MIGRATION IN CONTEXT
- In 2006-07 net overseas migration (NOM) exceeded natural increase and continued to be the main contributor to Australia's population growth. The preliminary estimate of NOM was 177,600 persons, the highest on record and representing 56% of Australia's population growth for the year.
- Skill Stream migrants accounted for 43% of all settler arrivals to Australia in 2006-07. In comparison, Family Stream migrants accounted for 26% and Humanitarian Program migrants accounted for 9%, while Non-program migration (consisting mostly of New Zealand citizens) comprised 21% of all settler arrivals.
- In 2006-07 net interstate migration (NIM) was a major source of population loss for New South Wales (27,300 persons) and South Australia (3,600 persons).
NET OVERSEAS MIGRATION
- In 2007 the Australian Bureau of Statistics introduced improved methods for calculating net overseas migration (NOM). As a result, a break in time series exists from the 2006-07 financial year onwards. Additional information is available in Chapter 3.
- Australia's total population growth rate for 2006-07 was 1.5% with NOM contributing 0.9% to this growth. Only once over the previous 35 years has NOM had a higher rate at 1.0% in 1988-89.
- In 2006-07 NOM made a positive contribution to the populations of all states and territories. New South Wales recorded the greatest gain (54,900 persons) followed by Victoria (47,200) and Queensland (33,500).
- In terms of the overseas migration rate (NOM per 1,000 population), NOM continued to have a larger effect on the Western Australian population (2.7 per 1,000) than that for Australia (1.7 per 1,000) as a whole in 2006-07.
TRAVELLER CHARACTERISTICS OF RECENT NET OVERSEAS MIGRATION
- Persons aged 15-34 years comprised 59% of all persons added to the Australian population through NOM in 2006-07. In comparison, 28% of Australia's population were aged 15-34 years at 30 June 2007.
- In 2006-07, the median age for people who immigrated to Australia was 27 years while those emigrating from Australia had a median age of 29 years.
- Persons who immigrated to Australia in 2006-07 had a sex ratio of 103 males per 100 females whereas those emigrating from Australia had a sex ratio of 101 males per 100 females.
- During 2006-07, travellers that contributed to NOM were born in over 200 countries. Travellers who were born in China contributed the most with a net positive contribution of 23,000 persons. This was followed closely by migrants born in the United Kingdom (22,800).
PERMANENT DEPARTURES - WHERE ARE THEY GOING?
- Over the nine years ending 2006-07, the number of permanent departure movements from Australia has doubled to 72,100.
- In 2006-07 the top six destinations for those departing Australia permanently were New Zealand, the United Kingdom, the United States of America, Hong Kong, Singapore and China.
- The proportion of traveller movements departing permanently to the United Arab Emirates increased from 0.9% in 1998-99 to 3.4% in 2006-07.
- The United Kingdom, New Zealand and the United States of America were the top three destinations for Australia-born residents who departed Australia permanently in both 1998-99 and 2006-07.
- The top three countries of future residence of overseas-born Australian residents departing permanently were the same in 1998-99 and 2006-07 (New Zealand, the United Kingdom and Hong Kong).
- In both 1998-99 and 2006-07 the peak age group at departure was 30-39 years for both Australia-born and overseas-born migrants. However, the median age of Australia-born migrants was slightly lower than overseas-born migrants.
- In 1998-99 and 2006-07 Malaysia was the only country in the top 10 country of birth destinations where the majority of former migrants chose not to return to their country of birth.
AUSTRALIA'S DIVERSE POPULATION
- At 30 June 2007, of the estimated resident population of Australia (21 million people) one-quarter (5.3 million people) were born overseas.
- The proportion of immigrants born in North-West Europe has been in decline, falling from 8.2% in 1997 to 7.3% in 2007. The share of Southern and Eastern Europe migrants is also in decline from 4.8% in 1997 to 4.0% in 2007.
- At 30 June 2007, persons born in the United Kingdom continued to be the largest group of overseas-born residents, accounting for 5.5% of Australia's total population. Persons born in New Zealand accounted for 2.2% of Australia's total population, followed by persons born in China (1.3%), Italy (1.1%) and India (1.0%).
- Between 1997 and 2007, of the 75 most common countries of birth, persons born in Sudan recorded the highest average annual growth rate (22% per year), followed by persons born in Bangladesh (12%), Afghanistan (11%) and Brazil (10%).
- Between 1997 and 2007 the number of Australia-born residents increased at an average rate of 1% per year, while the number of overseas-born residents increased at 2% per year.
- At 30 June 2007, the 40-44 years age group had the highest proportion of overseas-born persons, as a percentage of Australia's total population, for both males and females.
- The majority (76%) of all overseas-born Australian residents were of working age (15-64 years) at 30 June 2007. In comparison, the proportion of overseas-born residents aged 65 years and older was 18% and those aged 0-14 years was 6%.
- Of the 75 most common countries of birth the highest sex ratio was recorded for Bangladesh-born residents (159 males per 100 females) followed by Pakistan (140), India (130) and Afghanistan (122).
- Lower sex ratios were recorded for persons born in Thailand (55 males per 100 females), Japan (56), the Philippines (58) and the Russian Federation (64).
- During 2006-07, 351,900 people moved interstate, 2.7% higher than the previous year (342,800 persons).
- Of the states and territories, Queensland continued to record the largest net population gain due to net interstate migration (27,000 persons) in 2006-07 while New South Wales recorded the largest net loss (27,300 persons).
- Over the 10 years to 2006-07, Queensland, Victoria and Western Australia were the only states or territories to record average net gains due to interstate migration (26,000, 540 and 530 persons per year respectively).
- New South Wales and South Australia recorded the largest average net population losses due to interstate migration over the 10 years to 2006-07 (22,400 and 2,400 persons per year respectively).
- Persons aged 20-34 years accounted for 37% of all interstate movers in 2006-07, while they comprised 21% of the total population.
- Persons aged 50 years and over were less likely to move interstate than younger persons, accounting for 15% of the total number of interstate migrants in 2006-07.
- In 2006-07 the median age of all interstate movers was 28.5 years.