8686.0 - Sports Industries, Australia, 2000-01  
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1 This publication presents results, in respect of the 2000-01 financial year, from a survey conducted by the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) of businesses/organisations in the sports industries.


2 The scope of the survey was all employing businesses/organisations classified, on the ABS Business Register, to the following classes of the Australian and New Zealand Standard Industrial Classification (ANZSIC):

  • Class 9311, Horse and dog racing. This class includes businesses/organisations mainly engaged in operating facilities designed and used for horse and dog racing. Examples of businesses in this class are thoroughbred, harness and greyhound training businesses.

  • Class 9312, Sports grounds and facilities n.e.c. This class includes businesses/organisations mainly engaged in operating any kind of indoor or outdoor sporting facility other than horse and dog racing facilities. Examples of businesses/organisations in this class include those which operate gymnasia, squash courts, swimming pools, bowling alleys, basketball stadiums, football grounds, etc.

  • Class 9319, Sports and services to sports n.e.c. This class includes businesses/organisations mainly engaged in providing sporting services not covered by classes 9311 and 9312 above. Examples of businesses/organisations in this class include sporting associations, sporting administration businesses and sports coaching businesses.

The scope of the survey also included units classified to the following ANZSIC classes:

  • 8111-8112, Federal and State Government Administration. These classes include organisations mainly engaged in formulating and administering Federal and State Government policy (except justice and defence). For the purposes of this survey the scope has been restricted to only general government SISCA organisations with primary portfolio responsibility for sports and/or mainly involved in the provision of sports services.

  • 8113, Local Government Administration. This class consists of organisations mainly engaged in Local Government Administration. For this survey the scope is only local government authorities providing sports and physical recreation services.

Further information on the SISCA classification can be found in the ABS publication, Standard Economic Sector Classifications of Australia (cat. no. 1218.0).


3 The frame used for the Sports Industries survey, like most ABS economic surveys, was predominantly taken from the ABS Business Register. The ABS Business Register is primarily based on registrations to the Australian Taxation Office's Pay As You Go Withholding (PAYGW) scheme (and prior to 1 July 2000 the Group Employer (GE) scheme). The frame is updated quarterly to take account of new businesses and businesses which have ceased employing.

4 The frame was supplemented from various sources such as bookmakers lists and Australia on Disc.


5 Data in this publication have been adjusted to allow for lags in processing new businesses to the ABS Business Register, and the omission of some businesses from the register. The majority of businesses affected and to which the adjustments apply, are small in size.

6 Adjustments have been made to include new businesses in the estimates in the periods in which they commenced operations, rather than when they were processed to the ABS Business Register.

7 Further adjustments have been made for businesses which had been in existence for several years, but, for various reasons, were not previously added to the ABS Business Register.

8 For more information on these adjustments, please refer to the ABS publication Information Paper: Improvements to ABS Economic Statistics, 1997 (cat. no. 1357.0).


9 The unit for which statistics were reported in the survey was the management unit. The management unit is the highest type of unit within a business or organisation which controls its productive activities, and for which accounts are kept. A management unit is created for all the operations within an industry sub-division (and the unit will be classified to the relevant subdivision of the Australian and New Zealand Standard Industrial Classification). Where a business cannot supply adequate data for each industry subdivision, a management unit will be formed which contains activity in more than one industry subdivision. In most cases it coincides with the legal entity owning the business (i.e. company, partnership, trust, sole operator, etc.). In the case of large diversified businesses, however, there may be more than one management unit, each coinciding with a 'division' or 'line of business'. A division or line of business is recognised where separate and comprehensive accounts are compiled for it.


10 Tables in this publication have been presented according to the Industry Classification of the Australian Culture and Leisure Classifications (ACLC). This classification generally provides a more detailed classification of sports and recreation industries than that provided by the ANZSIC. The Industry Classification of the ACLC was released in 2001, and details are available in the ABS publication Australian Culture and Leisure Classifications (cat. no. 4902.0). The ACLC may be found free of charge in the Statistical Concepts Library under 'Products and Services' on this site. In this publication, estimates are presented for the following ACLC industry classes:
  • 311, Horse and dog racing. This class consists of organisations mainly engaged in operating facilities especially used and designed for thoroughbred horse racing, harness horse racing or greyhound racing. This class also includes the operation of racing stables and kennels and the provision of riding or harness driving services.
  • 321, Health and fitness centres and gymnasia. This class consists of businesses mainly involved in operating health clubs, fitness centres and gymnasia. They may operate as participative exercise groups or allow individuals to use the available gymnasium equipment. Units in this class may contain squash courts, swimming pools and other sporting facilities provided their primary purpose is the provision of a range of fitness and exercise services.
  • 322, Other sports and physical recreation venues, grounds and facilities. This class consists of organisations mainly engaged in operating any kind of indoor or outdoor sports or physical recreation facility other than for horse and dog racing. Included are sporting clubs which operate their own sports grounds or facilities. Units operating their own training facilities which are a main avenue to regular involvement in a sport (e.g. martial arts training facility) are also included in this class.
  • 331, Sports and physical recreation administrative organisations. This class consists of organisations mainly engaged in the administration and/or control of sports or physical recreation disciplines and/or groups of clubs. These units may be responsible for the policies, rules and regulations governing the conduct of an individual sporting or physical recreation discipline, or may distribute funding to affiliated member organisations.
  • 332, Sports and physical recreation clubs, teams and sports professionals. This class consists of organisations mainly engaged in operating individual sports or physical recreation clubs or teams which predominantly provide opportunities for participants or entertainment for spectators. This class also includes freelance sports professionals.
  • 334, Sports and physical recreation support services (part). This class consists of organisations mainly engaged in providing support services to persons and organisations involved in sports and physical recreation. In this publication, estimates presented for support services include sports and physical recreation education and coaching services.


