • 71% were full-time employees in their main job
  • 19% were trade union members
  • 8.3 million were employees excluding owner managers of incorporated enterprises (OMIEs).
  • 647,000 (7%) of employees were OMIEs.


WEEKLY EARNINGS IN ALL JOBS1 2 3 4

The mean weekly earnings of employees in all jobs, in August 2007, was $926, an increase of $64 (7.4%) since August 2006. Mean weekly earnings in all jobs for men was $1,101, and for women was $725. The highest mean weekly earnings in all jobs was in the Australian Capital Territory ($1,131), followed by the Northern Territory5 ($978), and lowest in Tasmania ($785). Mean weekly earnings of full-time workers was $1,127, an increase of $76 (7.2%) since 2006, and for part-time workers $411, an increase of $23 (5.9%).

Male full-time workers had mean weekly earnings in all jobs of $1,216, compared to $405 for part-time workers. Female full-time workers had mean weekly earnings in all jobs of $971, compared to $413 for part-time workers.

Mean weekly earnings of employees in all jobs has increased by 58% over the 10 years to August 2007, from $585 in August 1997. It should be noted that changes in mean weekly earnings may be affected not only by changes in the rate of pay but also by changes in the composition of the Australian workforce, including:
  • an increasing diversity of employment arrangements
  • number of hours worked
  • increases in the extent of part-time and casual employment
  • changes in the mix of industry and occupations.


WEEKLY EARNINGS IN MAIN JOB3 4

Mean weekly earnings in main job
EMPLOYEES IN MAIN JOB, Mean weekly earnings in main job(a) (b)-By age-By sex
Graph: Employees in main job, Mean weekly earnings in main job(a) (b)-By age-By sex


The mean weekly earnings in main job was higher for men than for women in every age group. The greatest difference in mean weekly earnings in their main job between men and women, was in the 45-54 year age group (a difference of $544 per week), while the smallest difference was in the 15-19 year age group (a difference of $88 per week). For men, the age group with the highest mean weekly earnings in main job was 45-54 years ($1,339 per week), and for women it was the 25-34 year age group ($824 per week). The 15-19 year age group had the lowest mean weekly earnings in main job for both men and women ($308 per week and $220 per week respectively).

The mean weekly earnings of all employees in their main job was $916. Employees who worked in the public sector had higher mean weekly earnings in their main job ($1,023), compared to those in the private sector ($892). The mean weekly earnings for full-time employees in their main job was $1,126 compared to $412 for part-time employees. Men who were full-time employees had a higher mean weekly earnings in their main job ($1,212), than women ($971). In comparison, the mean weekly earnings in their main job for both men and women who were part-time employees was $412.

MEAN WEEKLY EARNINGS IN MAIN JOB(a) (b), Full-time employees-By industry of main job-By sex
Graph: Mean weekly earnings in main job(a) (b), Full-time employees-By industry of main job-By sex


Mean weekly earnings for full-time employees in their main job were greater for men than women across all industry groups except for Agriculture, forestry and fishing. Both men and women who were full-time employees in the Mining industry had the highest mean weekly earnings in their main job ($1,831 and $1,397 respectively). For male full-time employees, the lowest mean weekly earnings were in the Agriculture, forestry and fishing industry ($814) while women in the Accommodation and food services industry ($716) had the lowest mean weekly earnings of all full-time female employees. The industry with the largest difference between the mean weekly earnings for male and female full-time employees was Financial and insurance services ($1,724 for men and $1,042 for women).

The Mining industry had the highest mean weekly earnings in main job for both full-time and part-time employees ($1,772 and $1,080 respectively) while the Accommodation and food services industry had the lowest mean weekly earnings in main job for both full-time and part-time employees ($781 and $260 respectively.)


Median weekly earnings in main job

Another useful measure of earnings is median weekly earnings. The median is the amount which divides the distribution of employees into two equal parts, one having earnings above and the other below that amount.

In August 2007, the median weekly earnings in their main job for all employees was $770. For men, the median weekly earnings in their main job was $900 compared to $630 for women.

Male full-time employees, in their main job, had median weekly earnings of $1,000, compared to $846 for female full-time employees in their main job.

The median weekly earnings in main job were highest in the:
  • Managers occupation group ($1,150) followed by Professionals ($1,054)
  • Mining industry ($1,610) followed by Electricity, gas, water and waste services ($1,110)
  • 35-44 year age group ($1,049) for full-time employees, followed by the 45-54 year age group ($1,035) for full-time employees.

