Australian Bureau of Statistics
6361.0.55.002 - Employment Arrangements, Retirement and Superannuation, User Guide, Australia, April To July 2007
Latest ISSUE Released at 11:30 AM (CANBERRA TIME) 18/11/2008
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where this care is not done as part of paid or voluntary work.
Separate estimates are available for care given to person living in the same household as the carer and care given to people who do not live in the same household as the carer, but the publication shows all care provided.
It is possible for a carer to provide care to more than one person. It is also possible for more than one person in a household to provide care to the same person.
Paid leave provision by employers in relation to periods of time spent caring for others.
Provision by an employer of a higher rate of pay to compensate for not being entitled to paid holiday and/or paid sick leave.
Compensated extra hours worked
Refers to extra hours worked that were not paid but were compensated in some other way such as time off in lieu of extra hours worked, non-cash benefits provided as part of salary package/working agreement or other non-cash benefit. While payment for extra hours worked is one type of compensation, for the purpose of analysis details about paid extra hours worked are shown separately from extra hours otherwise compensated. Details of unpaid extra hours are also available.
The maintenance of privacy of information that has been provided by individual respondents, and assurance that information about individual respondents cannot be derived from published survey results.
Contributing family worker
A person who works without pay in an economic enterprise operated by a relative.
Control over working procedures
This is one of several indicators used to determine the autonomy of an owner manager who works on a contract. For someone to have the authority to tell owner managers working on a contract basis how to do their work they must have the authority to control the process of how the work is done to achieve an outcome, rather than just specify the outcome to be achieved. Other indications of the autonomy of an owner manager who works on a contract include the ability to work for multiple clients, and whether able to sub-contract their work.
Defined benefit fund
A superannuation fund in which the retirement benefit is determined by fund rules usually based on a formula that takes into account years of service with the employer or years of membership with the fund, and average salary level over the last few years prior to retirement. The defined benefits do not depend on the investment performance of the fund. See also Accumulation fund and Hybrid fund.
All persons aged under 15 years; and dependent students as defined.
A child who is 15-24 years of age, who is attending full-time education, and who has no partner or child of his or her own usually resident in the same household.
Drawing on superannuation
A person is considered to draw on their superannuation if they receive a superannuation pension or annuity, or if they have received a superannuation lump sum within the past 4 years. A person can draw on their superannuation usually only after reaching the preservation age for the account or on attaining age 65.
For some people, it is possible to draw on superannuation, as well as to accumulate benefits, at the same point in time.
Level of education is defined as a function of the quality and quantity of learning involved in an educational activity. It is categorised according to the Australian Standard Classification of Education (ASCED), 2001 (cat no.1272.0).
Employed persons who usually work 35 hours or more a week (in all jobs) and others who, although usually working less than 35 hours a week, worked 35 hours or more during the reference week.
Employed people who usually work less than 35 hours a week (in all jobs) and who either did so during the reference week, or were not at work during the reference week.
Persons aged 15 years and over who, during the week before the interview :
A person who works for a public or private employer and receives remuneration in wages, salary, a retainer fee from their employer while working on a commission basis, tips, piece rates, or payment in kind, or a person who operates their own incorporated enterprise with or without hiring employees. The employment type classification separates owner managers of incorporated businesses from other employees.
Employees with paid leave entitlements
Employees excluding owner managers of incorporated enterprises (OMIEs) who were entitled to either paid sick leave or paid holiday leave (or both). Available in SEARS 2007 in relation to main job, second job, third job and fourth job.
Employees without paid leave entitlements
Employees (excluding OMIEs) who were not entitled to paid holiday leave or paid sick leave, or did not know whether they were entitled to paid holiday leave or paid sick leave. Available in SEARS 2007 in relation to main job, second job, third job and fourth job.
People who operate their own unincorporated economic enterprise or engage independently in a profession or trade, and hire one or more employees.
The amount contributed (pre-tax) to a person's superannuation fund by their employer or business. The Superannuation Guarantee scheme, introduced in 1992, requires employers to contribute a minimum amount to superannuation for most of their employees (there are some exemptions). In 2007 employers were required to contribute an amount equal to 9% of an employee's wages or salary into superannuation.
While salary sacrifice is technically an employer contribution, the amount of salary sacrifice is shown separately to other employer contributions. (See Salary sacrifice to superannuation for more information).
