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1318.3 - Qld Stats, May 2009  
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CAUSES OF DEATH, Queensland, 2007


Introduction
Neoplasms
Endocrine, nutritional and metabolic diseases
Mental and behavioural disorders
Diseases of the nervous system
Diseases of the circulatory system
Diseases of the respiratory system
Diseases of the digestive system
External causes of morbidity and mortality
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Deaths
Further information


INTRODUCTION

Causes of death statistics, and the use of these statistics for demographic and health purposes, are key to understanding Australian society and for formulation and monitoring of policies. Causes of death information provide insights into the diseases and factors contributing to reduced life expectancy. Causes of death statistics are one of the oldest and most comprehensive set of health statistics available in Australia.

Causes of death statistics in Australia are recorded as both underlying cause i.e. the disease or injury which initiated the train of morbid events leading directly to death; and multiple cause i.e. all causes and conditions reported on the death certificate that contributed, were associated with or were the underlying cause of the death. In this article cause of death data are reported as the underlying cause and classified using the 10th revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10). Causes of death data are subject to revision.

As the Queensland population continues to increase in both size and age, the number of deaths registered each year also continues to slowly increase. In 2007, there were 25,801 deaths of usual residents of Queensland registered, 4.7% more than the number registered in 2006 and 16% higher than the 22,321 deaths registered in 1998. Males accounted for 53% of deaths of usual residents of Queensland registered in 2007.

The standardised death rate (SDR), which eliminates the effect of changes in the age structure of a population over time, was 606.7 deaths per 100,000 standard population.

Years of potential life lost (YPLL) measures the extent of 'premature' mortality, where 'premature' mortality is assumed to be any death at ages of 1-78 years inclusive. By estimating YPLL for deaths of people aged 1-78 years it is possible to assess the significance of specific diseases or trauma as a cause of premature death. In 2007, Queensland residents recorded 195,486 years of potential life lost.

Six out of every ten deaths (61%) of Queenslanders in 2007 were due to either Diseases of the circulatory system (heart and blood vessels) or Neoplasms (cancer).

CAUSES OF DEATH, BY SELECTED ICD-10 CHAPTER LEVEL, Queensland, 2007

Number of deaths
Proportion of
total deaths
Years of
potential life lost
Standardised
death rate
Males
Females
Persons
%
Persons
Persons

CHAPTER II Neoplasms (C00-D48)
4,187
2,965
7,152
27.7
64,274
169.0
CHAPTER IV Endocrine, nutritional and metabolic diseases (E00-E90)
448
440
888
3.4
5,116
21.0
CHAPTER V Mental and behavioural disorders (F00-F99)
312
507
819
3.2
2,245
18.9
CHAPTER VI Diseases of the nervous system (G00-G99)
441
466
907
3.5
6,756
21.5
CHAPTER IX Diseases of the circulatory system (I00-I99)
4,062
4,554
8,616
33.4
31,054
201.3
CHAPTER X Diseases of the respiratory system (J00-J99)
1,333
1,117
2,450
9.5
10,035
57.9
CHAPTER XI Diseases of the digestive system (K00-K93)
473
436
909
3.5
7,566
21.3
CHAPTER XX External causes of morbidity and mortality (V01-Y98)
1,037
516
1,553
6.0
43,075
36.9
TOTAL DEATHS
13,582
12,219
25,801
100.0
195,486
606.7

(a) Expressed per 100,000 of the standard population.

NEOPLASMS

In 2007, Neoplasms (C00-D48) as the underlying cause of death accounted for over one-quarter (28%) of total deaths and nearly one-third (33%) of YPLL. The SDR for Neoplasms was 169.0 deaths per 100,000 standard population. Over the period 1998 to 2007 the number of deaths due to Neoplasms has increased by 13%. The ratio of male to female deaths in 2007 remained relatively stable at 141 deaths per 100 female deaths when compared to 1998 (143 male deaths per 100 female deaths). Of the 7,152 deaths due to Neoplasms, Malignant neoplasms (C00-C97) accounted for 98%.

Malignant neoplasms

Cancers of the digestive organs (C15-C26) caused 1,876 deaths and had an SDR of 44.5 per 100,000 standard population . Of these, Colon cancer (C18) accounted for the largest number of deaths with 479. Pancreatic cancer (C25) was the second highest contributor to deaths from Cancers of the digestive organs, accounting for 377 deaths. Between 1998 and 2007 deaths due to Colon cancer experienced a 24% reduction, while deaths due to Pancreatic cancer increased by 34%.

