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4102.0 - Australian Social Trends, 2001  
Previous ISSUE Released at 11:30 AM (CANBERRA TIME) 06/06/2001   
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Contents >> Income and Expenditure >> Definitions and references

Definitions and references

Adult employees

    employees aged 21 years and over, and those under 21 years who are paid at the full adult rate.
    Reference: Employee Earnings and Hours, Australia (ABS cat. no. 6306.0).

Age pension recipients
    people receiving full or partial Age pension excluding associated Wife's or Carer's pension. The qualifying age for Age pension eligibility for men is 65 years. Between 1 July 1995 and 2012, the qualifying age for women is gradually being raised from 60 to 65 years. From 1 July 1999 the qualifying age for women was 61.5 years.
    Reference: Commonwealth Department of Family and Community Services, Customers: a statistical overview.

Aged
    population meeting age criteria for the Age pension, comprising men 65 years and over and women 61.5 years and over from 1999; men 65 years and over and women 60 years and over prior to 1998.
    Reference: Population by Age and Sex, Australian States and Territories (ABS cat. no. 3201.0).

Compensation of employees as a proportion of GDP
    includes wages, salaries and employers' social contributions. Wages and salaries include payments in kind and termination and redundancy payments. Employers' social contributions comprise employer contributions to superannuation and workers' compensation premiums.
    Reference: Australian System of National Accounts (ABS cat. no. 5204.0).

Consumer price index
    a measure of change over time in the retail price of a constant basket of goods and services which is representative of consumption patterns of employee households in metropolitan areas.
    Reference: The Australian Consumer Price Index: Concepts, Sources and Methods (ABS cat. no. 6461.0).

Disability support pensioners
    persons receiving a pension on the basis of an assessed physical, intellectual or psychiatric impairment and on their continuing inability to work or be retrained to work 30 hours or more per week within the next two years.
    Reference: Commonwealth Department of Family and Community Services, Customers: a statistical overview.

Disposable income
    gross income less personal income tax (including the Medicare levy and other ad-hoc periodic levies).
    Reference: Income Distribution, Australia (ABS cat. no. 6523.0).

Employees
    all wage and salary earners who received pay for any part of the reference period.
    Reference: Employee Earnings and Hours, Australia (ABS cat. no. 6306.0).

Equivalent income
    disposable income adjusted, using simplified Henderson equivalence scales, to allow comparison between different types of income units. The scales reflect assumptions about how different characteristics e.g. size and composition, relate to the amount of income different types of income units need to achieve an equivalent standard of living.
    Reference: Income Distribution, Australia (ABS cat. no. 6523.0).

Female/male ratio of average weekly ordinary time earnings of full-time non-managerial adult employees
    Reference: Employee Earnings and Hours, Australia (ABS cat. no. 6306.0).

Full weekly benefit income received by a couple with two children
    the maximum weekly social security benefit (including family allowances) available to an adult couple, with one child aged under 5 years and one child aged between 5 and 13 years. Excludes any rent assistance which may be available.
    Reference: Commonwealth Department of Family and Community Services, unpublished data.

Full-time employees
    employees who usually work 35 hours or more a week, or the agreed hours of a full-time employee.
    Reference: Employee Earnings and Hours, Australia (ABS cat. no. 6306.0).

GDP (gross domestic product)
    an aggregate measure of the value of economic production in a year. The series used are GDP chain volume measures (reference year 1997-98) and GDP at current prices.
    Reference: Australian System of National Accounts (ABS cat. no. 5204.0).

GDP spent on income support
    special appropriations under the Social Security Act 1991 for income support as a proportion of GDP.
    Reference: Department of Social Security, Annual Report. From 1998-99, Commonwealth Department of Family and Community Services, Annual Report.

Gini coefficient
    a measure for measuring inequality of income distribution. The measure, expressed as a ratio that is always between 0 and 1, is low for populations with relatively equal income distributions and high for populations with relatively unequal income distributions.
    Reference: Income Distribution, Australia (ABS cat. no. 6523.0).