The median weekly earnings in main job were lowest in the:
  • Sales workers occupation group ($431)
  • Accommodation and food services industry ($400)
  • 15-19 year age group ($465) for full-time employees.


TRADE UNION MEMBERSHIP

In August 2007, there were 1.7 million trade union members in conjunction with their main job, a 5% decrease on the 1.8 million trade union members in August 2006. The proportion of employees who were trade union members in conjunction with their main job decreased during this time from 20% to 19%. Similarly, the proportion who were trade union members decreased for both men (from 21% to 19%) and women (from 19% to 18%) over this period.

Full-time employees were more likely to be trade union members than part-time employees (21% compared to 14% respectively). Similarly, in the public sector 41% of employees were trade union members compared to 14% of those who worked in the private sector.

The occupation group with the highest proportion of employees who were trade union members were Machinery operators and drivers (28%) followed by Community and personal service workers and Professionals (both 23%). The occupation group with the lowest proportion of employees who were trade union members was Managers (10%).

The occupation group with the highest proportion of full-time employees, in their main job, who were trade union members was Community and personal service workers (34%), followed by Machinery operators and drivers (30%). The occupation group with the lowest proportion of full-time employees who were trade union members was Managers (10%).

In comparison, the occupation group with the highest proportion of part-time employees, in their main job, who were trade union members was Professionals (25%), followed by Machinery operators and drivers and Sales workers (both 15%). The occupation group with the lowest proportion of part-time employees who were trade union members was Managers (6%).

Employees who worked in the Education and training industry were most likely to be trade union members (39%) while those working in the Rental, hiring and real estate services industry were least likely to be trade union members (2%).

EMPLOYEES IN MAIN JOB, Industry of main job - By trade union membership - Proportion of all employees who were trade union members
Graph: Employees in main job, Industry of main job - By trade union membership - Proportion of all employees who were trade union members



LEAVE ENTITLEMENTS

Employees (excluding OMIEs) with paid leave entitlements6

Employees (excluding OMIEs) were asked if they had paid leave entitlements, that is, if they had paid sick and/or paid holiday leave. Three-quarters of these 8.3 million employees (excluding OMIEs), had paid leave entitlements in 2007. A higher proportion of male employees (excluding OMIEs) had paid leave entitlements (79%) than women (71%).

EMPLOYEES (EXCLUDING OMIEs) WITH PAID LEAVE ENTITLEMENTS(a), By age group - By sex - Proportions
Graph: Employees (excluding  OMIEs) with paid leave entitlements (a), By age group - By sex - Proportions


Employees (excluding OMIEs) aged 45-54 years were more likely to have paid leave entitlements (83%) than any other age group. The youngest and oldest age groups had the lowest incidence of paid leave entitlements with only 34% of employees (excluding OMIEs) aged 15-19 years, and 56% of those aged 65 years and over having paid leave entitlements.

About 89% of full-time employees (excluding OMIEs), in their main job, had paid leave entitlements compared to 43% of part-time employees (excluding OMIEs). Employees (excluding OMIEs) in the public sector were more likely to have paid leave entitlements (89%) than those in the private sector (72%). About 96% of full-time employees (excluding OMIEs) in the public sector had leave entitlements, compared to 87% of those in the private sector. Similarly, 70% of part-time employees (excluding OMIEs) in the public sector had paid leave entitlements, compared to just 38% of those in the private sector.

EMPLOYEES (EXCLUDING OMIEs), Selected characteristics-By full-time or part-time status in main job - Proportion of employees (excluding OMIEs) with paid leave entitlements
Graph: Employees (excluding  OMIEs), Selected characteristics-By full-time or part-time status in main job - Proportion of employees (excluding OMIEs) with paid leave entitlements


The industries with the highest proportion of employees (excluding OMIEs) with paid leave entitlements were Public administration and safety and Financial and insurance services (both 91%), followed by Electricity, gas, water and waste services (89%). In contrast, just over one-third (37%) of employees (excluding OMIEs) in the Accommodation industry had paid leave entitlements.

The occupation group with the highest proportion of employees (excluding OMIEs) with paid leave entitlements was Managers (92%) followed by Professionals (87%). In comparison, just over half of employees (excluding OMIEs) who were Labourers (53%) and Sales workers (52%) had paid leave entitlements.