Employment agency or labour hire firm
An organisation which is engaged in personnel search, selection and placement of employees for an employing organisation or person, and/or is engaged in supply of their own employees to other employers, usually on a short-term basis. Information is gathered about whether an employed person obtained their job through an employment agency/labour hire firm. Further questions are asked to establish whether or not the relationship with the labour hire company is ongoing: whether they are still paid by the employment agency/labour hire firm, and whether they are still registered with the labour hire firm.
Classification of employed persons according to the following groups:
SEARS 2007 collected only limited information about contributing family workers and they have been excluded from most tables in the publication.
Equivalised gross household income
Gross household income adjusted using an equivalence scale. For a lone person household it is equal to gross household income. For a household comprising more than one person, it is an indicator of the gross household income that would need to be received by a lone person household to enjoy the same level of economic wellbeing as the household in question. For more information about deriving equivalised income see User Guide: Employment Arrangements, Retirement and Superannuation, Australia, April to July 2007 (cat. no. 6361.0.55.002).
Equivalised gross household income deciles
These are groupings of 10% of the total population when ranked in ascending order according to equivalised gross household income. The population used for this purpose includes all people living in private dwellings, including children and other persons under the age of 15 years. As the scope of this publication is restricted to only those persons aged 15 years and over, the distribution of this smaller population across the quintiles is not necessarily the same as it is for persons of all ages, i.e. the percentage of persons aged 15 years and over in each of these deciles may be larger or smaller than 10%.
Extra hours or overtime
Work undertaken which is outside, or in addition to, ordinary working hours of the respondent in their main job, whether paid or unpaid.
Two or more persons, one of whom is at least 15 years of age, who are related by blood, marriage (registered or de facto), adoption, step or fostering; and who are usually resident in the same household. The basis of a family is formed by identifying the presence of a couple relationship, lone parent-child relationship or other blood relationship. Some households will, therefore, contain more than one family.
Family composition of household
Classifies households into three broad groupings based on the number of families present (one family, multiple family and non-family). One family households are further disaggregated according to the type of family (such as couple family or one parent family) and according to whether or not dependent children are present. Non-family households are disaggregrated into lone person households and group households.
Employees (excluding OMIEs ) with a contract of employment which specifies that the employment will be terminated on a particular date/event and who consider themselves to be working on a fixed-term contract.
Formal agreement (to work flexible hours or work from home)
An agreement that is in writing. A written agreement can be in the form of, but not limited to, a collective agreement or certified agreement made directly between and employer and a group of employees, or an individual written agreement between employer and employee.
Formal child care
Regulated care away from the child's home. This includes before and/or after school care, long day care, family day care, preschool and kindergarten centres, and occasional care.
Full-time or part-time study status
People who are attending school or taking a course of study for a trade certificate, diploma, degree or any other educational qualification, classified according to whether they report that they are studying full-time or not.
The government co-contribution was introduced from 1 July 2003. This is an additional super contribution paid by the Australian Government to low income earners who make after-tax contributions.
SEARS 2007 did not collect the amount of government co-contribution but it did ask people making personal contributions to superannuation if they made those contributions in order to receive the government co-contribution.
Income support payments from government to people under social security and related government programs. Included are pensions and allowances received by aged, disabled, unemployed and sick people, families and children, veterans and their survivors, and study allowances for students. Payments made by overseas governments as well as the Australian Government are included.
Regular cash receipts (including salary sacrificed income) before income tax or the Medicare levy are deducted.
Gross household income
Aggregated before-tax income of all members of the household aged 15 years and over. It includes regular receipts from employment, own business and from the lending of assets. It also includes transfer income from government, private institutions and other households but excludes intra-household transfers.
Provision by an employer of paid holiday, vacation or recreation leave.
Hours actually worked
The number of hours actually worked during the reference week, not necessarily paid for.
Hours usually worked
The number of hours usually worked per week by an employed person.
One or more related or unrelated people who usually reside in the same private dwelling.
A fund in which benefit entitlements are based on a combination of accumulated benefits and defined benefits. See also Accumulation fund and Defined benefit fund.
Any accruing cash receipts that are of a regular and recurring nature including money received from:
Gross income is the sum of income from all these sources before income tax or the Medicare levy are deducted.