Gross household disposable income per capita
    where gross household disposable income, as measured in the Australian System of National Accounts, is gross household income less income tax payable, other current taxes on income, wealth etc., consumer debt interest, interest payable by dwellings and unincorporated enterprises, social contributions for workers' compensation, net non-life insurance premiums and other current transfers payable by households. The population used is the mean resident population for the financial year.
    Reference: Australian National Accounts: State Accounts (ABS cat. no. 5220.0).

Gross income
    cash receipts, that are of a regular and recurring nature, before tax or any other deductions are made.
    Reference: Income Distribution, Australia (ABS cat. no. 6523.0).

Gross state product
    a similar measure to GDP but based on State income estimates. However, current prices have been used with State estimates as the chain volume measures are experimental.
    Reference: Australian National Accounts:: State Accounts (ABS cat. no. 5220.0).

Household final consumption expenditure per capita
    net expenditure on goods and services by persons and expenditure of a current nature by private non-profit institutuions serving households. Includes personal expenditure on motor vehicles and other durable goods, the value of 'backyard' production, the payment of wages and salaries in kind and imputed rent on owner-occupied dwellings. Excludes the purchase and maintenance of dwellings by persons and capital expenditure by unincorporated businesses and non-profiit institutions. The measure is expressed in Australian dollars using chain volume measures, reference year 1997-98, and is based on the mean resident population of each financial year.
    Reference: Australian System of National Accounts (ABS cat. no. 5204.0).

Income unit
    one person, or group of related persons within a household, whose command over income is assumed to be shared. Income sharing is considered to take place between partners in a couple relationship, and between parents and dependent children.
    Reference: Income Distribution, Australia (ABS cat. no. 6523.0).

Labour market allowance recipients
    the number of recipients of Unemployment Benefit prior to 1991; Job Search Allowance, Newstart Allowance and Youth Training Allowance from 1991 to 1996; Newstart Allowance and Youth Training Allowance from 1997; Newstart Allowance and Youth Allowance (other) from July 1998.
    Reference: Commonwealth Department of Family and Community Services, Customers: a statistical overview.

Main income source from government payments
    government pensions or allowances form the largest component of usual income.
    Reference: Income Distribution, Australia (ABS cat. no. 6523.0).

Managerial employees
    managerial, executive and senior professional employees who are in charge of a significant number of employees or have significant responsibilities in the conduct or operations of the organisation and who usually do not receive payment for overtime.
    Reference: Employee Earnings and Hours, Australia (ABS cat. no. 6306.0).

Mean total weekly earnings
    average total weekly earnings of employees including ordinary time earnings plus overtime earnings.
    Reference: Employee Earnings and Hours, Australia (ABS cat. no. 6306.0).

Mean weekly ordinary time earnings of full-time non-managerial adult employees
    Reference: Employee Earnings and Hours, Australia (ABS cat. no. 6306.0).

Median weekly income
    the level of weekly income at which half the income units have higher incomes and half have lower incomes.
    Reference: Income Distribution, Australia (ABS cat. no. 6523.0).

Ordinary time
    employee's agreed hours of work including annual leave, paid sick leave and long service leave taken during the reference period.
    Reference: Employee Earnings and Hours, Australia (ABS cat. no. 6306.0).

Single-parent payment recipients
    lone parents receiving the Parenting Payment. In 1989, the Supporting Parent Benefit and Class A Widow Pensions were combined to form the Sole Parent Pension. Figures prior to 1989 include these two pensions. In March 1998 Parenting Payment was introduced and the Sole Parent Pension became known as Parenting Payment (Single).
    Reference: Commonwealth Department of Family and Community Services, Customers: a statistical overview.

Personal income tax as a proportion of taxable income
    net income tax levied on individuals (including the Medicare levy minus rebates and other credits) expressed as a percentage of taxable income (i.e. gross income or profits minus allowable tax deductions).
    Reference: Australian Taxation Office, Taxation Statistics; Government Finance Statistics, Australia: Concepts, Sources and Methods (ABS cat. no. 5514.0).

Share of gross/equivalent income going to top/bottom quintile
    share of gross/equivalent income received by the 20% of income units with the highest/lowest incomes.
    Reference: Income Distribution, Australia (ABS cat. no. 6523.0).

Wages and salaries as a main source of income
    wages and salaries form the largest component of usual income.
    Reference: Income Distribution, Australia (ABS cat. no. 6523.0).

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