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COMPONENTS OF POPULATION CHANGE
The growth of Australia's population has two components: natural increase (the number of births minus the number of deaths) and net overseas migration (NOM).
The contribution to population growth for the year ended 30 June 2010 was higher for NOM (57%) than for natural increase (43%).
Natural increase for the 12 months ended 30 June 2010 was 161,500 persons, an increase of 5.3% (or 8,200 persons) compared with natural increase for the year ended 30 June 2009 (153,300 persons).
The preliminary estimate of births during the year ended 30 June 2010 (302,200) was 1.7% (or 5,100 births) higher than the figure for the year ended 30 June 2009 (297,100).
The preliminary estimate of deaths during the year ended 30 June 2010 (140,600) was 2.2% (or 3,100 deaths) lower than the figure for the year ended 30 June 2009 (143,700).
Net Overseas Migration
The preliminary estimate for NOM during the June quarter 2010 (32,300) was 25,800 persons (or 44.3%) lower than the estimate for the June quarter 2009 (58,100). The decrease in preliminary NOM between June quarter 2009 and June quarter 2010 was due to a 19,000 decline in NOM Arrivals and a 6,800 increase in NOM Departures. The states with the largest numerical decreases in NOM Arrivals over this period were Victoria (down 6,400), New South Wales (down 6,000), Queensland (down 3,900), Western Australia (down 1,400) and South Australia (down 700).
For the year ended 30 June 2010, Australia's preliminary NOM estimate was 215,600 persons. This was the difference between 463,000 overseas arrivals that were added to the population (NOM arrivals) and 247,500 overseas departures that were subtracted from the population (NOM departures).
STATES AND TERRITORIES: POPULATION AND GROWTH
The estimated resident populations for the states and territories at 30 June 2010 were as follows:
All states and territories recorded positive population growth over the 12 months ended 30 June 2010. Western Australia recorded the fastest growth rate (2.2%), followed by Queensland (2.0%), Victoria (1.8%), the Australian Capital Territory (1.8%), the Northern Territory (1.5%), New South Wales (1.5%), South Australia (1.2%) and Tasmania (0.9%).
COMPONENTS OF POPULATION CHANGE
At the state and territory level, population growth has three components: natural increase, net overseas migration and net interstate migration.
Although all states and territories experienced positive population growth in the year ended 30 June 2010, the proportion that each of these components contributed to population growth varied between the states and territories.
As illustrated in the graph above, for the year ended 30 June 2010, natural increase was the major component of population growth in the Northern Territory at 87% (3,100 persons) and the Australian Capital Territory at 58% (3,700 persons).
Estimates of births and deaths are subject to fluctuations caused by lags or accumulations in the reporting of birth and death registrations (for more information see paragraphs 10-11 of the Explanatory Notes).
The total number of births registered for the 12 months ended 30 June 2010 increased in most states and territories, with decreases recorded for Victoria and Tasmania. Compared with the previous year, the Australian Capital Territory recorded the largest proportional increase (8.4%), followed by New South Wales (3.3%) and the Northern Territory (2.7%). The number of registered births decreased by 5.0% in Tasmania and 0.5% in Victoria. For more information, see table 13.
The total number of deaths registered for the 12 months ended 30 June 2010 remained relatively stable in Tasmania, South Australia and Queensland. Compared with the previous year, there was an increase in Western Australia (up 1.2%) and decreases in the Northern Territory (down 6.4%), the Australian Capital Territory (down 4.7%), Victoria (down 3.6%) and New South Wales (down 3.0%). For more information, see table 14.
Net Overseas Migration
All states and territories recorded positive net overseas migration (NOM) for the year ended 30 June 2010. NOM was the major component of population growth for South Australia at 77% (15,400 persons), New South Wales at 63% (66,000 persons), Victoria at 61% (60,400 persons), Western Australia at 58% (28,200 persons) and Queensland at 45% (39,700 persons).
Net Interstate Migration
Queensland recorded the highest gains from net interstate migration (NIM) for the year ended 30 June 2010 (9,600 persons). Other states and territories which recorded net gains were Victoria (2,600 persons), Western Australia (2,000 persons), and Tasmania (320 persons). Net losses from interstate migration were recorded in New South Wales (10,500 persons) and South Australia (3,000 persons). Small net losses were estimated for the Northern Territory (800 persons) and the Australian Capital Territory (70 persons). For more information, see table 19.
Interstate Migration, Arrivals, Departures and Net - States and territories - Year ended 30 June 2010
For the 12 months ended 30 June 2010, Australia's population growth rate (1.7%) was above that of the world (1.1%). Australia is growing at a faster rate than many countries including Malaysia (1.6%), India (1.4%), Indonesia and Viet Nam (both 1.1%), United States of America (1.0%), Singapore and New Zealand (both 0.9%), Canada (0.8%), the United Kingdom (0.6%), France, China and Hong Kong (all 0.5%), Republic of Korea (0.3%), Sweden (0.2%) and Greece (0.1%). Further, Japan experienced a decrease in its population (-0.2%), as did Italy and South Africa (both -0.1%). Two countries that experienced faster growth than Australia were Papua New Guinea (2.0%) and the Philippines (1.9%).
According to figures from the US Bureau of Census' International Data Bank of 227 countries, Australia's population ranked 54th in 2010 (relatively stable from 55th in 2009) and is projected to rank 55th by 2050. By 2050, India is projected to have displaced China as the most populous country with 1.66 billion people compared with 1.30 billion in China.
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