Index of education and occupation (Australia)
One of five of the Socio-Economic Indexes for Areas (SEIFAs) compiled by the ABS following each population census. Each of the indexes summarise different aspects of the socio-economic status of the people living in those areas. The Index of Education and Occupation is designed to reflect the educational and occupational structure of communities. The education variables in this index show either the level of qualification achieved or whether further education is being undertaken. The occupation variables classify the workforce into the major groups of the Australian Standard Classification of Occupations (ASCO) and the unemployed. The index refers to population of the area (the Census Collector's District) in which a person lives, not to the socio-economic situation of the particular individual. The index used in this publication was compiled following the 2001 Census. For further information about the SEIFAs see Information Paper: Census of Population and Housing - Socio-Economic Indexes for Areas, Australia (cat. no. 2039.0). This index is available in the SEARS 2007 CURF.
Index of relative socio-economic disadvantage (Australia)
One of five of the Socio-Economic Indexes for Areas (SEIFAs) compiled by the ABS following each population census. Each of the indexes summarise different aspects of the socio-economic status of the people living in those areas; the index of relative socio-economic disadvantage includes attributes such as low income, low educational attainment, high unemployment and jobs in relatively unskilled occupations. The index refers to population of the area (the Census Collector's District) in which a person lives, not to the socio-economic situation of the particular individual. The index used in this publication was compiled following the 2001 Census. For further information about the SEIFAs see Information Paper: Census of Population and Housing - Socio-Economic Indexes for Areas, Australia (cat. no. 2039.0). This index is available in the SEARS 2007 CURF.
An industry is a group of businesses or organisations that undertake similar economic activities to produce goods and services. In this publication industry is classified according to the Australian and New Zealand Standard Industrial Classification (ANZSIC), 2006 (cat. no. 1292.0). Information is also available on request for industry classified by the Australian and New Zealand Standard Industrial Classification (ANZSIC), 2003 (cat. no. 1292.0).
Informal child care
Non-regulated care either in the child's home or elsewhere. Care may be charged for or provided free of charge. It includes care provided by (step) brothers or sisters, grandparents, other relatives or other (unrelated) people such as friends, neighbours, nannies or babysitters.
Intends to retire from the labour force
Those people who indicated that they intend to give up all labour force activity, that is working or looking for work.
Labour force status
A classification of the civilian population aged 15 years and over into employed, unemployed or not in the labour force, as defined. The definitions conform closely to the international standard definitions adopted by the International Conferences of Labour Statisticians.
For renters the type of entity to whom rent is paid or with whom the tenure contract or arrangement is made.
Refers to last job held by an unemployed person or a person not in the labour force. In this survey details about the last job are collected only for persons aged 45 years or over and no details were collected if that job was held 20 or more years ago.
Last full-time job
Refers to last full-time job held by a person currently employed part-time as well as the last full-time job of an unemployed person or a person not in the labour force. In this survey, details about the last full-time job are collected only for persons aged 45 years or over, and no details about the last full-time job were collected if that job was last held 20 or more years ago.
Lifetime guaranteed pension or annuity
A lifetime guaranteed pension or annuity provides a guaranteed pension income for the remainder of a person's life. It can also provide a reversionary pension or annuity to make income payments to a designated beneficiary after death.
Long service leave
Provision of paid leave by an employer or industry body in recognition of a long period of service.
Long-term health condition or disability
If a person has provided care to someone for 6 months or more, or expects to care for someone for at least 6 months, then they are identified as caring for someone with a long-term health condition or disability.
The job in which most hours are usually worked, excluding voluntary jobs. SEARS 2007 collected detailed information for main job and second job, and a reduced set of information for the third job and fourth job, where applicable. Information about the main job, or all jobs collectively is presented in the publication
Adjustment of variable values, for individual records, for the purpose of avoiding a possible breach of confidentiality.
The median is the middle observation in a set of observations ranked from largest to smallest, that is, the observation for which there are as many observations with higher values as there are observations with lower values.
The mean of a numeric variable is calculated by summing the values of all observations in a data set and then dividing by the number of observations in the set. It is often referred to as the average.
Unit record level statistical data.
All persons aged 15 years or over (except those aged 15-24 years who are full-time students) who have a parent in the household and do not have a partner or child of their own in the household.
