1 This publication presents summary statistics of expenditure and human resources devoted to R&D carried out in Australia by organisations within the Business, Government and Private non-profit sectors during 2000-01 and the Higher education sector during the 2000 calendar year.
2 The statistics presented in this publication have previously been published (at a more detailed level) on an individual sector basis (see paragraph 14).
3 Information relating to data sources is as follows:
4 The GDP figures used to derive GERD/GDP ratios are current at the time of manuscript finalisation (Australian National Accounts: National Income, Expenditure and Product, March Quarter 2002 (cat. no. 5206.0)), and, at current prices, are as follows: $471,348m (1994-95); $529,886m (1996-97); $591,592m (1998-99) and $672,223m (2000-01). The available GERD/GDP ratios for other OECD countries are current at the time of manuscript finalisation and are sourced from Main Science and Technology Indicators, 2002/1, OECD, Paris, 2002.
5 R&D is defined in accordance with the OECD standard as comprising "creative work undertaken on a systematic basis in order to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of man, culture and society, and the use of this stock of knowledge to devise new applications".
6 Type of R&D activity comprises pure basic research, strategic basic research, applied research and experimental development. Data in this classification are subjectively allocated by respondents at the time of reporting, using OECD/ABS definitions. The ABS makes every effort to ensure correct and consistent interpretation and reporting of these data and applies consistent processing methodologies. Analysts using this classification should bear the original subjectivity in mind.
7 For a more comprehensive interpretation of the definition of R&D activity, contact the ABS or refer to the OECD publication The Measurement of Scientific and Technological Activities ('Frascati Manual' 1993), OECD, Paris 1994.
8 The sector classification used in the compilation of these statistics is adapted from the guidelines specified by the OECD for use in the conduct of R&D surveys.
9 Four sectors are recognised:
- Business - the statistics presented in this publication have been compiled from data collected from businesses in the Survey of Research and Experimental Development in respect of the year ended June 2001. This survey was based on a complete enumeration of businesses identified by the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) as likely R&D performers (businesses mainly engaged in Agriculture, forestry and fishing were excluded). The survey was conducted by mailed questionnaires and a 92% response was obtained. For businesses that did not respond to the current survey and had reported R&D activity in the previous survey, data were imputed based on the expected expenditures for 2000-01 reported previously. Where R&D activity had not been previously reported, the non-respondents were also deemed to be non-R&D performers for the current year.
- Government and Private non-profit - the statistics have been compiled from data collected from Government and Private non-profit organisations in the ABS Survey of Research and Experimental Development in respect of the year ended 30 June 2001. This survey was based on a complete enumeration of Government and Private non-profit organisations identified by the ABS as likely R&D performers. The survey was conducted by mail questionnaire and a 96% response rate was obtained. The ABS believes that the non-respondents were non-R&D performers.
- Higher education - the statistics have been compiled from data collected from universities in the ABS Survey of Research and Experimental Development in respect of the year ended 31 December 2000.
SOCIO-ECONOMIC OBJECTIVE AND RESEARCH FIELDS, COURSES AND DISCIPLINES CLASSIFICATIONS
10 The statistics in this publication are classified by the Socio-economic objective classification and research fields (from the Research fields, courses and disciplines classification). For more information on these classifications see the Australian Standard Research Classification, 1998 (cat.no.1297.0).
11 The research classifications used in this publication differ from those used in earlier years. The classifications used in this publication were from the 1998 edition of the Australian Standard Research Classification whereas the 1993 edition was used for previous publications.
RELIABILITY OF STATISTICS
12 The statistics in this publication should be used with caution for the following reasons:
- Business - includes all businesses whose primary activity is the production of goods or services for sale to the general public at a price intended to cover at least the cost of production, and the private non-profit institutions mainly serving them. The Business sector for the R&D survey excludes businesses mainly engaged in Agriculture, forestry, and fishing (i.e. industries in Division A of the Australian and New Zealand Standard Industrial Classification (ANZSIC), 1993 (cat. no. 1292.0)), partly because of collection difficulties and partly because such businesses are believed to have very low R&D activity (agricultural R&D activity is generally carried out by specialised research institutes not included in ANZSIC Division A).
- Government - includes all Commonwealth, state and local government departments and authorities. The Government sector for the R&D survey excludes local government organisations because it is considered that their contribution to total R&D activity would be minimal. Public sector organisations mainly engaged in higher education (e.g.universities) are included in the Higher education sector whilst those mainly engaged in trading or financial activities are included in the Business sector.
- Higher education - includes all universities and other institutions of post-secondary education whatever their source of finance or legal status. The Higher education sector for the R&D survey excludes non-university post-secondary education institutions (e.g. Technical and Further Education colleges) because it is considered that their contribution to total R&D activity would be minimal.
- Private non-profit - includes private or semi-public incorporated organisations which are established with the intention of not making a profit.
13 Limited additional detailed R&D statistics are available at a charge from the ABS.
14 Users may also wish to refer to the following publications:
Australian Standard Research Classification (ASRC), 1998 cat. no. 1297.0
Main Science and Technology Indicators 2002/1, OECD, Paris, 2002
Research and Experimental Development, Businesses, Australia, 2000-01 cat. no. 8104.0
Research and Experimental Development, Government and Private Non-profit Organisations, Australia, 2000-01 cat. no. 8109.0
Research and Experimental Development, Higher Education Organisations, Australia, 2000 cat. no. 8111.0
The Measurement of Scientific and Technological Activities ('Frascati Manual' 1993) OECD, Paris, 1994
15 Current publications and other products released by the ABS are listed in the Catalogue of Publications and Products, Australia (cat. no. 1101.0). The Catalogue is available from any ABS office or the ABS web site. The ABS also issues a daily Release Advice on the web site which details products to be released in the week ahead.
16 Where figures have been rounded, discrepancies may occur between sums of the component items and totals.
- Many data providers had to make estimates because their accounts do not separately record data on R&D activity
- The OECD standard definition of R&D used in this survey differs in some respects from what respondents may regard as R&D activity, particularly since the definitions used within the Grants for Industry R&D scheme for the allocation of grants, and the 125% Tax Concession Scheme for tax deductibility for specific R&D activities undertaken within Australia, differ slightly from the R&D survey definition.
- Some data providers had difficulties describing their R&D programs in terms of Socio-economic objectives, Research fields, courses and disciplines and Type of R&D activity. The data presented under these classifications therefore reflect a degree of subjectivity.