11 Data were collected from the Australia-wide operations of each organisation and recorded against the state or territory in which the organisation's head office was located.


12 Data contained in the tables in this publication relate to all businesses/organisations within the survey scope (see paragraph 2) which operated in Australia at any time during the year ended June 2001. Counts of businesses and organisations include only those that were operating at 30 June 2001.


13 A very small number of businesses ceased operations during the 2000-01 reference period. As is normal ABS procedure, the contributions of these establishments were included in the survey output.


14 The estimates in this publication are subject to sampling and non-sampling error.

15 Since the estimates in this publication include information obtained from a sample drawn from units in the survey population, the estimates are subject to sampling variability, that is, they may differ from figures that would have been obtained if all units had been included in the survey. One measure of the likely difference is given by the standard error, which indicates the extent to which an estimate might have varied by chance because only a sample of units was included.

16 There are about two chances in three that a sample estimate will differ by less than one standard error from the figure that would have been obtained if a census had been conducted, and approximately 19 chances in 20 that the difference will be less than two standard errors.

17 Sampling variability can be measured by the relative standard error (RSE) which is obtained by expressing the standard error as a percentage of the estimate to which it refers. The RSE is a useful measure in that it provides an immediate indication of the percentage errors likely to have occurred due to sampling, and this avoids the need to refer also to the size of the estimate.

18 The following table contains estimates of RSEs for a selection of the statistics presented in this publication.



Businesses/organisations at end June 2001
Total employment at end June 2001
Total volunteers during the month of June 2001
Funding from government
Income from other grants and distributions
Income from sponsorship and fundraising
Income from players/participants playing fees
Income from admissions
Rent, leasing and hiring of sporting grounds and facilities
Income from television and broadcasting rights
Labour costs
Grants to other organisations
Repair and maintenance of sporting grounds and physical recreation facilities
Rent, leasing and hiring of sporting venues, facilities and equipment
Gambling taxes/levies

Copyright Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2002

19 As an example of the above, an estimate of total income for Sports industries is $8,466.2m and the RSE is 1.7%, giving a standard error of $143.9m. Therefore there would be two chances in three that, if all units had been included in the survey, a figure in the range of $8,322.3m to $8,610.1m would have been obtained, and 19 chances in 20 that the figure would have been within the range of $8,178.4m to $8,754.0m (a confidence interval of 95%).

20 Where the RSE of an estimate included in this publication exceeds 25%, it has been annotated with an asterisk (*) as a warning to users. Where the RSE of an estimate exceeds 50%, it has been annotated with a double asterisk (**).

21 Errors other than those due to sampling may occur because of deficiencies in the list of units from which the sample was selected, non-responses, and imperfections in reporting by respondents. Inaccuracies of this kind are referred to as non-sampling errors and these may occur in any collection. Every effort has been made to reduce non-sampling error to a minimum by careful design and testing of questionnaires and systems used to compile the statistics.


22 As well as the statistics included in this publication, other data on the sports industries are also available on request. Such additional data may include: more detailed employment data, selected ratios, and estimates based on membership size as well as financial data by ANZSIC class. For information on the provision of additional data please contact Ann Santo on 03 9615 7910.


23 ABS publications draw extensively on information provided freely by individuals, businesses, governments and other organisations. Their continued cooperation is very much appreciated; without it, the wide range of statistics published by the ABS would not be available. Information received by the ABS is treated in strict confidence as required by the Census and Statistics Act 1905.


24 This publication is one of a series issued in respect of 2000-01 for a range of hospitality, sporting, recreation and gambling services industries. Other publications in this series are:

Casinos, Australia, 2000-01 (cat. no. 8683.0) - issued 7 December 2001
Selected Amusement and Leisure Industries, Australia, 2000-01 (cat. no. 8688.0) - issued 30 April 2002
Clubs, Pubs Taverns and Bars, Australia, 2000-01 (cat. no. 8687.0) - issued 25 June 2002
Gambling Industries, Australia, 2000-01(cat. no. 8684.0) - issued 18 July 2002
Accommodation Industry, Australia, 2000-01 (cat. no. 8695.0) - issued 26 July 2002


ABSAustralian Bureau of Statistics
ACLCAustralian Culture and Leisure Classifications
ANZSICAustralian and New Zealand Standard Industrial Classification
n.a.not available
n.e.c.not elsewhere classified
OPBToperating profit (surplus) before tax
RSErelative standard error
-nil or rounded to zero (including null cells)
. .not applicable
*estimate has a relative standard error of between 25% and 50% and should be used with caution
**estimate has a relative standard error greater than 50% and is considered too unreliable for general use
$mmillion dollars