Australian Bureau of Statistics

Rate the ABS website
ABS Home > Statistics > By Release Date
8112.0 - Research and Experimental Development, All Sector Summary, Australia, 2002-03  
Previous ISSUE Released at 11:30 AM (CANBERRA TIME) 13/09/2004   
   Page tools: Print Print Page Print all pages in this productPrint All RSS Feed RSS Bookmark and Share Search this Product



INTRODUCTION

1 This publication presents summary statistics of expenditure and human resources devoted to R&D carried out in Australia by organisations within the Business, Government and Private non-profit sectors during 2002-03 and the Higher education sector during the calendar year 2002.


2 The statistics presented in this publication have previously been published (at a more detailed level) on an individual sector basis (see paragraph 14).



DATA SOURCES

3 Information relating to data sources is as follows:

  • Business - the statistics presented in this publication have been compiled from data collected from businesses in the Survey of Research and Experimental Development in respect of the year ended 30 June 2003. This survey was based on a complete enumeration of businesses identified by the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) as likely R&D performers (businesses mainly engaged in Agriculture, forestry and fishing were excluded). The survey was conducted by mail questionnaires and an 85% response was obtained. For businesses that did not respond to the current survey and had reported R&D activity in the previous survey, data were imputed based on the expected expenditures for 2002-03 reported previously.
  • Government and Private non-profit - the statistics have been compiled from data collected from Government and Private non-profit organisations in the Survey of Research and Experimental Development in respect of the year ended 30 June 2003. This survey was based on a complete enumeration of Government and Private non-profit organisations identified by the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) as likely R&D performers. The survey was conducted by mail questionnaires and a 97% response rate was obtained.
  • Higher education - the statistics have been compiled from data collected from universities in the Survey of Research and Experimental Development in respect of the year ended 31 December 2002.

4 The GDP figures used to derive GERD/GDP ratios are current at the time of manuscript finalisation - Australian National Accounts: National Income, Expenditure and Product, June quarter 2004 (cat. no. 5206.0) - and, at current prices, are as follows: $529,886m (1996-97); $591,917m (1998-99); $671,120m (2000-01); and $756,170m (2002-03). The available GERD/GDP ratios for other OECD countries are current at the time of manuscript finalisation and are soured from Main Science and Technology Indicators, 2004/1, OECD, Paris, 2004.



DEFINITIONS

5 R&D is defined in accordance with the OECD standard as comprising 'creative work undertaken on a systematic basis in order to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of man, culture and society, and the use of this stock of knowledge to devise new applications'.


6 Type of R&D activity comprises pure basic research, strategic basic research, applied research and experimental development. Data in this classification are subjectively allocated by data providers at the time of reporting, using OECD/ABS definitions. The ABS makes every effort to ensure correct and consistent interpretation and reporting of these data and applies consistent processing methodologies. Analysts using this classification should bear the original subjectivity in mind.


7 For a more comprehensive interpretation of the definition of R&D activity, see the Australian Standard Research Classification (ASRC), 1998 (cat. no. 1297.0) or refer to the OECD publication Proposed Standard Practice for Surveys on Research and Experimental Development ('Frascati Manual' 2002), OECD, Paris, 2003.



SCOPE

8 The sector classification used in the compilation of these statistics is adapted from the guidelines specified by the OECD for use in the conduct of R&D surveys.


9 Four sectors are recognised:

  • Business - includes all businesses whose primary activity is the production of goods or services for sale to the general public at a price intended to cover at least the cost of production, and the private non-profit institutions mainly serving them.
      • The Business sector for the R&D survey excludes businesses mainly engaged in Agriculture, forestry and fishing (i.e. industries in Division A of the Australian and New Zealand Standard Industrial Classification (ANZSIC), 1993 (cat. no. 1292.0), partly because of collection difficulties and partly because such businesses are believed to have very low R&D activity (agricultural R&D activity is generally carried out by specialised research institutes not included in ANZSIC Division A).
  • Government - includes all Commonwealth, state and local government departments and authorities.
      • The Government sector for the R&D survey excludes local government organisations because it is considered that their contribution to total R&D activity would be minimal. Public sector organisations mainly engaged in higher education (e.g. universities) are included in the Higher education sector whilst those mainly engaged in trading or financial activities are included in the Business sector.
  • Higher education - includes all universities and other institutions of post-secondary education whatever their source of finance or legal status.
      • The Higher education sector for the R&D survey excludes non-university post-secondary education institutions (e.g. Technical and Further Education colleges) because it is considered that their contribution to total R&D activity would be minimal.
  • Private non-profit - includes private or semi-public incorporated organisations which are established with the intention of not making a profit.


SOCIOECONOMIC OBJECTIVE AND RESEARCH FIELDS, COURSES AND DISCIPLINES CLASSIFICATIONS

10 The statistics in this publication are classified by Socioeconomic objective (purpose of the research) and Research fields, courses and disciplines (fields in which the research was undertaken). Data were subjectively allocated by data providers at the time of reporting, using OECD/ABS definitions. The ABS makes every effort to ensure correct and consistent interpretation and reporting of these data and applies consistent processing methodologies. Analysts using these data should bear the original subjectivity in mind.


11 For more information on these classifications see the Australian Standard Research Classification (ASRC), 1998 (cat. no. 1297.0).



RELIABILITY OF STATISTICS

12 The statistics in this publication should be used with caution for the following reasons:

  • Many data providers made estimates because their accounts did not separately record data on R&D activity.
  • The OECD standard definition of R&D used in this survey differs in some respects from what data providers may regard as R&D activity. This is because the definitions used within the grants for industry R&D schemes (for the allocation of grants) and the R&D Tax Concession scheme (for tax deductibility for specific R&D activities) are slightly different from the international standard.
  • Some data providers had difficulties describing their R&D programs in terms of socioeconomic objectives, research fields and types of activity. The data presented under these classifications therefore reflect a degree of subjectivity.


ABS DATA AVAILABLE ON REQUEST

13 As well as the statistics included in this and related publications, the ABS may have other relevant data available on request. Inquiries should be made to the National Information and Referral Service on 1300 135070.



RELATED PUBLICATIONS

14 Users may also wish to refer to the following publications:

      Australian Bureau of Statistics 1998, Australian Standard Research Classification (ASRC), cat. no. 1297.0, ABS, Canberra
      Australian Bureau of Statistics 2004, Research and Experimental Development, Businesses, Australia, 2002-03, cat. no. 8104.0, ABS, Canberra
      Australian Bureau of Statistics 2004, Research and Experimental Development, Government and Private Non-Profit Organisations, Australia, 2002-03, cat. no. 8109.0, ABS, Canberra
      Australian Bureau of Statistics 2004, Research and Experimental Development, Higher Education Organisations, Australia, 2002, cat. no. 8111.0, ABS, Canberra
      Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development 2004, Main Science and technology Indicators 2004/1, OECD, Paris
      Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development 2003, Proposed Standard Practice for Surveys on Research and Experimental Development ('Frascati Manual' 2002), OECD, Paris.

15 Current publications and other products released by the ABS are listed in the Catalogue of Publications and Products cat. no. 1101.0. The catalogue is available from any ABS office or the ABS web site. The ABS also issues a daily Release Advice on the web site which details products to be released in the week ahead.



ROUNDING

16 Where figures have been rounded, discrepancies may occur between sums of the component items and totals.


Bookmark and Share. Opens in a new window

Commonwealth of Australia 2014

Unless otherwise noted, content on this website is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 2.5 Australia Licence together with any terms, conditions and exclusions as set out in the website Copyright notice. For permission to do anything beyond the scope of this licence and copyright terms contact us.