Some characteristics of the 6.3 million employees (excluding OMIEs) with paid leave entitlements in August 2007 include:
  • 83% were full-time employees in their main job
  • 55% were men
  • 4% were aged 15-19 years, 25% were aged 25-34 years and 5% were aged 60 years and over
  • 24% were Professionals
  • 12% worked in the Health care and social assistance industry and a further 12% worked in the Manufacturing industry.


Employees (excluding OMIEs) without paid leave entitlements

Characteristics of the 2.1 million employees (excluding OMIEs) without paid leave entitlements in August 2007 include:
  • 69% were part-time employees in their main job
  • 56% were women
  • 21% were aged 15-19 years, 19% were aged 25-34 years and 6% were aged 60 years and over
  • 22% were Labourers
  • 20% worked in the Retail trade industry and a further 18% worked in the Accommodation and food services industry.


Number of leave entitlements7

There were 6.5 million employees (excluding OMIEs) who had one or more types of leave entitlements (i.e. paid holiday leave, paid sick leave, long service leave and/or paid maternity/paternity leave) in August 2007.

Paid sick leave was the most common leave entitlement (75%), followed by paid holiday leave (74%), long service leave (66%) and paid maternity/paternity leave (40%).

Just over four-fifths (81%) of male employees (excluding OMIEs) had one or more leave entitlements in August 2007, compared to 74% of female employees (excluding OMIEs).

As for those with paid leave entitlements, employees (excluding OMIEs) who worked in the public sector were more likely to have one or more types of leave entitlements (90%) than those in the private sector (75%). Full-time employees (excluding OMIEs), in their main job, were also more likely to have one or more types of leave entitlements (91%) than those who were part-time employees (48%).

Overall, the industries with the highest proportions of employees (excluding OMIEs) with one or more leave entitlements were Financial and insurance services and Public administration and safety (both 92%) followed by Electricity, gas, water and waste services (91%) and Mining (88%).

Over one-third (37%) of employees (excluding OMIEs) had all four leave entitlements. Furthermore, in four industry groups, more than half of all employees (excluding OMIEs) in these groups had all four leave entitlements. These were Public administration and safety (68%), Financial and insurance services (59%), Education and training (57%) and Electricity, gas, water and waste services (53%).

Overall, some 22% of employees (excluding OMIEs) had no leave entitlements at all. The industry with the highest proportions of employees (excluding OMIEs) with no leave entitlements was the Accommodation and food services industry (59%), followed by the Agriculture, forestry and fishing industry (46%) and the Retail trade industry (38%).

For full-time employees (excluding OMIEs), 97% of those in the Education and training industry and 96% of those in the Public administration and safety industry and Financial and insurance services had one or more leave entitlements. In contrast, in the Agriculture, forestry and fishing industry just 63% of full-time employees (excluding OMIEs) had one or more leave entitlements.

For part-time employees (excluding OMIEs), 79% of those in the Financial and insurances services industry and 72% of those in the Health care and social assistance industry had one or more leave entitlements. In contrast, just 21% of part-time employees (excluding OMIEs) in the Accomodation and food services industry and 28% of those in the Agriculture, forestry and fishing industry had one or more leave entitlements.

EMPLOYEES EXCLUDING OMIEs), Industry of main job, By full-time, part-time status - Proportion with one or more leave entitlements
Graph: Employees excluding OMIEs), Industry of main job, By full-time, part-time status - Proportion with one or more leave entitlements



SUPERANNUATION COVERAGE8

In August 2007, 91% of all employees had superannuation provided by their current employer. A higher proportion of full-time employees, in their main job, were provided with superannuation by their current employer (95%) than part-time employees in their main job (79%). Employees in the public sector were also more likely to be provided with superannuation by their current employer (97%) than employees in the private sector (89%).


END NOTES

1. For multiple jobholders, earnings in second job were only obtained from people who were employees in that job.

2. Refers to earnings in main and second job.

3. For more information see paragraphs 18-19 of the Explanatory Notes.

4. In 2007, employees were asked to include salary sacrifice when estimating their earnings. For more information see paragraphs 26-27 of the Explanatory Notes.

5. Refers to mainly urban areas only. For more information see paragraph 8 of the Explanatory Notes.

6. That is, they were entitled to paid sick and/or paid holiday leave. For more information see paragraph 20 of the Explanatory Notes.

7. Refers to entitlement of employees to either paid holiday leave, paid sick leave, long service leave and/or maternity/paternity leave in their main job.

8. For more information see the Glossary.


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