Sources of funding for individuals which do not create a periodical inflow of revenue/cash direct to the individual. Includes spouse/partner income, selling assets and living off savings.
Not in the labour force
Persons not classified as employed or unemployed, as defined.
An occupation is a collection of jobs that are sufficiently similar in their title and tasks, skill level and skill specialisation which are grouped together for the purposes of classification. In this publication occupation is classified according to the Australian and New Zealand Standard Classification of Occupations (ANZSCO), 2006 (cat. no. 1220.0). Occupation classified according to the Australian Standard Classification of Occupation (ASCO) 1997 (cat. no. 1220.0) is also available on request.
An arrangement for an employee to be available, while not at work, to be contacted to resume work. An allowance may be paid for being on call.
See Extra hours.
Own account worker
People who operate their own unincorporated economic enterprise or engage independently in a profession or trade, and hired no employees.
A collective term referring to both owner managers of incorporated enterprises and owner managers of unincorporated enterprises.
Owner managers of incorporated enterprises
Persons who work in their own incorporated enterprise, that is, a business entity which is registered as a separate legal entity to its members or owners (also known as a limited liability company). These people are classified as employees under 'status in employment'.
Owner managers of unincorporated enterprises
Persons who operate their own unincorporated enterprise, that is, a business entity in which the owner and the business are legally inseparable, so that the owner is liable for any business debts that are incurred. This includes those engaged independently in a trade or profession.
The provision by an employer of paid leave to employees before and after the birth of a child.
Adjustment of estimates to disguise individual values without affecting the statistical validity of aggregate data.
Post-tax contributions made by a person to their own superannuation account.
Contributions made to a superannuation account from own sources, such as post-tax income, savings, business profits, or from selling an asset.. These contributions comprise personal contributions and contributions made by a persons spouse/partner into their superannuation account, as defined.
Preference for the number of hours worked
Whether an employed person would prefer to work more hours, fewer hours, or the same number of hours as they currently work while taking into consideration the effect this would have on their current pay.
Contributions made to a superannuation account from pre-tax income. These contributions comprise employer/business contributions and salary sacrificed contributions to superannuation, as defined.
Where persons have in the past given up all employment, with no intention to returning to work at the time, but who have now returned to either part time or full-time work.
Principal source of income
The source of income from which the most positive income is received. If total income is nil or negative the principal source is nil or negative. If more than one source of income is not stated/not known then the principal source is undefined. As there are several possible sources, the principal source may account for less than 50% of total income.
Proficiency in spoken english
A self assessment by persons who speak a language other than English at home, of whether they speak English very well, well, not well, or not at all.
Whether a person provided care (See 'Care') in the reference week.
The week preceding the week in which the interview was conducted.
Relationship in household
The relationship of each person in a family to the family reference person, or where a person is not part of a family, that person's relationship to the household reference person.
Retired from labour force
People who had previously worked for two weeks or more, were not in the labour force and who did not intend to look for, or take up, paid work in the future.
Salary sacrifice to superannuation
Salary sacrifice to superannuation is an arrangement between an employer and an employee which involves the employee giving up a part of their pre-tax salary in exchange for having the employer provide an alternative tax effective benefit, such as superannuation contributions
Section of State
This geographical classification uses population counts to define Collection Districts (CDs) as urban or rural and to provide, in aggregate, statistics for urban concentrations and for bounded localities and balance areas. SOS represents an aggregation of non-contiguous geographical areas of a particular urban/rural type. The Sections of State defined include Major Urban (population clusters of 100,000 or more), Other Urban (population clusters of 1,000 to 99,999), Rural Locality (200 to 999), Rural Balance (remainder of State/Territory) and Migratory, and in aggregate cover the whole of Australia.
Sector of employment
Used to classify a respondent's employer as a public or private enterprise. The public sector includes all government entities including local, state and federal government departments, non-market non-profit institutions that are controlled and mainly financed by government, and corporations and quasi-corporations that are controlled by government.
Those who expect to be self-funding in retirement include those whose main expected source of income on retirement is profit or loss from own unincorporated business, profit or loss from a rental property, dividends or interest, or superannuation or annuity. These people are asked to estimate how long they will be self-funding after they give up all paid work.