Malignant neoplasm of bronchus and lung (C34) was the underlying cause of 1,388 registered deaths of Queenslanders in 2007. The male to female ratio of Lung cancer has dropped from 275 male deaths per 100 female deaths in 1998 to 187 male deaths per 100 female deaths in 2007. Over this period of time the number of male deaths has risen from 879 to 904, an increase of 25 or 2.8% while the number of female deaths has risen from 320 in 1988 to 484 in 2007, an increase of 164 or 51%.

Nearly one in in five (17%) women who recorded Malignant neoplasms as their underlying cause of death in 2007 died from Breast Cancer (C50). Between 1998 and 2007 the number of all deaths from Breast cancer increased 13% to 499 deaths. Breast cancer was responsible for 6,381 years of potential life lost.

Prostate cancer (C61) accounted for 14% of male deaths with an underlying cause of Malignant neoplasms. Between 1998 and 2007 the number of deaths from Prostate cancer increased 23% to 576 deaths. Prostate cancer was responsible for 2,137 years of potential life lost.

SELECTED MALIGNANT NEOPLASMS, Queensland


ENDOCRINE, NUTRITIONAL AND METABOLIC DISEASES

In 2007, Endocrine, nutritional and metabolic diseases (E00-E90) accounted for 888 deaths or 3.4% of all registered deaths of Queenslanders and was responsible for 5,116 YPLL. The SDR was 24.7 per 100,000 standard population for males and 18.0 for females.

Diabetes mellitus (E10-E14) was the underlying cause of death for 620 Queenslanders or 70% of all deaths due to Endocrine, nutritional and metabolic diseases.

MENTAL AND BEHAVIOURAL DISORDERS

Mental and behavioural disorders (F00-F99) were identified as the underlying cause of 819 deaths, representing 3.2% of all registered deaths of Queenslanders in 2007. Females accounted for 62% of deaths due to mental and behavioural disorders. In contrast, females were accounted for 27% of the 2,245 years of potential life lost due to this cause. Males and females experienced very similar SDR's (for males 18.5 deaths per 100,000 standard population and for females 18.3).

Dementia (F01-F03) accounted for 88% of deaths due to Mental and behavioural disorders. Between 1998 and 2007 the number of deaths due to dementia increased by 165% from 271 deaths in 1998 to 717 deaths in 2007.


DISEASES OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM

Diseases of the nervous system (G00-G99) were the underlying cause of 907 deaths, representing 3.5% of all registered deaths of Queenslanders in 2007. Females accounted for 51% of deaths due to Diseases of the nervous system. In contrast, females were responsible for 42% of the 6,756 years of potential life lost due to this cause.

Alzheimer's disease (G30) constituted 38% of all deaths due to Diseases of the nervous system. More than double the number of females than males died from Alzheimer's disease (231 female deaths and 115 male deaths).

Parkinson's disease (G20) accounted for 21% of all deaths due to Diseases of the nervous system. The number of male deaths (127) due to this disease was higher than the number of female deaths (61).

DISEASES OF THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM

Diseases of the circulatory system (I00-I99) as the underlying cause of death accounted for nearly one-third (33%) of total deaths and 16% of YPLL. The SDR for Diseases of the circulatory system was 201.3 deaths per 100,000 standard population. Between 1998 and 2007 the number of deaths due to Diseases of the circulatory system has decreased by 5.4%. Male deaths have fallen by 12% while females experienced a 1.1% increase. In 2007, female deaths (4,554) outnumbered male deaths (4,062) giving a sex ratio of 89 male deaths per 100 female deaths.

Ischaemic heart disease (I20-I25) which includes angina, heart attacks and blocked arteries of the heart, represented a substantial proportion of deaths attributable to Diseases of the circulatory system, accounting for 4,069 deaths or 47%. Of those deaths from Ischaemic heart disease, 52% were male. Between 1998 and 2007 both males and females recorded decreases in the number of deaths from this disease (27% for males and 19% for females). Persons aged 65-84 years and 85 years and over each accounted for 45% of all deaths due to Ischaemic heart disease.

Cerebrovascular diseases (strokes) (I60-I69) numbered 2,253 in 2007 or 26% of all Diseases of the circulatory system. Females accounted for 61% of deaths of usual residents of Queensland due to Cerebrovascular diseases. Between 1998 and 2007 while the number of male deaths from this disease remained stable, females experienced a 14% increase.

Heart failure (I50) and Diseases of arteries, arterioles and capillaries (I70-I79) accounted for 6.4% and 4.5% respectively of Diseases of the circulatory system.

