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4172.0 - Arts and Culture in Australia: A Statistical Overview, 2004 (Reissue)  
Previous ISSUE Released at 11:30 AM (CANBERRA TIME) 06/09/2006  Reissue
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Contents >> Employment and Other Work >> Census of Population and Housing

CENSUS OF POPULATION AND HOUSING

The 2001 Census of Population and Housing found that there were approximately 275,000 people whose main job in the week prior to Census Night was in a cultural industry. This was about 11% more than the number employed by the cultural industries in 1996.


In 2001, almost a quarter (67,362 people) of those employed in the cultural industries were involved in design. The Design industry was dominated by the Architectural services industry (26,723 people) and the Advertising services industry (25,794 people). The Newspaper, book and stationery retailing industry (38,016 people) and the Newspaper printing or publishing industry (25,737 people) were also major employers.


While industries as a whole reported a 9% increase in employment from 1996 to 2001, cultural industries increased by 11%. The size of the change over that period differed for the individual industries. For example, the largest increase in employment was 100% for the number working in the Motion picture exhibition industry. This was followed by a 57% increase in the number of people in the Other periodical publishing industry. Decreases in employment of over 30% were reported for the Film and video distribution industry, the Film, radio and TV services undefined industry and the Photographic studios industry.


Compared with people employed in all industries, those employed in cultural industries were more likely to:

  • be female (50% in cultural industries, compared with 45% in all industries)
  • work between 1 and 34 hours each week (33% compared with 28% in all industries)
  • have a weekly income below $300 a week (20% compared with 18% in all industries).

5.1 PERSONS EMPLOYED IN CULTURAL INDUSTRIES(a) - August 1996 and 2001

1996 Census
2001 Census
Percentage change
Industry
no.
no.
%

Newspaper printing or publishing
26 422
25 737
-2.6
Other periodical publishing
5 563
8 716
56.7
Book and other publishing(b)
9 525
11 322
18.9
Film and video production
7 760
7 702
-0.7
Film and video distribution
1 709
1 057
-38.2
Motion picture exhibition
5 048
10 079
99.7
Radio services
6 473
5 879
-9.2
Television services
14 552
17 388
19.5
Film, radio and TV services undefined(c)
1 876
1 262
-32.7
Music and theatre productions
8 043
10 812
34.4
Creative arts
7 277
9 345
28.4
Other services to the arts(d)
7 293
5 643
-22.6
Libraries
13 735
11 451
-16.6
Museums
5 256
5 422
3.2
Libraries, museums and the arts, undefined(e)
1 277
977
-23.5
Parks and gardens(f)
7 568
10 322
36.4
Photographic studios
7 167
4 868
-32.1
Design(g)
56 188
67 362
19.9
Other cultural industries
Recorded media manufacturing and publishing
1 528
2 148
40.6
Book and magazine wholesaling
4 839
3 734
-22.8
Newspaper, book and stationery retailing
34 594
38 016
9.9
Recorded music retailing
3 892
4 829
24.1
Video hire outlets
9 747
10 813
10.9
Total cultural industries(h)
247 332
274 884
11.1

(a) In their main job in the week before Census Night.
(b) Includes publishing undefined.
(c) Comprises Motion picture, radio and TV services undefined, Film and video services undefined and Radio and TV services undefined.
(d) Comprises Sound recording studios, Performing arts venues, Services to the arts n.e.c and Services to the arts undefined.
(e) Includes Arts undefined.
(f) Comprises Zoological and botanic gardens, Recreational parks and gardens and Parks and gardens undefined.
(g) Comprises Architectural services, Commercial art and display services and Advertising services.
(h) Excludes persons employed by religious organisations.
ABS, Employment in Culture, Australia, 2001 (cat. no. 6273.0).


About two-fifths (42%) of the people employed in the cultural industries had a cultural occupation (i.e. their work was culturally-orientated such as a writer or painter or curator), with the remaining having non-cultural occupations such as receptionists, sales assistants, clerks, cleaners and security guards. The list of cultural occupations shown in this chapter is based on the Occupation Classification of the Australian Culture and Leisure Classifications (ACLC) (cat. no. 4902.0). Occupations were selected because they are intrinsically creative (e.g. Sculptors), represent a cultural activity (e.g. Actors), or have a role in enabling others to participate in a cultural activity (e.g. Librarians).