Employees (excluding OMIES) who considered their job to be casual. In SEARS 2007, 'employees without leave entitlements' is the primary measure of casual employment, however self-identification of casual status and 'whether a casual loading is paid' are also available as supplementary indicators of casual employment.
A system of working whereby the daily hours of operation at the place of employment are split into at least two set work periods (shifts), for different groups of workers.
Paid sick leave is paid leave which is provided for employees who are unable to attend work because they are ill, injured, or have a medical appointment.
Size of location
Number of persons employed at the same address as the person's employer or business. If owner managers do not hire employees their size of location is one.
Social marital status
The relationship status of an individual with reference to another person who is usually resident in the household. A marriage exists when two people live together as husband and wife, or partners, regardless of whether the marriage is formalised through registration. Individuals are, therefore, regarded as married if they are in a de facto marriage, or if they are living with the person to whom they are registered as married.
Contributions paid into a person's superannuation account by their husband, wife or de facto spouse from post-tax income.
Status in employment
Employed persons classified by whether they were employees, employers, own account workers, or contributing family workers. This classification is available from the survey, however, the employment type classification is the main classification used to describe employed persons in this survey.
A long-term savings arrangement which operates primarily with a superannuation fund in order to support future retirement.
The total amount of superannuation a person has accrued in their superannuation funds which are in the accumulation phase. In SEARS 2007, the total superannuation balance was obtained by adding the total account balance of accumulation account/s and total withdrawal or resignation benefit of defined benefit account/s or hybrid account/s for three main superannuation accounts.
Superannuation contributions are payments made by an employer or an individual in the superannuation fund. For more details see Employer contributions, Salary sacrificed contributions, Personal contributions and Spouse contributions.
In this publication, a person is considered to have superannuation coverage if:
Superannuation lump sum payment
A superannuation benefit taken fully or partly as a single payment, rather than in the form of pension or annuity on retirement. It does not include any annual leave payments, sick leave or other payments due to termination of employment.
SEARS 2007 collected detailed information on lump sum payments received during the previous 4 years and whether any lump sum payments had been previously received.
Superannuation pension or annuity
A pension or annuity payable from a superannuation account or retirement saving account (RSA) and eligible for tax concessions. The payment must be made at least annually and must be within limits set by legislation.
The nature of a household's legal right to occupy the dwelling in which the household members usually reside. Tenure is determined according to whether the household owns the dwelling outright, owns the dwelling but has a mortgage or loan secured against it, is paying rent to live in the dwelling or has some other arrangement to occupy the dwelling.
Reduction of all high values to a specified maximum value.
Persons aged 15 years and over who were not employed during the reference week, and
A proxy measure of the present value of the benefit accrued to members of defined benefit and hybrid funds. Total withdrawal/resignation benefits include the balances of up to three accounts. In many cases withdrawal or resignation benefit values will understate a person's full benefit entitlement because the withdrawal or resignation benefit will exclude provisions for superannuation liabilities that are not contributed to the individual's accounts.
Working arrangements to care
Working arrangements that were used so that the respondent could care for someone in the week prior to the survey. Arrangements include paid leave, unpaid leave, flexible working hours, rostered days off, working from home, informal arrangements with employer or taking a child in to work. Further information was collected to determine whether respondents would like to have used more of any working arrangement that they had accessed, or any other arrangement to help with their caring responsibilities. Also, those who had not used any working arrangement, were asked whether they wanted to but couldn't. People who cared for someone in the reference week and who had not used any working arrangements to help them manage this responsibility were asked whether they would like to have accessed any arrangement but could not, and why they did not access any arrangement.
In SEARS 2007 inadequate information about working arrangements used to care was collected for a small proportion of households (<1%). These are shown in a 'not determined' category for the applicable data items.
Working arrangements to provide long-term care
Long-term changes in working arrangements to provide care, including: changing or leaving a job, reducing total number of hours usually worked, commencing work all or more hours from home, or changing to another work arrangement such as shift work, casual work or a job share arrangement. Perceptions of these terms were left to the respondent. Only carers who were employees were asked questions about these working arrangements.
Working on a contract basis
Owner managers of incorporated and unincorporated enterprises who worked on a contract, that is, who were engaged to provide a particular service or undertake a particular task at an agreed price or rate, and generally for a specified period.
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This page last updated 30 June 2010