DISEASES OF THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM, Queensland 2007

DISEASES OF THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM

Diseases of the respiratory system (J00-J99) which include diseases that impact on the ability to breathe, accounted for 2,450 registered deaths in 2007. This represents 9.5% of all registered deaths of usual residents of Queensland and is the highest number recorded in the last ten years. Diseases of the respiratory system were responsible for 10,035 years of potential life lost (5.1% of total YPLL). The SDR for Diseases of the respiratory system was 57.9 per 100,000 standard population. More males (54%) than females (46%) died from this cause which is consistent with previous years.

In 2007, Chronic lower respiratory diseases (J40-J47) were the underlying cause of 977 deaths or 40% of all deaths due to Diseases of the respiratory system. Chronic lower respiratory diseases include diseases such as asthma, bronchitis and emphysema.

Influenza and pneumonia (J10-J18) were responsible for 733 deaths, or 2.8% of all registered deaths of Queenslanders in 2007. Persons age 85 years and over accounted for over half (54%) of these deaths.

The number of deaths from Pneumonitis (J69), which is similar to pneumonia but results from complications of inhalation of solids and liquids, has increased substantially over time, from 13 deaths in 1998 to 242 deaths in 2007.

SELECTED DISEASES OF THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM, Queensland



DISEASES OF THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM

Diseases of the digestive system (K00-K93) accounted for 909 registered deaths of Queenslanders in 2007 or 3.5% of all registered deaths. The number and proportion of all deaths due to Diseases of the digestive system have increased over the past ten years up from 682 deaths (3.1%) of all deaths) in 1998. Slightly more males (473) than females (436) died from Diseases of the digestive system. Males lost more than double the number of years of potential life lost than females (5,053 years for males and 2,521 years for females).

Diseases of liver (K70-K77) were responsible for one in three deaths (31%) due to Diseases of the digestive system. Of the 286 deaths due to Diseases of liver, 52% were to persons aged 45-64 years.

EXTERNAL CAUSES OF MORBIDITY AND MORTALITY

In 2007, External causes of morbidity and mortality (V01-Y98) were the underlying cause of death of 1,553 Queenslanders. External causes of morbidity and mortality include accidents and violence. More than twice as many males (1,037) as females (516) died from these causes of death. Males (32,644 years) lost more than three times the number of years of potential life lost as did females (10,479 years). The SDR for External causes was 36.9 deaths per 100,000 standard population. In 2007, External causes accounted for 6.0% of all deaths, slightly lower than the 7.2% recorded in 1998.

Accidents (V01-X59) accounted for 716 deaths or 2.8% of all registered deaths of Queenslanders in 2007. There were 242 deaths due to Transport accidents (V01-V99) of which over three-quarters (76%) were males. Transport accidents were responsible for 9,579 years of potential life lost. Falls (W00-W19) were responsible for 156 deaths and Accidental poisoning by and exposure to noxious substances (X40-X49) was the underlying cause of 36 deaths. Of the 28 deaths due to Accidental drowning and submersion (W65-W74), 25% were aged 1-14 years.

There were 285 deaths of Queenslanders in 2007 where the underlying cause was Intentional self harm (suicide) (X60-X84). Four times as many males (228) as females (57) died from suicide. Suicide accounted for 10,302 years of potential life lost. The SDR for suicide in 2007 was 6.8 deaths per 100,000 standard population. Hanging (59%) was the most common method of suicide followed by firearms (13%).

EXTERNAL CAUSES, Queensland, 2007

ABORIGINAL AND TORRES STRAIT ISLANDER DEATHS

In 2007, there were 594 registered deaths of usual residents of Queensland where the deceased person was identified as being of Aboriginal origin, Torres Strait Islander origin or both. Males accounted for 53% of all Indigenous deaths.

It is considered likely that most deaths of Indigenous Australians are registered. However, some of these deaths are not identified as Indigenous when they are registered. Caution should be exercised when undertaking analysis of Indigenous mortality and, in particular, trends in Indigenous mortality.

Deaths caused by Ischaemic heart disease (I20-I25) accounted for 73 Indigenous deaths in 2007 or 12% of all indigenous deaths. In comparison the proportion of non-Indigenous Queenslanders dying from this cause was 16%.

Diabetes (E10-E14) was the underlying cause of death for 50 Indigenous deaths, representing 8.4% of all Indigenous deaths. This is compared with 2.3% of deaths of non-Indigenous people. Females accounted for 64% of Indigenous deaths due to Diabetes.

Intentional self harm (suicide) (X60-X84) accounted for 4.7% of Indigenous deaths compared to 1.0% of non-Indigenous deaths.

SELECTED CAUSES OF DEATH AS PROPORTION OF TOTAL DEATHS, Queensland, 2007

FURTHER INFORMATION

Causes of Death, Australia, 2007 (cat. no. 3303.0)
Deaths, Australia, 2007 (cat.no. 3302.0)
Deaths, Queensland, 2007

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