5.2 PERSONS EMPLOYED IN CULTURAL INDUSTRIES, By whether working in cultural occupations(a) - August 2001

Cultural occupations(b)
Other occupation(c)
Total
Percentage of occupations which are cultural
Industry
no.
no.
no.
%

Newspaper printing or publishing
12 375
13 362
25 737
48.1
Other periodical publishing
3 919
4 797
8 716
45.0
Book and other publishing(d)
4 072
7 250
11 322
36.0
Film and video production
5 105
2 597
7 702
66.3
Film and video distribution
178
879
1 057
16.8
Motion picture exhibition
4 319
5 760
10 079
42.9
Radio services
3 155
2 724
5 879
53.7
Television services
8 995
8 393
17 388
51.7
Film, radio and TV services undefined(e)
562
700
1 262
44.5
Music and theatre productions
8 288
2 524
10 812
76.7
Creative arts
7 947
1 398
9 345
85.0
Other services to the arts(f)
1 915
3 728
5 643
33.9
Libraries
9 092
2 359
11 451
79.4
Museums
1 846
3 576
5 422
34.0
Libraries, museums and the arts, undefined(g)
503
474
977
51.5
Parks and gardens(h)
1 631
8 691
10 322
15.8
Photographic studios
3 670
1 198
4 868
75.4
Design(i)
35 577
31 785
67 362
52.8
Other cultural industries(j)
1 496
58 044
59 540
2.5
Total cultural industries(k)
114 645
160 239
274 884
41.7

(a) In their main job in the week before Census Night.
(b) Excludes 14,239 Ministers of religion who are included in the category 'Other occupations'.
(c) Includes not stated and inadequately described.
(d) Includes publishing undefined.
(e) Comprises Motion picture, radio and TV services undefined, Film and video services undefined and Radio and TV services undefined.
(f) Comprises Sound recording studios, Performing arts venues, Services to the arts n.e.c and Services to the arts undefined.
(g) Includes Arts undefined.
(h) Comprises Zoological and botanic gardens, Recreational parks and gardens and Parks and gardens undefined.
(i) Comprises Architectural services, Commercial art and display services and Advertising services.
(j) Comprises Recorded media manufacturing and publishing, Book and magazine wholesaling, Newspaper, book and stationery retailing, Recorded music retailing and Video hire outlets.
(k) Excludes persons employed by religious organisations.
ABS, Employment in Culture, Australia, 2001 (cat. no. 6273.0).


The 2001 Census of Population and Housing found that there were 245,617 people whose main job in the week prior to Census Night was in a cultural occupation. This was approximately 14% more than the number employed in cultural occupations in 1996. Some of the more common cultural occupations included Graphic designers, Architects and Landscape architects, Librarians and Printing tradespersons.


Overall, more males (55%) than females (45%) worked in cultural occupations. In particular, males dominated the Camera operator, Sound technician and Printing tradesperson occupations. Conversely, females greatly outnumbered males in occupations such as Make-up artists, Library technicians and Dance teachers.


The median weekly income for all persons working in cultural occupations was $611, compared with $587 for all employed persons, according to the 2001 Census. About two-thirds (68%) of Ticket collectors or ushers and one-half (50%) of Potters and ceramic artists received an income of less than $300 per week. In contrast, a high percentage of Environment, parks and landcare managers (84%) and Television journalists (80%) received an income of at least $700 per week.

5.3 EMPLOYED PERSONS BY OCCUPATION(a) - August 2001

Persons employed
Occupation
no.

Museum related workers
2 327
Heritage related workers
3 935
Library and archive related workers
25 638
Print journalists and related workers
10 155
Publishing and printing related workers
41 889
Authors
3 289
Film/TV/radio/stage directors and producers
10 780
Advertising and related workers
4 256
Film, radio and TV technicians and operators
8 352
Cinema workers
5 319
Musicians, actors and related professionals
26 812
Other performing arts workers
2 660
Photographers
7 381
Visual arts and crafts professionals
16 321
Designers and related workers
37 709
Architects and related workers
24 939
Broadcasting related workers
5 872
Other cultural occupations
7 983
Total cultural occupations(b)
245 617
Other occupations(c)
8 052 936
Total all employed persons
8 298 553

(a) In their main job in the week before Census Night.
(b) Excludes 14,239 Ministers of religion who are included in the category 'Other occupations'.
(c) Includes Not stated and Inadequately described.
ABS, Employment in Culture, Australia, 2001 (cat. no. 6273.0).
These occupations have been grouped. For more detail, see Employment in Culture, Australia, 2001 (cat. no. 6273.0).


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